Places Known For

modern history

Republic of Mahabad

of Mahabad arose along with Azerbaijan People's Government, a short-lived state. The capital of Republic of Mahabad was the city of Mahabad in northwestern Iran. The state itself encompassed a small territory, including Mahabad and the adjacent cities of Piranshahr and Ushnaviya. - '''Qazi Muhammad''' (Kurdish (Kurdish language) قازی محه‌مه‌د or Qazî Mihemmed) (1893–1947) was a nationalist and religious Kurdish (Kurdish people) leader and the Head of the Republic of Kurdistan, (Republic of Mahabad) the second modern Kurdish (Kurds) state in the Middle East (after the Republic of Ararat). Biography Qazi Muhammad acted as the President of the Soviet (USSR) backed Republic of Mahabad, in Kurdistan of Iran (Iranian Kurdistan), (Eastern Kurdistan) in 1946.

Kingdom of Libya

reorganisation Following a change in the constitution abolishing the federal makeup of the country in 1963 the three provinces were reorganised into ten governorates (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'' in Arabic) which were ruled by an appointed governor. Modern history in politics (in Arabic). Libya's future. Retrieved 15 October 2011. "

Libya: a Modern History volume publisher Taylor & Francis year 1981 isbn 978-0-7099-2727-4 Ba'athism was a major political force in Libya following the establishment of the United Arab Republic. Many intellectuals were attracted to ba'athist ideology during the later years of the Kingdom of Libya. However, with help from nasserist propaganda, several ba'athists

changed affiliation and became nasserists instead. The growth of these pan-Arab ideologies concerned the government, which led to several nasserists

Emirate of Transjordan

those raids by himself, and had to appeal for help to the British who maintained a military base with a small air force (RAF) at Marka, close to Amman. Salibi, Kamal S. ''The modern history of Jordan''. p. 104 The British military force was the primary obstacle against the Ikhwan between 1922–1924, and was also utilized to help Abdullah with the suppression

of local rebellions at Kura (Kura Rebellion), Salibi, Kamal S. ''The modern history of Jordan''. p. 104–105 and later by Sultan Adwan (Adwan Rebellion), in 1921 and 1923 respectively. Salibi, Kamal S. ''The modern history of Jordan''. p. 107


'''Wafaei''' or '''Wefayî''', (1844-1902), was a Kurdish (Kurdish people) poet. His real name was ''Abdorrahim''. He was born in Mahabad in present-day north-western Iran. He finished religious studies in Mahabad and became a cleric, and a teacher in the local school. He moved to Sulaimaniya in 1900 and stayed there for a while. He travelled to Mecca three times, the last one in 1902. He was accompanied by the Kurdish poet Piramerd. During his last pilgrimage, he became ill and died in the region between Iraq and Syria. Since Mamle was a Kurdish political activist, he was arrested several times by the Iranian government. He died on the 13 January 1999 at the age of 74 in the Kurdish city of Mahabad, and was buried there in the Budak Sultan graves. He is very popular in all over Kurdistan region especially in his hometown Mahabad and the neighuring Piranshahr. Kurdish Women in Iran During World War I, Kurdish women suffered from attacks of Russian and Turkish armies. In 1915, Russian army massacred the male population of Mahabad and abused two hundred women. Reza Shah issued his decree for coercive unveiling of women in 1936. According to government correspondence, there was no need for unveiling in Kurdistan (Iranian Kurdistan), since women were usually unveiled. Nevertheless, government treated the colorful traditional Kurdish female custome as ''ugly and dirty'' and it had to be replaced with ''civilized''(i.e. Western) dress. Kurds called this forced dress as Ajami rather than European. ''Violence and culture: Confidential records about the abolition of hijab 1934-1943'', Iran National Archives, Tehran, 1992, pp.171, 249-250, 273. The Solitude of the Stateless: Kurdish Women at the Margins of Feminist Knowledge On July 13, unconfirmed reports began to emerge of a general strike in the four largely-Kurdish (w:Kurdish people) provinces in the north-west of Iran which make up Iranian Kurdistan (w:Iranian Kurdistan). Videos showed empty, deserted streets and shuttered shops in Mahabad (w:Mahabad), Saghez (w:Saghez) and other Kordestani cities. The reports of the strike coincide with the twentieth anniversary of the murder of Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (w:Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou), the leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (w:Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran) (PDKI).

Sheikhdom of Kuwait

successfully besieged the Ottoman governor Umar Pasha who surrendered and gave up his rule as the fourth Ottoman governor of al-Hasa. Fattah, p. 83 Ibn Agil, p. 78 Abu-Hakima, Ahmad Mustafa. "Bani Khalid, Rulers of Eastern Arabia." The Modern History of Kuwait, 1750-1965. London: Luzac, 1983. 2-3. Print The families of the Bani Utbah finally arrived in Kuwait in 1713 AD and settled

of the Emir of al-Hasa who himself was of the Bani Khalid. Abu-Hakima, Ahmad Mustafa. "Arrival of the Utub in Kuwait." The Modern History of Kuwait, 1750-1965. London: Luzac, 1983. 3-5. Print. In 1718, the head of each family in the town of Kuwait gathered and chose Sabah I bin Jaber as the Sheikh of Kuwait becoming a governor of sorts underneath the Emir of Al Hasa. During this time as well, the power in governance was split between the Al Sabah, Al Khalifa, and Al

Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic

War I; Georgian forces raised by their Provisional Government; and Azerbaijani troops raised independently. The Military Council of Nationalities was short-lived. On May 28, 1918, Georgia signed the Treaty of Poti with Germany and welcomed the German Caucasus Expedition as protection against post-Revolution instability and the Ottoman military advance. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1962). ''A Modern History of Georgia'', London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 207

, together with Armenia and Georgia (Georgia (country)) became part of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. When the republic dissolved in May 1918, Azerbaijan declared independence as the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). The ADR was the first modern parliamentary republic in the Muslim World. Schulze, Reinhard. A Modern History of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris, 2000. ISBN 978-1-86064-822-9, 9781860648229. Among the important accomplishments of the Parliament was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan the first Muslim nation to grant women equal political rights with men. In this accomplishment, Azerbaijan also preceded the United Kingdom and the United States. Another important accomplishment of ADR was the establishment of Baku State University, which was the first modern-type university founded in Muslim East. The Georgian–Ossetian conflict (1918–1920) comprised a series of uprisings, which took place in the Ossetian-inhabited areas of what is now South Ossetia, a breakaway republic in Georgia, against the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and then the Menshevik-dominated Democratic Republic of Georgia which claimed several thousand lives. After the February Revolution like many ethnic minorities of Transcaucasia, Azeris aimed at secession from Russia. In the provinces and districts where Azeris constituted considerable population local Muslim National Councils (MNC) were formed. On March 27, 1917 delegates of MNCs gathered and elected a central committee Mammad Hasan Hajinski, Mammed Amin Rasulzade, Alimardan Topchubashov, Fatali Khan Khoyski, and other founders of the future Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. On November 11, the first government of the independent Transcaucasia was created in Tbilisi named as "Transcaucasian Commissariat (Sejm)." Azeri's gave 37 representatives to Transcaucasian Commissariat. The Transcaucasian Commissariat was anti-Bolshevik in its political goals and sought the separation of Transcaucasia from Bolshevik Russia. Following the October Revolution, a government of the local Soviet was established in Baku: the so-called Baku Commune (November 1917 - 31 July 1918). The Commune was formed by 85 Social Revolutionaries and Left Social Revolutionaries (Left Socialist-Revolutionaries), 48 Bolsheviks, 36 Dashnaks, 18 Musavatists and 13 Mensheviks. Stepan Shaumyan, a Bolshevik, and Prokopius Dzhaparidze, a leftist SR, were elected Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners of the Commune of Baku. The Baku Soviet was at odds with emergent Transcaucasian Federation and was supportive of Bolshevik governments in most areas, except peace treaty with Ottoman Empire. Uneasy truce existed between different faction, until Treaty of Brest-Litovsk exposed weakness of the coalition. The Russian Caucasus Army (Russian Caucasus Army (World War I)) was degrading After the collapse of the Russian Empire and on November 7, 1917, signed Armistice of Erzincan with the Ottoman Empire. On February 24, 1918, The Sejm proclaimed the Transcaucasia as the independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. On March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk marked Russia's (signed by Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) exit from World War I. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk exposed the weakness of this coalition, which hold on an uneasy truce between different factions. On March 14, the Trabzon peace conference began between the Ottoman Empire and the delegation of the Transcaucasian Commissariat (Sejm). 1917 revolutions and Armenian-Ottoman War After the February Revolution, the region was under the authority of Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. When the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, this region passed to Democratic Republic of Armenia, having a conspicuous role in Armenian history due to Battle of Sardarapat. There, the Armenian forces staved off extermination and repulsed the Ottoman Army whose campaign in the Caucasus (Caucasus Campaign) was aimed at occupying Yerevan. Armenia the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Armenia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922 - Azerbaijan the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922 - Georgia (Georgia (country)) the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Georgia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922 - - align center May 28 bgcolor #FFDDDD '''Armenia''' and '''Azerbaijan Democratic Republic''' dissolve the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Yerevan and Baku are the respective capitals. - - align center May 26 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - - align center April 22 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic''' gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - - align center April 19 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic''' annexes the Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia). -


and destroyed by the Avars (Eurasian Avars) and Slavs in the 7th century. Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic by Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria- page 247 Refugees from Epidaurum fled

Ralph. Preveden-1955 Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic by Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria-Brockhaus Chapter 9. page 218 in the 7th century. He enters into discussions

Prince-Bishopric of Liège

) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.


" I.M. Lewis, ''A Modern History of the Somali'', fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p.43 & 49 In 1874-75, the Egyptians obtained a ''firman'' from the Ottomans by which they secured claims over the city. At the same time, the Egyptians received British recognition of their nominal jurisdiction as far east as Cape Guardafui. In actuality, however, Egypt had little authority over the interior and their period of rule on the coast was brief, lasting only a few years (1870–84). When the Egyptian garrison in Harar was evacuated in 1885, Zeila became caught up in the competition between the Tadjoura-based French and the British for control of the strategic Gulf of Aden littoral. I.M. Lewis mentions that "by the end of 1885 Britain was preparing to resist an expected French landing at Zeila." However, the two powers decided instead to turn to negotiations. British Somaliland Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila

First Republic of Armenia

Christopher J. Walker pages 272–273 It has also been known as '''Dashnak Republic''' due to the fact that the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, better known as Dashnaktsutyun or simply Dashnak was the dominant political force in the country. ref>

to stall. On May 26, 1918, Georgia declared independence; on May 28, it signed the Treaty of Poti, and received protection from Germany. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1962). ''A Modern History of Georgia''. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, pp. 207-208. The following the day, the Muslim National Council in Tiflis announced the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan. Having been abandoned by its regional allies

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