Places Known For

military opposition


Rotuma

) Moderate voices - Military opposition (Military opposition to the Reconciliation, Tolerance, and Unity Bill (Fiji)) - Military-church relations in Fiji - Foreign reaction (Foreign reaction to the Reconciliation, Tolerance, and Unity Bill (Fiji)) - Religious reaction (Religious reaction to the Reconciliation, Tolerance, and Unity Bill (Fiji)) - Red-throated Lorikeet - Jai Ram REDDY (Jai Ram Reddy) - Kamlesh REDDY (Kamlesh Reddy) - K.S. REDDY (K.S. Reddy) - Reserve Bank of Fiji Building - Rewa (Rewa Province) - Rewa Bridge - Rewa FC - Rewa Planters Union - Rewa River - Rhine (ship) - Rhone (ship) - Sir Arthur RICHARDS (Arthur Richards, 1st Baron Milverton) - Tom RICKETTS (Tom Ricketts (Fiji politician)) - Peter RIDGEWAY (Peter Ridgeway) - Marieta RIGAMOTO (Marieta Rigamoto) - Ringgold Isles - Ro (Ro (title)) - Sir Hercules ROBINSON (Hercules Robinson) - Ratu Maculeku ROKOCEGU (Maculeku Rokocegu) - Roko - Nasoni ROKO (Nasoni Roko) - Adi Joana ROKOMATU (Joana Rokomatu) - Roko Tui Bau - Roko Tui Dreketi - Roko Tui Namata- Ratu Kolinio ROKOTUINACEVA (Kolinio Rokotuinaceva) - Roman Catholic Church in Fiji - Rotuma - Rotuma Day - Rotuma Day, 2005 - Rotuma Group - Rotuman Islands Council (Council of Rotuma) - Rotuman language - Swami RUDRANANDA (Swami Rudrananda) - Rugby union in Fiji - Rugby Union (Fiji national rugby union team) (Fiji national rugby union team) - Rugby Sevens (Fiji national rugby union sevens team) (Fiji national rugby union team (sevens)) - Ryder, William (William Ryder (rugby union player)) The Preamble traces Fiji's constitutional history, from its settlement by the ancestors of the Fijian and Rotuman peoples and the subsequent arrival of numerous different peoples, through the decision of Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau (Seru Epenisa Cakobau), the King who had united all of Fiji's tribes under his leadership in 1871, and his subsequent decision to cede the country to Great Britain on 10 October 1874, and the later decision of the Rotuman chiefs to cede Rotuma in November 1879, to the gaining of independence from the United Kingdom and the adoption of the first constitution in 1970, the abrogation of that constitution in 1987, and the subsequent proclamation of the Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji and the promulgation of a republican constitution by the President (List of Presidents of Fiji), Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau (Penaia Ganilau), in 1990, and the subsequent constitutional review undertaken in the mid-1990s, leading to the adoption of the present document. ''The Preamble sees an unbroken continuity connecting all of these historical events that have left their mark on Fiji's constitutional history.'' *The right of all Fiji citizens ''"to practice their religion freely and to retain their language, culture and traditions"'' is guaranteed. These rights safeguard both indigenous and Indo-Fijian culture; many ethnic Fijians (Fijian people) sought a provision to safeguard their strongly Christian traditions from possible future Indo-Fijian attempts at Hinduization if they should gain political power, while many Indo-Fijians were alarmed by the efforts of fundamentalist Christians (Christian fundamentalism) to enshrine Christianity in the Constitution as the official religion of the republic, a goal that some Christians have continued to push for since. This ''Compact'' enunciates a compromise that is repeated throughout the Constitution: although laced with references to Christianity, the constitution carefully protects the rights of all Fiji citizens to profess, practice both privately and publicly, and propagate all religions. The language provisions, too, benefit both major population groups. Increasing use of English (English language), especially among the younger generation, has concerned leaders of both the indigenous and Indo-Fijian communities that a future government might mandate an English-only education system, which, they fear, would lead to the demise of their own languages. But while English ''is'' the main language of most schools, the right of parents to choose schools teaching in Fijian (Fijian language) or Hindustani (Hindustani language) - or any other language - is protected by the Constitution. *The "separate" administrative systems - in other words, the traditional chiefly systems - of the Fijian and Rotuman people are preserved. The purpose of this is twofold. Many ethnic Fijians see the rule of their chiefs, each of whom heads a matagali, or clan, as a bulwark against domination by non-Fijians. Although similar in some respects to the British (United Kingdom) Peerage system, it is closer to the people, as almost all ethnic Fijians are somewhat closely related to a ''Ratu'' (chief), whose power therefore gives the entire clan a direct voice in politics. The second provision, for the Rotuman administrative system, was to assuage the fears of the Rotuman Islanders of political and cultural domination by the other population groups. Related more closely to the New Zealand Māori (Māori people)s and other Polynesian (Polynesian culture) peoples than to the Fijians, who are predominantly Melanesian, and numbering only ten thousand, about 1.2 percent of Fiji's total population, they wanted their cultural identity protected, along with a degree of political autonomy. In 1987, following the coup, Rotuman secessionists had tried to organize a bid for independence from Fiji. This clause in the ''Compact'' may be seen as an attempt to placate them. *All Fiji citizens, of whatever ethnic background, are guaranteed equality before the law. Their right to make their permanent homes in the Fiji Islands is also protected. '''Sections 50''' through '''54''' deal with the composition of the House. It is to consist of 71 members elected from single-member electorates by a system of transferable voting, under which the votes of the lowest-polling candidates are successively added to those of the second choice indicated by the voter. 25 members are to be elected by universal suffrage. The remaining 46 are to be elected by voters on closed electoral rolls representing Fiji's ethnic communities: 23 ethnic Fijians (Fijian people), 19 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman Islander (Rotuma), and 3 "General Electors (General Electors (Fiji))" (Europeans, Chinese, and other minorities). With the exception of 17 "provincial" electorates representing rural ethnic Fijians, which follow traditional provincial boundaries, all other electorates are to be substantially equal in population. For electoral purposes, this Section defines an ethnic '''Fijian''' as any descendant of ''a native inhabitant of Fiji (other than Rotuma).'' The Polynesian Rotuman Islanders (Rotuma) are excluded, unless they also have some ethnic Fijian ancestry (predominantly Melanesian), because they have their own electoral roll. An '''Indo-Fijian''' is defined as any descendant of a native of the Indian Sub-continent, and therefore potentially includes people of Bengali (Bangladesh), Bhutanese, Nepali, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan, as well as Indian, descent. '''Rotuman Islanders''' are defined as any descendant of an inhabitant of Rotuma. Ancestry may be traced through either the male or the female line, and there is no "blood quantum" - how close or how distant one's relationship to a particular ethnic group is irrelevant, provided that it can be proved. For electoral purposes, this Section defines an ethnic '''Fijian''' as any descendant of ''a native inhabitant of Fiji (other than Rotuma).'' The Polynesian Rotuman Islanders (Rotuma) are excluded, unless they also have some ethnic Fijian ancestry (predominantly Melanesian), because they have their own electoral roll. An '''Indo-Fijian''' is defined as any descendant of a native of the Indian Sub-continent, and therefore potentially includes people of Bengali (Bangladesh), Bhutanese, Nepali, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan, as well as Indian, descent. '''Rotuman Islanders''' are defined as any descendant of an inhabitant of Rotuma. Ancestry may be traced through either the male or the female line, and there is no "blood quantum" - how close or how distant one's relationship to a particular ethnic group is irrelevant, provided that it can be proved. His first posting was Fiji where only two years after arriving there he was named acting Resident Commissioner for the island of Rotuma. The following year as magistrate and seven years later he was appointed to the Native Regulation Board and made the commissioner of the Supreme Court. In 1894 he was made Commissioner for Native Lands and given a seat in the Legislative Council. In 1895 he was appointed Native Commissioner, the chief liaison between the Fijian natives and the British. The 1992 elections were the first to be held under the new electoral system, which was deliberately biased in favour of ethnic Fijians (Fijian people). "National" constituencies, elected by universal suffrage and comprising approximately half of the House of Representatives (House of Representatives (Fiji)) under the 1970 constitution, were abolished, and for the first time, all members of the House of Representatives were elected from "communal" constituencies on closed electoral rolls, for registered members of a particular ethnic group. 37 seats were allocated to ethnic Fijians and only 27 to Indo-Fijians, despite the near-equality of their numbers in the population; one seat was reserved for a representative of the Rotuman Islanders (Rotuma), with five "general electorates" set aside for various minorities including Europeans, Chinese, and Banaban Islanders (Banaba Island). The election produced little change among the 38 seats in the House of Representatives (House of Representatives (Fiji)) that were reserved for ethnic Fijians and Rotuman Islanders (Rotuma). The Fijian Political Party won 33 seats (a gain of three), and the Fijian Association Party of former Finance Minister Josefata Kamikamica won five (one down). The Fijian Nationalist Party of Sakeaki Butadroka, which advocated the forced repatriation of all Fijians of Indian descent, lost the two seats that it had won in the previous election (Fiji election of 1992). The five "general electorates," reserved for Fiji's European, Chinese, and other minorities, showed similarly little change, with the General Voters Party (General Voters Party (Fiji)) winning four seats and the All Nationals Congress (All Nationals Congress Party (Fiji)), one. There was a very significant change in the composition of the 27 Indo-Fijian seats, however. The Fiji Labour Party lost 6 of its 13 seats, with the National Federation Party (National Federation Party (Fiji)) winning the remaining 20. The NFP leader, Jai Ram Reddy, enjoyed a personal rapport with Rabuka; although they did not enter into a formal coalition, their negotiations led to a substantial overhaul of the Fijian Constitution (Constitution of Fiji) which paved the way for the historic election of 1999, which brought Fiji's first Indo-Fijian Prime Minister, Mahendra Chaudhry, to power. Electoral system Previously, all seats in the Fijian House of Representatives had been allocated on an ethnic basis, with the numbers deliberately skewed in favour of ethnic Fijians (Fijian people). In the 1990s, negotiations among Fiji's political and ethnic factions had led to an agreement to create 25 "open electorates," with Representatives of any race to be elected by universal suffrage; a further 46 Representatives would continue to represent ethnic communities and be elected from separate electoral rolls (23 ethnic Fijians, 19 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman Islander (Rotuma), with an additional three "general electorates" to represent Fiji's minority communities, including Europeans, Chinese, and Banaban Islanders (Banaba Island)). '''Fijian people''' are the major indigenous people of the Fiji Islands (Fiji), and live in an area informally called Melanesia. The Fijian people are believed to have arrived in Fiji from western Melanesia approximately 3,500 years ago, though the exact origins of the Fijian people are unknown. Later they would move onward to other surrounding islands including Rotuma,as well as blending with other (Polynesian) settlers on Tonga and Samoa. They are indigenous to all parts of Fiji except the island of Rotuma. The original settlers are now called "Lapita people" after a distinctive pottery produced locally. Lapita pottery was found in the area from 800 BC onward. '''Fijian people''' are the major indigenous people of the Fiji Islands (Fiji), and live in an area informally called Melanesia. The Fijian people are believed to have arrived in Fiji from western Melanesia approximately 3,500 years ago, though the exact origins of the Fijian people are unknown. Later they would move onward to other surrounding islands including Rotuma,as well as blending with other (Polynesian) settlers on Tonga and Samoa. They are indigenous to all parts of Fiji except the island of Rotuma. The original settlers are now called "Lapita people" after a distinctive pottery produced locally. Lapita pottery was found in the area from 800 BC onward. Fiji's Parliament is bicameral. The House of Representatives (House of Representatives (Fiji)) has 71 members. 25 of these are elected by universal suffrage. The remaining 46 are reserved for Fiji's ethnic communities and are elected from communal electoral rolls: 23 Fijians (Fijian people), 19 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman, and 3 "General electors (General Electors (Fiji))" (Europeans, Chinese, and other minorities (minority group)). The upper chamber of the parliament, the Senate (Senate (Fiji)), has 32 members, formally appointed by the President (List of Presidents of Fiji) on the nomination of the Great Council of Chiefs (Great Council of Chiefs (Fiji)) (14), the Prime Minister (List of Prime Ministers of Fiji) (9), the Leader of the Opposition (Leader of the Opposition (Fiji)) (8), and the Rotuman Islands Council (1). The Senate is less powerful than the House of Representatives; the Senate may not initiate legislation, but it may reject or amend it. Fiji is divided administratively into four division (division (subnational entity))s, which are further subdivided into fourteen provinces; the self-governing island http: en.wikisource.org wiki Rotuma_Act http: www.itc.gov.fj lawnet fiji_act inter_act_list.html http: books.google.com books?id B9Qww9fVkGIC&pg PA239&lpg PA239&dq rotuma+free+association&source bl&ots yyE_6WYTgQ&sig 3SMYyQfkQjvX_1i8WK5wqfY9LPA&hl en&ei bIE3TPWxF8G88gaD2OSmBg&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 1&ved 0CBIQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q rotuma%20free%20association&f false of Rotuma and its dependencies lie outside any of the four divisions. Each division is headed by a ''Commissioner,'' appointed by the Fijian government. The divisions are basically agglomerations of provinces and have few administrative functions of their own, but serve to foster cooperation among the member provinces for providing services. Each province has a ''provincial council'' which may make bylaws and impose rates (local taxes), subject to the approval of the Fijian Affairs Board, a government department. The board must also approve the appointment of the ''Roko Tui,'' or executive head of the provincial council, who is usually a high chief (Ratu), although in recent years, commoners have sometimes been chosen. left thumb Map of the divisions of Fiji. (Image:Fiji divisions named.png) Additionally, the island of Rotuma, north of the main archipelago, is self-governing according to the Rotuma Act promulgated in 1927. The Fiji government includes it in the Eastern Division for statistical purposes (such as the census), but it has its own council (Council of Rotuma) which is empowered to legislate on most local matters. Like a province, Rotuma chooses (through its council) 3 members of the Great Council of Chiefs and 1 Senator. :''see also'': Constituencies of Fiji (House_of_Representatives_(Fiji)#Open_Electorates) In Fiji, prior to the December 2006 military coup (2006 Fijian coup d'état), elections were held under the 1997 Constitution (Constitution of Fiji), which allotted 46 of the House of Representatives (House of Representatives of Fiji)' 71 seats on an ethnic basis. 23 were reserved for the indigenous majority, 19 for Indo-Fijians, 1 for Rotumans, and 3 for members of all other ethnic minorities. There was a strong tendency towards voting on ethnic lines. Thus, in the 1999 general election (Fijian general election, 1999), although the indigenous seats were split between several parties, all 19 Indo-Fijian seats were won by the Fiji Labour Party - which won none of the indigenous seats. In the 2001 general election (Fijian general election, 2001), the conservative indigenous nationalist Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua party won 18 of the indigenous seats, with the other 5 going to the ultra-nationalist Conservative Alliance (Conservative Alliance (Fiji)) - which later merged into the SDL. All 19 "Indian" seats were retained by the Labour Party. In the 2006 general election (Fijian general election, 2006), all Indo-Fijian seats remained safely Labour, while the SDL won all 23 indigenous seats. Among other minorities, only the communal seat of West Central (West Central (General Electors Communal Constituency, Fiji)) was a safe seat for the ethnic United Peoples Party (United Peoples Party (Fiji)). "Elections 1999 Results Summary", Fiji Elections Office "2001 election: summary by open seats and type of communal seats", iji Elections Office "2006 election: Fijian communal constituencies" "2006 election: Indian communal constituencies" From England to the South Seas After attending school at Elizabeth College, Guernsey, Hocart matriculated at Exeter College (Exeter College, Oxford), Oxford (Oxford University) in 1902. He graduated with honors in "Greats (Literae Humaniores)", a degree combining Latin, Greek, ancient history, and philosophy. After his graduation in 1906 he spent two years studying psychology and phenomenology (Phenomenology (philosophy)) at the University of Berlin. With this broad and idiosyncratic training in hand, he was picked by W.H.R. Rivers to accompany him on the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Solomon Islands in 1908. Their ethnographic work on 'Eddystone Island' (today known by its local name of Simbo) and in nearby Roviana, stands as one of the first modern anthropological field projects, and was the inspiration behind sections of Pat Barker's novel ''The Ghost Road''. Some of the data from the expedition appeared in Rivers' ''History of Melanesian Society'' in 1914, but most of their work did not make it into print until 1922, when Hocart began to publish a series of articles describing the core material. Immediately after his fieldwork in the Solomon Islands, Hocart travelled further east to Fiji, where he became the headmaster of Lakeba School, on the island of Lakeba in the Lau archipelago (Lau Islands). At the same time, he maintained a research affiliation with Oxford and traveled widely through western Polynesia, conducting research in Fiji, Rotuma, Wallis Island (Wallis and Futuna), Samoa, and Tonga. The result was roughly six years of ethnographic fieldwork that formed the basis for Hocart's reputation today as one of the most important early ethnographers of Oceania. **Nausori - Nausori International Airport '''(Base)''' **Rotuma - Rotuma Airport **Savusavu - Savusavu Airport *Nadi - Nadi International Airport '''Main hub''' *Rotuma - Rotuma Airport *Savusavu - Savusavu Airport Ah Koy's first foray into politics was in 1966, when he stood unsuccessfully as an independent candidate. In the early 1980s, he became manager of a family investment company owned by the then-Prime Minister (List of Prime Ministers of Fiji) Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (Kamisese Mara), and was subsequently selected by Mara's political party (List of political parties in Fiji), the Fijian Alliance, as a candidate for one of eight seats then reserved for General Electors (General Electors (Fiji)) in the House of Representatives (House of Representatives (Fiji)) in the parliamentary election (Fiji election of 1982) of 1982. In 1991–1993, he led a legal challenge to the law requiring all multiracial people to register on the General Electors' (General Electors (Fiji)) roll, which enrolls all Fijian citizens who are neither indigenous (Fijian people) nor of Indian (Indo-Fijian) or Rotuman ancestry. The court ruled that as he was registered in the Native Land Register (Native Land Register (Fiji)) (''Vola ni Kawa Bula'', or VKB, in Fijian (Fijian language)), he was entitled to be registered as a Fijian. He subsequently succeeded getting the law amended to give multiracial people the option of registering on either the General Electors' roll or on an ethnic role (Fijian, Indo-Fijian, or Rotuman) on which any of their ancestors would have been entitled to enroll. This change was later written into the Constitution (Constitution of Fiji), and allowed Ah Koy to stand for election from an ethnic Fijian communal constituency. (All seats in the House of Representatives were communal prior to 1999, and 46 of the 71 seats are still communal, elected from closed ethnic roles of voters registered as Fijians, Indo-Fijians, Rotumans, or General Electors). Origins The party was founded in 1990 as the political vehicle of the Great Council of Chiefs (Great Council of Chiefs (Fiji)), with the declared goal of uniting all indigenous Fijians (Fijian people). A new constitution (Constitution of Fiji) promulgated in 1990, following two military coups (Fiji coups of 1987) in 1987, abolished the "national (National Constituencies (Fiji))" parliamentary seats elected by universal suffrage (which had comprised almost half the House of Representatives); all members henceforth were to be elected by enrolled voters on "communal" electoral roles (Communal Constituencies (Fiji)) that were limited to specific ethnic communities, each of which had an allocated number of seats in the House (37 indigenous Fijians (Fijian people), 27 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman, and 5 General Electors (General Electors (Fiji)) (Europeans, Chinese, Banaban Islanders (Banaba Island), and other minorities). The end to multiracial voting resulted in a trend towards intracommunal politics, and multiracial parties like the old Fijian Alliance of longtime Prime Minister (List of Prime Ministers of Fiji) Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (Kamisese Mara) were therefore dissolved and replaced by parties representing principally a single ethnic group. *Fiji: **during the October–December 1987 secession agitation on one island, known as the Republic of Rotuma, led by Henry Gibson (remained in New Zealand), his style was ''Gagaj Sau Lagfatmaro'', rendered as Paramount chief or King of the Molmahao Clan. NB: This title was not recognised by the Rotuma Island Council as the titles Gagaja and Sau have never been used together. The closest thing to a paramount chief is the position of Fakpure, currently belonging to the district chief (gagaj 'es itu'u) of Noa'tau. **the British Sovereign (Monarchy of the United Kingdom) remains recognized as "Paramount Chief (Paramount_Chief_of_Fiji#Current_position)", even since the country became a republic on 7 October 1987; however, this is not an office of state Daniel Fatiaki is a Roman Catholic (Roman Catholic Church in Fiji) and a native of Rotuma, a Fijian Dependency (Local government of Fiji) which enjoys a measure of autonomy but is otherwise integrated into Fiji politically and economically despite its cultural divergence (Rotumans are Polynesian, unlike ethnic Fijians (Fijian people), who are predominantly of Melanesian stock). He is the first Rotuman to be appointed to the bench in Fiji, and his appointment as Chief Justice resulted in great public rejoicing on the island. He is married to Martha (Martha Fatiaki) and has 4 sons. He was made a Companion of the Order of Fiji (Order of Fiji), together with Vijay Singh, in 2004. '''Rotuman''', also referred to as ''Rotunan'', ''Rutuman'' or ''Fäeag Rotuma'', is an Austronesian language (Austronesian languages) spoken by the indigenous people of the South Pacific (Oceania) island group of Rotuma, an island with a Polynesian (Polynesian culture)-influenced culture that was incorporated as a dependency into the Colony of Fiji in 1881. Classification of Rotuman is difficult due to the large number of loan words from Samoan (Samoan language) and Tongan (Tongan language), as a result of much cultural exchange over the history of the Pacific. Linguist Andrew Pawley groups the language with the West Fijian languages in a West Fijian – Rotuman branch of the Central Pacific sub-group of Oceanic languages.


Aleppo

. Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul. This disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem. . Fulk was then faced with a new and more dangerous enemy: the atabeg


Damascus

emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul. This disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem. . Expansion During Baldwin I's reign the kingdom expanded even further. The numbers of Latin (Latin people#Middle Ages) inhabitants increased, as the minor crusade of 1101 brought reinforcements


Honduras

by the CIA. In 1954, the democratically elected Guatemalan government of Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán was toppled by U.S.- backed forces led by Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas Schoultz, Lars: "Beneath the United States", page 343. Harvard University Press, 1998. who invaded from Honduras. Assigned by the Eisenhower administration, this military opposition was armed, trained and organized by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency ref name "Schoultz


Syria

by Kilij Arslan I, and in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul. This disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem. . ref


Portugal

football team , a number that makes him the most capped Portuguese player in history. After this, military opposition to Caesar was confined to Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal). During the Spring of 46 BC two legions in Hispania Ulterior, largely formed by former Pompeian veterans enrolled in Caesar’s army, had declared themselves for Gnaeus Pompeius (son of Pompey the Great) and driven out Caesar’s proconsul. Soon they were joined


Brazil

no cais de Belém.jpg thumb right 250px Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil The Portuguese army was positioned to defend the ports and the coast from a French attack, and on 1 December Lisbon was captured with no military opposition. The escape (Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil) on 29 November of Maria I of Portugal and Prince Regent John (João VI of Portugal), together with the administration and the Court (around 10,000 people and 9,000 sailors aboard 23


India

. France and India established diplomatic relationships soon after India achieved independence in 1947. India's strong diplomatic ties with France resulted in the peaceful cession of Pondicherry to India in 1 November 1954 without any military opposition from France. Funk became an international style of music, and is played by bands from such countries as Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, Algeria, India, South Africa


France

General Kurt Zeitzler. Smend began to work together with the military opposition against Hitler. He shared the plotters' worry that the war would lead to defeat owing to Hitler's incompetence. He tried to get his superior Zeitzler to participate in the plot, but to no avail. After the attempt to assassinate Hitler with a briefcase bomb at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia on 20 July 1944 failed, Günther Smend was arrested on 1 August 1944 as a consequence of his failed attempt


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