in the battle. In total, about 90,000 German troops and around 10,000 auxiliaries were trapped inside the pocket. Their commander was ''General der Infanterie'' Walter Graf von Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt (Walter von Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt), commander of the IInd Army Corps. As the military industry changed into higher gear before World War II several workers camps were set up in Schönkirchen for the various defence companies such as Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft, Feinmechanische Werke and other military suppliers. At the beginning these camps were inhabited by Reichsarbeitsdienst members but after the start of World War II increasingly foreign workers (Forced labor in Germany during World War II) (''Fremdarbeiter'') were placed in there. To defend nearby Kiel and its military industry some anti-aircraft units (Anti-aircraft warfare) were installed on the municipal territory. Nonetheless several airstrikes caused heavy civilian collateral damage in Schönkirchen, too.
produced 12 and a half million small arms. New City Circus was opened on November 29, 1943. World War II had a profound effect on the city, with much of the industrial infrastructure evacuated from the western regions of the Soviet Union, being relocated to the city. Elements of the evacuated enterprises were used to create the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, which remains an important manufacturer of military components. Military industry remained the core of the local economy after the war, leading to Izhvesk being designated a closed city, inaccessible to foreigners. The city's Izhmash factory began manufacturing the AK-47 automatic rifle in 1948, and continues to produce modern variants of the design to this day. The rifle's designer, Mikhail Kalashnikov lived in Izhevsk until his death in 2013. In 1966, Izhmash began manufacturing the Izh (Izhmash) brand of automobiles. In 1984, the city was renamed '''Ustinov'''; in honor of former minister of defense Dmitry Ustinov. Three years later, in spite of vocal protests by a significant number of citizens, Izhevsk regained its historical name. Izhevsk weathered the turbulent post-Soviet (dissolution of the Soviet Union) years reasonably well, carried through by the continued demand for its military products. The city remains an important industrial and military center of the country, being referred to as the "Armory of Russia" (a title it shares with the city of Tula (Tula, Russia)). wikipedia:Izhevsk
campaign and the revolution in Guizhou. After the establishment of the People's Republic, a new era for Zunyi's development began. Under Mao's leadership, cities like Zunyi in the Southwest became home to a hidden heavy military-industrial infrastructure known as the Third Front. The purpose of locating heavy industrial and military factories in such remote areas was to create a base for military industry out of the range of US and Soviet bombers. In the event of war, even if eastern and northern
Highway (257 km) * Khaybar - Al Ola Highway (175 km) Military industry The vast majority of Saudi Arabia's military equipment is imported from European and North American suppliers. However, the Al-Fahd Infantry fighting vehicle and the Al-Faris 8-400 armored personnel carrier (Al-Faris 8-400), used by Saudi land forces, were manufactured by the Abdallah Al Faris Company for Heavy Industries, based
Bock , for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength. thumb 2 rubles, 2000 (Image:Tula-Coin.jpg) Tula (Tula, Russia), a historical Russian city with important military industry South of Moscow, became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between 24 October and 5 December 1941. The heavily fortified city held out, however, and secured the Southern flank during the Soviet defence of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976. * Lieutenant Ivan Chisov of the Soviet Air Force miraculously survives a fall from 22,000 feet (6,706 meters) without a parachute after departing a heavily damaged Ilyushin Il-4 twin-engined medium bomber. After achieving a terminal velocity of about 150 mph (242 kph), he is decelerated when he hits the lip of a snow-covered ravine, sliding down with decreasing speed until he stops at the bottom, suffering a broken pelvis and severe spinal injuries. * The Soviet Union parachutes 2,000 troops behind German lines at Medyn, near Tula (Tula, Russia), in support of Soviet Army offensive operations. Hardesty, Von, ''Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945'', Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 76. * January 4–7 – Soviet Air Force aircraft attack forward ''Luftwaffe'' airfields at Rzhev and Velikiye Luki while German transport aircraft (Military transport aircraft) are using them to resupply German ground units. The Soviets claim nine Junkers Ju 52s destroyed on the ground and one Dornier Do 217 shot down in aerial combat. Hardesty, Von, ''Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945'', Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, pp. 78-79. According to a legend, in 1787, when Catherine passed through Tula (Tula, Russia) on her way back from the trip, the local governor, Mikhail Krechetnikov, indeed attempted a deception of that kind in order to hide the effects of a bad harvest. page 118, accessed: 14 November 2008 ** Transliteration: V Tulu so svoim samovarom (ne yezdyat). ** Translation: (Do not come) to Tula (w:Tula, Russia) with your own samovar (w:Samovar). ** Swedish equivalent: Do not cross the brook for water.
The first “General Constructor” and head of the “Southern” design office was Mikhail Yangel, a prominent scientist and outstanding designer of space rockets, who managed not only the design office, but the entire factory from 1954 to 1971. Yangel designed the first powerful rockets and space military equipment for the Soviet Ministry of Defense (Ministry of Defence (Russia)).
city in Eastern Ukraine. Understand Dniepropetrovsk is an industrial centre of Ukraine that was a hub for the Soviet military industry. As such, no foreigners were allowed to visit without official permission until the 1990s. As an industrial centre still, it suffers from heavy pollution issues, but is generally well maintained and provides an interesting insight into real working life in Ukraine. History thumb 250px Karl Marx Avenue in Dnipropetrovsk (Image:Karl-Marx-Avenue-Dnipropetrovsk.jpg) Immediately after its foundation Dnipropetrovsk, or as it was then known '''Yekaterinoslav''', began to develop exclusively on the right bank of the Dnieper River. At first the city developed radially from the central point provided by the '''Transfiguration Cathedral'''. Neo-classical structures of brick and stone construction were preferred and the city began to take on the appearance of a typical European city of the era. Of these buildings many have been retained in the city's older Zhovtnevy Raion (district). Amongst the most important buildings of this era are the Transfiguration Cathedral, and a number of buildings in the area surrounding Karla Marksa Prospekt. - Over the next few decades, until the October Revolution in 1917 the city did not change much in appearance and the predominant architectural style remained that of neo-classicism. Notable buildings built in the era preceding the Bolshevik's rise to power and the establishment of communist Ukraine and later its absorption into the Soviet Union, include the main building of the '''National Mining University''', which was built in 1899–1901, the art-nouveau inspired building of the city's former '''Duma''', '''the Dnipropetrovsk National Historical Museum''', and the '''Mechnikov Regional Hospital'''. Other buildings of the era that did not fit the typical architectural style of the time in Dnipropetrovsk include, the Ukrainian-influenced '''Grand Hotel Ukraine''', the Russian revivalist style railway station (since reconstructed), and the art-nouveau '''Astoriya''' building on Karla Marksa Prospekt. - Stalinist architecture (monumental soviet classicism) dominates in the city centre. Once the bolsheviks had taken power in Dnipropetrovsk the city was gradually purged of tsarist-era monuments and monumental architecture was stripped of Imperial coats of arms and other non-socialist symbolism. In 1917, a monument to Catherine the Great that stood in front of the Mining Institute was replaced with one of Russian academic Mikhail Lomonosov. Later, due to damage from the Second World War, a number of large buildings were reconstructed. The '''main railway station''', for example, was stripped of its Russian-revival ornamentation and redesigned in the style of Stalinist social-realism, whilst the Grand Hotel Ukraine survived the war but was later simplified much in design, with its roof being reconstructed in a typical French mansard style as opposed to the ornamental Ukrainian baroque of the pre-war era. Other badly damaged buildings were, more often than not, demolished completely and replaced with new structures. This is one of the main reasons why much of Dnipropetrovsk's central avenue, Karla Marksa Prospekt, is designed in the style of Stalinist Social Realism. Many pre-revolution buildings were also reconstructed to suit new purposes. For example, the '''Emperor Nicholas II Commercial Institute''' in Dnipropetrovsk was reconstructed to serve as the administrative centre for the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, a function it fulfils to this day. Other buildings, such as the Potemkin Palace were given over to the proletariat, in this case as the students' union of the Dnipropetrovsk National University. - Stalinist architecture blends with the post-modernism of Dnipropetrovsk's 'Passage' shopping and entertainment centre. After 1950's, the industrialisation of Dnipropetrovsk became even more profound, with the Southern (Yuzhne) '''Missile and Rocket factory''' being set up in the city. However, this was not the only development and many other factories, especially metallurgical and heavy-manufacturing plants, were set up in the city. At this point Dnipropetrovsk became one of the most important manufacturing cities in the Soviet Union, producing many goods from small articles like screws and vacuum cleaners to aircraft engine pieces and ballistic missiles. As a result of all this industrialisation the city's inner suburbs became increasingly polluted and were gradually given over to large, unsightly industrial enterprises. At the same time the estensive development of the city's left bank and western suburbs as new residential areas began. The low-rise tenant houses of the Khrushchev era (Khrushchyovkas) gave way to the construction of high-rise prefabricated apartment blocks (similar to German Plattenbaus). In 1976 in line with the city's 1926 renaming a large monumental '''statue of Grigoriy Petrovsky''' was placed on the square in front of the city's station. - To this day the city is characterised by its mix of architectural styles, with much of the city's centre consisting of pre-revolutionary buildings in a variety of styles, stalinist buildings and constructivist architecture, whilst residential districts are, more often than not, made up of aesthetically simple, technically outdated mid-rise and high-rise housing stock from the Soviet era. Despite this, the city does have a large number of 'private sectors' were the tradition of building and maintaining individual detached housing has continued to this day. - Since the '''independence of Ukraine''' in 1991 and the economic development that followed, a number of large commercial and business centres have been built in the city's outskirts. Geography The city is built mainly upon the both banks of the Dnieper, at its confluence with the Samara River. The area the city is built on is mainly devoid of hills and other geographical features. Being mainly flat, the land is easy to use, which explains why the city has been able to grow to such a great extent over the past 200 years. Whilst most residential, commercial, and industrial districts of the city are along the less marshy south bank of the river, some residential, commercial, and industrial areas have developed on the previously less-hospitable northern bank. '''Subdivisions''': Amur-Nyzhnodniprovskyi, Babushkinskyi, Zhovtnevyi, Industrialnyi, Kirovskyi, Krasnohvardiiskyi, Leninskyi, Samarskyi. Climate During the '''summer''', Dnipropetrovsk is very warm (average day temperature in July is 24 to 28 °C (75 to 82 °F), even hot sometimes 32 to 36 °C (90 to 97 °F). Temperatures as high as 36 °C (97 °F) have been recorded in May. '''Winter''' is not so cold (average day temperature in January is −4 to 0 °C (25 to 32 °F), but when there is no snow and the wind blows hard, it feels extremely cold. A mix of snow and rain happens usually in December. - The '''best time''' for visiting the city is in late spring — late April and May, and early in autumn: September, October, when the city's trees turn yellow. Other times are mainly dry with a few showers. Get in By plane * Commons:Category:Dnipropetrovsk
-Year Plan in winter 1946–47 which was approved by the government in spring 1947. Because of the lack of knowledge, the Plan was copying the Soviet model. The factories which were built faster were factories that were in the sector of heavy and military industry, of which the most known in SR Croatia are "Rade Končar (KONČAR Group)" and "Prvomajska (Prvomajska (company))". In the Five-Year Plan, Hebrang wanted to increase the industrial
www.zsg.rzeszow.net.pl accessdate 2010-01-08 The following industrial projects were part of the plan: a steel mill (Huta Stalowa Wola) and power plant in a brand new city of Stalowa Wola, a rubber factory in Dębica, an automobile factory in Lublin, an aircraft factory in Mielec, aircraft engine and artillery factory in Rzeszów, hydroelectric power plants in Rożnów and Myszkowice, expansion of Zakłady Azotowe in Mościce. Military
industry in the Staropolski Okręg Przemysłowy was expanded in the towns of Radom, Skarżysko-Kamienna, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Starachowice, Kielce. Most of those investments were located in regions with high unemployment, and their construction succeeded in reducing social tensions and began to strengthen the Polish economy. In 1907 he was promoted to cavalry ensign (ensign (rank)) and assigned to the 6th Uhlans Regiment, where he served as a platoon and then squadron commander. He also continued his military education, first at various courses in Tarnów and Rzeszów, and then (since 1911) at the Academy of the General Staff in Vienna. On November 1, 1912 he was promoted to lieutenant. thumb 200px right Ohel (grave) (Image:Ohel Leżajsk 01.jpg) of Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk '''Elimelech Weisblum of Lizhensk''' (1717–1787 See image of gravestone at e.g. http: 2.bp.blogspot.com _fTh0xyZ1FRQ R-rEbh5TgVI AAAAAAAABA4 h3023o7lqXI s400 elimelech.jpg which gives the year as ת' נ' צ' ב' ה' which is 547, short for the Jewish year 5,547, or 1787. ), a Rabbi and one of the great founding Rebbes of the Hasidic movement (Hasidic Judaism), was known after his hometown, Leżajsk ( Wikipedia:Rzeszów Commons:Rzeszów
of Stalowa Wola, a rubber factory in Dębica, an automobile factory in Lublin, an aircraft factory in Mielec, aircraft engine and artillery factory in Rzeszów, hydroelectric power plants in Rożnów and Myszkowice, expansion of Zakłady Azotowe in Mościce. Military industry in the Staropolski Okręg Przemysłowy was expanded in the towns of Radom, Skarżysko-Kamienna, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Starachowice, Kielce. Most of those investments were located in regions with high unemployment, and their construction succeeded in reducing social tensions and began to strengthen the Polish economy. Since 1927 it has been the home of the chief Polish Air Force Academy ( Wikipedia:Radom Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Mazowieckie Radom Commons:Category:Radom
With the liquidation in 1849 of the Petrashevsky circle there came another danger. Saltykov was summoned to the capital to give evidence on his involvement in the group’s activity. Having chosen the 'naive novice' line he managed to convince the authorities that 'spreading harm' was not his intention and safely returned to Vyatka. In fact