Places Known For

major opposition


Al-Rastan

the site of the Roman-era city of Arethusa (Arethusa (see)) and still contains some of its ancient ruins. It continued to exist as a relatively small, but strategic town throughout the early Islamic and Ottoman eras. Since the start of the 2011–2012 Syrian uprising, al-Rastan has served as a major opposition stronghold and has been the site of heavy clashes between the Syrian government's security forces and rebels from the Free Syrian Army. Al-Rastan is situated adjacently south of the large bridge linking Homs and Hama. Bar'el, Zvi. Report: Assad's air force pounds population centers in Syria's Rastan. ''Haaretz''. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012. The total land area of the town is 350 hectares. الرستن جمال الطبيعة وأصالة التاريخ. E-Syria. 21 October 2009. It is the site of the Al-Rastan Dam, a major dam on the Orontes River that has a retaining capacity of 225 million m³. The dam is principally used for irrigation. Water for the Fields. Talis. Retrieved 28 June 2012. The city also contains one of Syria's principal marlstone quarries. Brittanica, p. 19. The city is currently run by hard line Islamists opposed to the secular government. History Classical era Al-Rastan was built on the site of ancient Arethusa. According to Roman historian Appian, Cohen, 2006, p. 101. Arethusa was established by Seleucus I Nikator, founder of the Seleucid dynasty in the 3rd century BCE. Levick, p. 7. Most sources agree Seleucus named it after the city of Arethusa (Arethusa (Mygdonia)) in Greek Macedonia, but others claim it was named after a village in Sicily with the same name. Byzantine historian Stephanos and French historian agree that Arethusa was named after the Arethusa of Greek Macedonia while Michael Avi-Yonah claims it was named after Arethuse in Sicily. Cohen, 2006, p. 102. Arethusa had originally been a native Syriac town called Arastan, mentioned in the Christian First Council of Nicaea in 325, whose name was Hellenized (Hellenization) as "Arethusa" by Seleucus. To a lesser extent, "Arastan" continued to be used, particularly by the indigenous inhabitants, alongside "Arethusa". Cohen, 2006, p. 202. It served as the first capital of the Emesani kingdom (Royal family of Emesa) in central Syria, Butcher, p. 91. a vassal of the Roman Empire, in the mid-1st-century BCE. Levick, p. 12. Roman historian Strabo stated that it was well governed under the ''phylarch'' Sampsiceramus I from 64 to 63, Levick, p. 8. when the Roman general Pompey captured it. Burton, p. 64. Emesani control was restored by 46 BCE when it was ruled by Iamblichus I. During the Roman civil war (Final War of the Roman Republic) that followed the death of Julius Caesar, the city's inhabitants sided with Mark Antony against Octavian. Nonetheless, Arethusa became an independent city-state following Octavian's victory in the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, but returned to Emesani control eleven years later. Thereafter, its status declined with the rise of nearby Emesa (modern-day Homs) as a religious and political center. Butcher, p. 92. Christian era Arethusa was a Christian bishopric by the beginning of the 4th century. The First Council of Nicaea in 325 counted among its participants a Bishop Eustathius of Arethusa. Michel Lequien, ''Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus'', Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 915-916 Pius Bonifacius Gams, ''Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae'', Leipzig 1931, p. 436 In the time of Roman Emperor Constantius II (337-361), Bishop Marcus (Mark) of Arethusa was authorized to replace a pagan temple in the city with a Christian church. Under Julian the Apostate (361–363), he was ordered to rebuild the temple. To avoid doing so he fled from the city, but returned to save the Christian people from paying the penalty in his stead, and in 362 underwent very cruel treatment at the hands of the pagan mob, as recounted by Theodoret and (Sozomen. Their accounts are given in both the original texts and in English translation in John Brown, ''The Law of Christ Respecting Civil Obedience'' (London, 1839), pp. 351–356 He is said to have been the author of the Creed of Sirmium (351) and was counted by Tillemont as an Arian (Arianism). Research by the Bollandists restored his reputation for orthodoxy. The Roman Martyrology commemorates him on 29 March, with the description: "Saint Mark, Bishop of Arethusa in Syria, who in the time of the Arian controversy held firm to the orthodox faith and was severely maltreated under Julian the Apostate. Saint Gregory of Nazianzus lauds him as an outstanding and saintly old man." ''Martyrologium Romanum'' (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001, ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 198 The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates him on 20 March. By a subdivision of the Roman province of Coele-Syria after c. 415, Arethusa became part of the new province of Syria Secunda (Syria (Roman province)) or Syria Salutaris, with capital at Apamea on the Orontes (Apamea, Syria) (modern-day Qalaat al-Madiq). Moosa, 2005, p. 7. The episcopal see of Arethusa thus became a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Apamea rather than of Antioch. Other bishops of Arethusa whose names are known are: a second Mark, who took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 451; Eusebius, one of the signatories of the letter that the bishops of Syria Secunda wrote to Emperor Leo I the Thracian after the killing of Patriarch Proterius of Alexandria; Severianus at the start of the 6th century; and Abraamius, who ordained the priest Constantinus of Apamea, accused of Monothelism at the Third Council of Constantinople (680–681). Lebanese (Lebanon) sources such as Giuseppe Simone Assemani and Bishop Yusef al-Dibs claim that Maron, the patron saint of the Maronite Church, who died in 410, was buried in Arethusa. Moosa, 2005, p. 23. Most Maronite sources also believe the Monastery of Maron was located in the city as well. Moosa, 2005, p. 27. In the Crusades period, Arethusa (which was called Artasia) was for a short time a Latin Rite see, of which two bishops are known, mentioned respectively in 1100 and 1135. Konrad Eubel, ''Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi'', vol. 3, p. 116; vol. 5, p. 97; vol. 6, p. 98 Since Arethusa is no longer a residential bishopric, it is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see for the both the Latin Church and the Syriac Catholic Church. ''Annuario Pontificio 2013'' (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838 Islamic era According to early Muslim geographers, Istakhri and Abu'l Fida, quoted by le Strange, 1890, pp. 519–520. al-Rastan, despite its strong fortifications and large garrison was swiftly captured then destroyed by Abu Ubaida's forces during the Muslim conquest of Syria in 634, while Umar ibn al-Khattab (Umar) was caliph. In early 945 the Aleppo-based Hamdanids under the leadership of Sayf al-Dawla decisively defeated the Ikhshidid (Ikhshidid dynasty) army led by Abu al-Misk Kafur at al-Rastan from which they proceeded to conquer Damascus. Houtsma, p. 676. According to one account, about 4,000 Ikshidid soldiers were taken captive in addition to hundreds killed in action or drowned in the Orontes River. Breasted, p. 84. In 1115 while Artukid ruler Ilghazi was resting at al-Rastan on his way north to Diyarbakir, Khir Khan ibn Qaraja, the Seljuk ruler of Homs, attacked his camp and briefly had him imprisoned. Richards, p. 167. Houtsma, p. 466. Following Saladin's arrival at al-Rastan in February 1175, the Crusaders under Raymond of Tripoli withdrew from their siege of Homs which was then captured by Saladin, bringing most of Syria under Ayyubid (Ayyubid dynasty) rule. Ibn al-Athir, p. 34. In 1226, during Ayyubid rule, Syrian geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi visited al-Rastan and wrote that it was "a small and ancient town ... It is now a ruin, but the remains still show what was its former splendor." The Mamluk (Bahri dynasty)s gained control over Syria in the 1260s, and organized the region (Bilad al-Sham) into kingdoms subordinate to the sultanate in Cairo (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)). Al-Rastan became the southernmost town of Mamlakat Hama ("Kingdom of Hama") near the border with Mamlakat Hims. Ziadeh, 1953, p. 14. In a major battle (Second Battle of Homs) at a place between the town and Homs, the Mamluks under Qalawun decisively defeated the invading Mongol army (Mongol military tactics and organization) of the Ilkhanate in 1281. Amitai-Preiss, 2005, p. 195. Later, in the early 14th century, Abu'l Fida noted that in al-Rastan, "Each of the houses is so large as to be almost like a village, with ruins everywhere round of buildings and walls." He further noted that a few arches, gates, parts of the city wall and its water channel were still present. le Strange, 1890, p. 520. In the late 16th-century or early 17th-century, during Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule, the caravanserai Khan al-Rastan was built just outside the town. Grube, 1978, p. 103. Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi, the 17th-century Sufi sheikh, visited the false tomb of Persian Sufi mystic Abu Yazid al-Bistami (Bayazid Bastami) at al-Rastan (the actual one is in Bistam (Bastam)) in 1678, writing "over his grave there is splendor and awe, asserting his presence there." Sirriyeh, p. 128. Khan al-Rastan was visited in 1745 by Edward Pococke who described as it as a "huge fortified caravanserai" that was decaying rapidly. Modern era At the beginning of the 19th-century, al-Rastan was an impoverished village whose population engaged primarily in husbandry. It occupied the northernmost part of Arethusa's ruins. Walpole, p. 180. Like Homs during this period, its houses were built of black trapp. Bey, p. 290. They were described as small, ramshackle dwellings with mud roofs supported by wooden beams. A few buildings dating from the Mamluk era contained arches with the ''ablaq'' architectural style. During the Franco–Syrian War, al-Rastan served as one of the bases for Salih al-Ali and his local allies and was shelled by French forces in early 1920. Moosa, 1987, p. 282. Two Sunni Muslim agricultural clans, the Firzat and the Hamdan, dominated al-Rastan in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The former claimed descent from the Banu 'Abs tribe that arrived in Syria as part of Khalid ibn al-Walid's army in the mid-7th-century. A member, Sheikh Abd al-Qader, served as al-Rastan's ''mukhtar'' in the late Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) and French Mandate (French Mandate of Syria) periods. Batatu, p. 152. Abd al-Qader was the father of Mustafa Tlass who would become Defense Minister under Hafez al-Assad in 1972. The Hamdan had greater influence in the city and politically identified itself with the Nasserist (Nasserism) trend which gained mass appeal in the Arab world in the 1950s–60s. On 23 March 1961, the Bulgarian Techno-Impex company completed the Rastan Dam while Syria was part of the United Arab Republic with Egypt. The dam is currently the third largest in the country. Oron, p. 511. Ongoing Syrian civil war birth_place Al-Rastan , Homs, French Mandate of Syria death_date DATE OF BIRTH 1932 PLACE OF BIRTH Al-Rastan, Homs, French Mandate of Syria DATE OF DEATH


Addis Ababa

in the capital city Addis Ababa. The two major opposition parties, the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD) and the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF) claimed on that same day that they had won 185 of the approximately 200 seats for which the National Election Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) had released preliminary results. That was a significant improvement over the 12 seats the opposition had in the previous parliament. - Addis Ababa Commons:category:Addis Ababa Wikipedia:Addis Ababa


East Pakistan

for the elections of 1965 were announced before commencement of the Basic Democracy elections, which was to constitute the Electoral College for the Presidential and Assembly elections. There were two major parties contesting the election. The Convention Muslim League and the Combined Opposition Parties. The Combined Opposition Parties consisted of five major opposition parties. It had a nine-point program, which included restoration of direct elections, adult franchise and democratization of the 1962 Constitution. The opposition parties of Combined Opposition Parties were not united and did not possess any unity of thought and action. They were unable to select presidential candidates from amongst themselves; therefore they selected Fatima Jinnah as their candidate. The M.I. reported that the Martial Law (Martial law) was promulgated in entire country, both East-Pakistan (East Pakistan) and West-Pakistan (West Pakistan), and country's all agencies fell under the direct control of the President and Chief Martial Law Administrator, and the three intelligence agencies began competing to demonstrate their loyalty to Ayub Khan and his military government. The group emerged out of the pro-China trend of the communist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan. In 1967 Siraj Sikder had formed the Mao Tse Tung Thought Research Centre in Dhaka. The Centre was physically attacked by Jamaat-e-Islami cadres at several times. On January 8, 1968 the group formed the ''Purba Banglar Sramik Andalon'' ('Workers Movement of East Bengal'). The founding conference lasted, which was completed in a single day, was held in the residence of a jute mill worker in Dhaka. The conference was attended by 45-50 followers of the Centre. Amin, Md. Nurul. ''Maoism in Bangladesh: The Case of the East Bengal Sarbohara Party'' in Asian Survey, Vol. 26, No. 7. (Jul., 1986), pp. 759-773. * Whenever I had an opportunity to address the people in different parts of our province, I told them clearly that indeed, I was of the opinion that India should not be divided because today in India we have witnessed the result. Thousands and thousands of young and old, children, men, and women were massacred and ruined. But now that the division is an accomplished fact, the dispute is over. " I delivered many speeches against the division of India, but the question is: has anybody listened to me? You may hold any opinion about me, but I am not a man of destruction but of construction. If you study my life, you will find that I devoted it to the welfare of our country. We have proclaimed that if the Government of Pakistan would work for our people and our country the Khudai Khidmatgars would be with them. I repeat that I am not for the destruction of Pakistan. In destruction lies no good. "Neither Hindus nor Muslims, nor the Frontier (w:North-West Frontier Province), not Punjab (w:Punjab (Pakistan)), Bengal (w:East Pakistan) or Sindh (w:Sindh) stands to gain from it. There is advantage only in construction. I want to tell you categorically I will not support anybody in destruction. If any constructive programme is before you, if you want to do something constructive for our people, not in theory, but in practice, I declare before this House that I and my people are at your service... (February 1948) **Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp -188 ? 190


Turkmenistan

, there is even a creation myth surrounding him. Soucek, Svat. 2000. ''A History of Inner Asia.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. During Niyazov's rule there was no freedom of the press nor was there freedom of speech. This further meant that opposition to Niyazov was strictly forbidden and "major opposition figures have been imprisoned, institutionalized, deported, or have fled the country, and their family members


Gestapo

leaders their punishment was death. See: Williamson (2002). ''The Third Reich'', pp. 118-119. The first five months of 1943 witnessed thousands of arrests and executions as the Gestapo exercised their powers over the German public. Student opposition leaders were executed in late February, and a major opposition organization, the Oster Circle (Hans Oster), was destroyed in April 1943. Delarue (2008). ''The Gestapo: A History of Horror'', p. 318. As noble as the efforts to resist the Nazi regime may have been, they amounted to very little and had only minor chances of success, particularly since the broad percentage of the German people did not support oppositional movements. Johnson (1999). ''Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans'', p. 306. General opposition and military conspiracy Between 1934 and 1938, opponents of the Nazi regime and their fellow travelers began to emerge. Among the first to speak out were religious dissenters but following in their wake were educators, aristocratic businessmen, office workers, teachers, and others from nearly every walk of life. Hoffmann (1977). ''The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945'', p. 28. Most people quickly learned that open opposition was dangerous since Gestapo informants and agents were widespread. Yet a significant number of them still worked against the National Socialist government. Hoffmann (1977). ''The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945'', pp. 29-30. During May 1935, the Gestapo broke up and arrested members of the "Markwitz Circle," a group of former socialists in contact with Otto Strasser, who sought Hitler's downfall. Hoffmann (1977). ''The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945'', p. 30. From the mid-1930s into the early 1940s – various groups made up of communists, idealists, working-class people, and even far-right conservative opposition organizations covertly fought against Hitler’s government, and several of them fomented plots that included Hitler’s assassination. Nearly all of them, including: the Römer Group, Robby Group, Solf Circle, ''Schwarze Reichswehr'', the Party of the Radical Middle Class, ''Jungdeutscher Orden'', ''Schwarze Front'' and ''Stahlhelm'' were either discovered or infiltrated by the Gestapo. This led to corresponding arrests, being sent to concentration camps and execution. Hoffmann (1977). ''The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945'', pp. 30-32. One of the methods employed by the Gestapo to contend with these resistance factions was ‘protective detention’ which facilitated the process in expediting dissenters to concentration camps and against which there was no legal defense. Dams & Stolle (2014). ''The Gestapo: Power and Terror in the Third Reich'', p. 58. Early efforts to resist the Nazis with aid from abroad were hindered when the opposition's peace feelers to the Western Allies did not meet with success. This was partly because of the Venlo incident of 1939. Hoffmann (1977). ''The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945'', p. 121. There SD and Gestapo agents, posing as anti-Nazis in the Netherlands, kidnapped two British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) officers after having lured them to a meeting to discuss peace terms. This prompted Winston Churchill to ban any further contact with the German opposition. Reitlinger (1989). ''The SS: Alibi of a Nation, 1922-1945'', p. 144. Later, the British and Americans did not want to deal with anti-Nazis because they were fearful that the Soviet Union would believe they were attempting to make deals behind their back. More than that, the Anglo-American common language and capital interests kept Stalin at a distance since he felt the other Allied powers were hoping the fascists and Communists would destroy one another. See: Overy, Richard (1997). ''Why the Allies Won'', pp. 245-281. The German opposition was in an unenviable position by the late spring and early summer of 1943. On one hand, it was next to impossible for them to overthrow Hitler and the party; on the other, the Allied demand for an unconditional surrender meant no opportunity for a compromise peace, which left the military and conservative aristocrats who opposed the regime no option (in their eyes) other than continuing the military struggle. Hildebrand (1986).'' The Third Reich'', pp. 86-87. Despite fear of the Gestapo after mass arrests and executions in the spring, the opposition still plotted and planned. One of the more famous opposition schemes, Operation Valkyrie, involved a number of senior German officers and was carried out by Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. In an attempt to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath a conference table inside the Wolf's Lair field headquarters. Benz (2007). ''A Concise History of the Third Reich'', pp. 245-249. Known as the 20 July plot, this assassination attempt failed and Hitler was only slightly injured. Reports indicate that the Gestapo was caught unaware of this plot as they did not have sufficient protections in place at the appropriate locations nor did they take any preventative steps. Reitlinger (1989). ''The SS: Alibi of a Nation, 1922-1945'', p. 323. Höhne (2001). ''The Order of the Death’s Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS'', p. 532. Stauffenberg and his group were shot on 20 July 1944; meanwhile, his fellow conspirators were rounded up by the Gestapo and sent to a concentration camp. Thereafter, there was a show trial overseen by Roland Freisler, followed by their execution. Höhne (2001). ''The Order of the Death’s Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS'', p. 537. Some Germans were convinced that it was their duty to apply all possible expedients to end the war as quickly as possible. Sabotage efforts were undertaken by members of the ''Abwehr'' (military intelligence) leadership, as they recruited people known to oppose the Nazi regime. Spielvogel (1992). ''Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History'', p. 256. The Gestapo cracked down ruthlessly on dissidents in Germany, just as they did everywhere else. Opposition became more difficult. Arrests, torture, and executions were common. Terror against "state enemies" had become a way of life to such a degree that the Gestapo’s presence and methods were eventually normalized in the minds of people living in Nazi Germany. Peukert (1989). ''Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life'', pp. 198-199. Organization thumb 300px Gestapo headquarters at 8 Prinz Albrecht Street (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R97512, Berlin, Geheimes Staatspolizeihauptamt.jpg) in Berlin (1933) 200px thumb Heinrich "Gestapo" Müller (Image:Müller, Heinrich.jpg) 200px thumb Obergruppenführer (Image:ErnstKaltenbrunner-12.jpg) und General (General (Germany)) der Polizei und Waffen-SS Dr. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Chief of the RSHA and President of Interpol On January 1933, Hermann Göring, Hitler's minister without portfolio, was appointed the head of the Prussian Police and began filling the political and intelligence units of the Prussian Secret Police with Nazi Party members. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).


Uruguay


Angola

UNITA gave up its armed wing and assumed the role of major opposition party, although in the knowledge


Hamburg

of Westminster Abbey. Neal was confronted with major opposition in Westminster, being denied twice. It took a letter from Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Dean of Westminster, before he gained permission to paint, with which he was able to come and go as he pleased through the dean's private doors. "The Modern School of Art" Volume IX, Edited by Wilfrid Meynell After all, it was his father-in-law that had done a lot of the glass


Venezuela

of the major opposition candidate, conservative Luis Alberto Lacalle. During the campaign, Mujica distanced himself from the governing style of presidents like Hugo Chávez (Venezuela) or Evo Morales (Bolivia), claiming the center-left governments of Brazilian Luis Inácio Lula da Silva or Chilean socialist Michelle Bachelet as regional examples upon which he would model his administration. Known for his informal style of dress, Mujica donned a suit (without a tie) for some


Afghanistan

Commons:Category:Afghanistan WikiPedia:Afghanistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Afghanistan


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