; the pronunciation is often heard from non-locals) is the capital of the district of Friesland (Friesland_(district)) in Lower Saxony, Germany. The name Jever is usually associated with a major brand of beer which is produced here, the city is also a popular holiday resort. Jever was granted city status in 1536. Unofficially Jever is sometimes referred to as Marienstadt (Maria city) in reference to Maria of Jever, the last independent ruler of the city
''. * Robert Wood (Robert Wood (engraver)) publishes ''The ruins of Palmyra; otherwise Tedmor in the desart'' in English (English language) and French (French language), making the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra known to the West. * The Cramer family starts a brewing operation including the current major brand Warsteiner. Persia * King Ardashir I, ruler of the Persia (Achaemenid Empire), invades the Roman province of Mesopotamia (Roman province) Mesopotamia
OEM television and video manufacturers that mostly supply to major-brand OEM customers today, Orion produces six million televisions and twelve million DVD players and TV combo units each year. Most products are usually manufactured in the factories of Thailand. right (Image:OrionElectric logo.png) is a Japanese consumer electronics company, and it was established in 1958 at Osaka
, Japan. It is based in the city of Echizen (Echizen, Fukui), Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Original products manufactured were transistor radios, radio cassette recorders, car stereos, and music centers. One of the world's largest OEM television and video manufacturers that mostly supply to major-brand OEM customers today, Orion produces six million televisions and twelve million DVD players and TV combo units each year. Most products are usually manufactured in the factories of Thailand
founded in Italy. :Milan is Italy's fashion and design capital. In the city one can find virtually every major brand in the world, not only Italian, but also French, English, American, Swedish and Spanish. Your main place for the creme de la creme shopping is the Via Montenapoleone, but the Via della Spiga, Via Manzoni, Via Sant' Andrea and the Corso Vittorio Emanuele are equally luxurious, if not slightly less prominent, high-class shopping streets. The Corso Buenos Aires is the place to go for mass-scale or outlet shopping. And, the beautiful Galleria Vittorio Emanuele in the centre and Via Dante boast some designer boutiques, too. Virtually every street in central Milan does boast at least some clothing stores of some kind. :However, Rome and Florence, are too, serious fashion centres, and boast being the birthplace of some of the oldest fashion and jewelry houses in Italy. When in Rome, the chic and beautiful Via dei Condotti, leading to the Spanish Steps, will be your primary point of shopping reference, with boutiques but subsidiary streets such as Via dei Babuino, Via Borgognona, Via Frattina, Via del Corso and the Piazza di Spagna. In Florence, Via de' Tornabuoni is the main high-fashion shopping street, and there you'll find loads of designer brands. However, in both cities, you'll be able to find a plethora of chic boutiques, designer or not, scattered around the centre. * '''Jewelry and accessory''' shops can be found in abundance in Italy. There are loads of jewelry and accessory stores which hail from Italy. Vicenza and Valenza are considered the country's jewelry capitals, which are also famous for their silverware and goldware shops. All over Italy, notably Vicenza, Milan, Valenza, Rome, Naples, Florence and Venice, but also several other cities, you can find hundreds of different jewelry or silverware boutiques. Apart from the famous ones, there are some great quirky and funky jewelry stores scattered around the country. * '''Design and furniture''' is something Italy is proudly and justifiably famous for. Excellent quality furniture stores can be found all over, but the real place to buy the best deals is Milan. Milan contains among the top design rooms and emporia in the world. For the newest design inventions, attend the Fiera di Milano in Rho, where the latest appliances are exhibited. Many Italian cities have great antique furniture stores. So, you can choose between cutting-edge, avant-garde furniture, or old world antiques to buy in this country, which are, by average, of good quality. * '''Glassware''' is something which Venice makes uniquely but which is spread around the whole of the country. In Venice is famously the capital of Murano (not the island), or glassware made in different colours. Here, you can get stunning goblets, crystal chandeliers, candlesticks and decorations made in stunning, multi-coloured blown glass, which can be designed in modern, funky arrangements, or the classical old style. * '''Books''' can be found in bookshops in every small, medium sized or big city. The main book and publishing companies stores in Italy include Mondadori, Hoepli or Rizzoli. Most big bookstores are found in Milan, Turin and nearby Monza, which are the capitals of Italy's publishing trade (Turin was made World Book Capital in 2006), however cities such as Rome and more boast loads of book shops. 99% of the books sold are in Italian. * '''Art''' shops can be found all over in Italy, notably the most artistic cities of Florence, Rome and Venice. In Florence, the best place to go for buying art is the Oltrarno, where there are numerous ateliers selling replicas of famous paintings or similar things. Usually, depending in what city you're in, you get replicas of notable works of art found there, but also, you can find rare art shops, sculpture shops, or funky, modern old stores in several cities. How to buy In a small or medium sized shop, it's standard to greet the staff as you enter, not when you approach the counter to pay. A friendly 'Buongiorno' or 'Buonasera' warms the atmosphere. When paying, the staff usually expect you to put coins down on the surface or dish provided, rather than placing money directly into their hands (old money-handling etiquette to avoid messy coin droppings), and they will do the same when giving you your change ('il resto'). This is normal practice and is not intended to be rude. Haggling is very rare and only ever takes place when dealing with hawkers. They will generally ask for an initial price that is much higher than what they are willing to sell for, and going for the asking price is a sure way to get ripped off. Be advised that oftentimes hawkers sell counterfeit merchandise (in some cases, very believable counterfeits), and that hoping to buy a Gucci purse for 30€ off the street might not be in your best interest. In all other situations, haggling will get you nowhere. Always be careful about counterfeit merchandise: Italian laws can apply fines up to 3000€ to people who buy it (this mostly applies to luxury brand clothing or accessories). Eat thumb 300px right A traditional Italian meal, with beef with sauce and dark red wine. (File:RedMeatWine.jpg) Cuisine Italian food inside of Italy is different than what they call "Italian food" in America. It is truly one of the most diverse in the world, and in any region, or even city and village you go, there are different specialities. For instance, it could be only misleading to say that Northern Italian cuisine is based on hearty, potato and rice-rich meals, Central Italian cuisine is mainly on pastas, roasts and meat, and Southern Italian cuisine on vegetables, pizza, pasta and seafood: there are so many cross-influences that you'd only get confused trying to categorize. And in any case, Italian cuisine, contrary to popular belief, is not just based on pasta and tomato sauce - that's only a tiny snippet of the nation's food; rice, potatoes, lentils, soups and similar meals are very common in some parts of the country. Italian food is based upon so many ingredients and Italians often have very discriminating tastes that may seem strange to Americans and other visitors. For instance, a '''sandwich''' stand might sell 4 different types of ham sandwiches that in each case contain ham, mayonnaise, and cheese. The only thing that may be different between the sandwiches is the type of ham or cheese used in them. Rustichella and panzerotti are two examples of sandwiches well-liked by Italians and tourists alike. Also, Italian sandwiches are quite different from the traditional Italian-American “hero”, “submarine”, or “hoagie” sandwich (which by the way mean nothing to any Italian). Rather than large sandwiches with a piling of meat, vegetables, and cheese, sandwiches in Italy are often quite small, very flat (made even more so when they are quickly heated and pressed on a panini grill), and contain a few simple ingredients with rarely, if ever, lettuce or mayonnaise. The term '''panini''' may be somewhat confusing to travellers from Northern Europe where it has erroneously come to mean a flat, heated sandwich on a grill. In Italy the term is equivalent to "bread rolls" (plural - the singular is '''panino''') which can be simple rolls or sometimes with basic filling. However instead of a sandwich why not try a '''piadina''', which is a flat folded bread with filling, served warm and typical of the coast of Emilia-Romagna? Americans will notice that Italian pasta is usually available with a myriad of sauces rather than simply tomato and Alfredo Also, Italian pasta is often served with much less sauce than in America. This is, in part, because pasta in a restaurant is usually regarded as the first course of a three- or four-course meal, not a meal in itself. '''Structure of a traditional meal:''' Usually Italian meals for working days are: small breakfast, one-dish lunch, one-dish dinner. Coffee is welcomed at nearly every hour, especially around 10:00 and at the end of a meal. At the weekends and in restaurants (for other occasions), a meal typically consists of: ''antipasto'' (appetizers: marinated vegetables, mixed coldcuts, seafood, etc.), ''primo'' (pasta or rice dish), ''secondo'' (meat or fish course) often with a side dish known as ''contorno'', and ''dolce'' (dessert). Like the language and culture, food in Italy '''differs region by region'''. Local ingredients are also very important. In warm Naples, citrus and other fresh fruit play a prominent role in both food and liquor, while in Venice fish is obviously an important traditional ingredient. A note about '''breakfast''' in Italy: This is very light, often just a cappuccino or coffee with a pastry (''cappuccino e brioche'') or a piece of bread and fruit jam. Unless you know for certain otherwise, you should not expect a large breakfast. It is not customary in Italy to eat eggs and bacon or that sort of foods at breakfast - just the thought of it is revolting to most Italians. In fact, no salty foods are consumed at breakfast, generally speaking. Additionally, cappuccino is a breakfast drink; ordering one after lunch or dinner is considered somewhat strange and considered a typical "tourist thing". A small '''espresso''' coffee is considered much more appropriate for digestion. Another enjoyable Italian breakfast item is '''cornetto''' (pl. cornetti): a croissant or light pastry often filled with jam, cream or chocolate. '''Lunch''' is seen as the most important part of the day, so much that Italians have one hour reserved for eating (and in the past, another hour was reserved for napping). All shops close down and resume after the two hour break period. To compensate for this, businesses stay open later than in most other European towns, often until 8 pm. Good luck trying to find a place open during the so-called "pausa pranzo" (lunch break), when visiting a small town, but this is not the case in the city centers of the biggest cities or in shopping malls. '''Dinner''' (i.e. the evening meal) is generally taken late. In the summer, if you are in a restaurant before 8pm you are likely to be eating on your own, and it is quite normal to see families with young children still dining after 10pm. In Italy cuisine is considered a ''kind of art''. Great chefs such as Gualtiero Marchesi and Gianfranco Vissani are seen as half-way between TV stars and magicians. Italians are extremely proud of their culinary tradition and generally love food and talking about it. However, they are not so fond of common preconceptions, such as that Italian food is only pizza and spaghetti. They also have a distaste for "bastardized" versions of their dishes that are popular elsewhere, and many Italians have a hard time believing that the average foreigner can't get even a basic pasta dish "right". A note about service: do not expect the kind of dedicated, focused service you will find in American restaurants. In Italy this is considered somewhat annoying and people generally prefer to be left alone when consuming their meal. You should expect the waiter to come and check on you after your first course, maybe to order something as second course. You should consider that Italy's most famous dishes like pizza or spaghetti are quite lame for some Italians, and eating in different areas can be an interesting opportunity to taste some less well known local specialties. Even for something as simple as pizza there are significant regional variations. That of Naples has a relatively thick, soft crust while that of Rome is considerably thinner and crustier. (Both styles are thin-crust compared to, for example, American styles of pizza, however.) When dining out with Italians read the menu and remember that almost every restaurant has a typical dish and some towns have centuries-old traditions that you are invited to learn. People will be most happy when you ask for local specialties and will gladly advise you. In Northern Italy at around 17:00 most bars will prepare for an '''aperitivo''' especially in cosmopolitan Milan, with a series of plates of nibbles, cheese, olives, meat, bruschetta and much more... This is NOT considered a meal and should you indulge yourself in eating as if it was dinner, you would most likely not be very much appreciated. All this food is typically free to anyone who purchases a drink but it is intended to be a premeal snack. Specialties Almost every city and region has its own specialties, a brief list of which may include: *'''Risotto''' – Carnaroli or Arborio or Vialone Nano (etc.) rice that has been sautéed and cooked in a shallow pan with stock. The result is a very creamy and hearty dish. Meat, poultry, seafood, vegetables, and cheeses are almost always added depending on the recipe and the locale. Many restaurants, families, towns, and regions will have a signature risotto or at least style of risotto, in addition or in place of a signature pasta dish (risotto alla Milanese is a famous Italian classic). Risotto is a typical dish in Lombardy and Piedmont. *'''Arancini''' – Balls of rice with tomato sauce, eggs, peas and mozzarella cheese that are deep fried. They are a specialty from Sicily, though are now quite common all over. *'''Polenta''' – Yellow corn meal (yellow grits) that has been cooked with stock. It is normally served either creamy, or allowed to set up and then cut into shapes and fried or roasted. It is a very common dish in northern mountain restaurants, usually eaten with deer or boar meat. In the Veneto region the best polenta is "polenta bianca", a special, tasty, and white cornmeal called "biancoperla". *'''Gelato''' – This is the Italian word for ice cream. The non-fruit flavors are usually made only with milk. Gelato made with water and without dairy ingredients is also known as sorbetto. It's fresh as a sorbet, but tastier. There are many flavors, including coffee, chocolate, fruit, and tiramisù. When buying at a gelateria, you have the choice of having it served in a wafer cone or a tub; in northern Italy you'll pay for every single flavour "ball", and the panna (the milk cream) counts as a flavour; in Rome you can buy a small wafer cone (around 1,80€) a medium one (2,50 €) or a large one (3,00€) without limit of flavours, and the panna is free. *'''Tiramisù''' – Italian cake made with coffee, mascarpone, and ladyfingers (sometimes rum) with cocoa powder on the top. The name means "pick-me-up". class "galleryTable noFloat" - File:Tagliatelle Scampi.JPG thumb 220px Tagliatelle agli Scampi thumb 220px Risotto al persico (File:Risotto al persico .JPG) thumb 220px Polenta con carne (File:Polenta con carne.JPG) Pizza thumb 250px Pizza Rucola (File:Pizza Rucola.JPG) Pizza is a quick and convenient meal. In most cities there are pizza shops that sell by the gram. Look for a sign '''Pizza al taglio'''. When ordering, simply point to the display or tell the attendant the type of pizza you would like (e.g. pizza margherita, pizza con patate (roasted or french fries), pizza al prosciutto (ham), etc.) and how much ("Vorrei (due fette - two slices) or (due etti - two-tenths of a kilogram) or simply say "di più - more" or "di meno - less, per favore"). They will slice it, warm it in the oven, fold it in half, and wrap it in paper. Other food shops also sell pizza by the slice. Italians consider those a sort of second class pizza, chosen only when you cannot eat a "real" pizza in a specialized restaurant (Pizzeria). Getting your meal on the run can save money—many sandwich shops charge an additional fee if you want to sit to eat your meal. Remember that in many parts of the country pizzas have a thinner base of bread and less cheese than those found outside Italy. The most authentic, original pizzas is found in Naples - often containing quite a few ingredients. The traditional, round pizza is found in many restaurants and specialized pizza restaurants (pizzerie). It is rare to find a restaurant that serves pizza at lunchtime, however. Take-away pizzerias (pizzerie da asporto) are becoming ubiquitous in many cities and towns. These are often run by north African immigrants and quality may vary, though they are almost always cheaper than restaurants (€4-5 for a margherita on average, though sometimes as low as €3) and are also open at lunchtime (a few are also open all day long). Some will also serve kebab, which may also vary in quality. Though take-away pizzas are also considered "second-class pizza" by most Italians, they are quite popular among the vast population of university students and they are usually located in residential areas. This is not to be confused with the ever so popular "Pizza al Taglio" shops in Rome. These are a sort of traditional fast food in the Capital City and can be found at every corner. Quality is usually very good and pizza is sold by the weight; you choose the piece of pizza you want, then they put it on the scale and tell you the price. thumb 180px Cheese - Formaggi misti (File:Rifugio Alpino Boffalora (4).JPG) Cheese and sausages In Italy you can find nearly 800 kinds of cheese, including the famous Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano, and over 400 types of sausages. If you want a real kick, then try to find one of the huge open markets, which are always open on Saturdays and usually during other days, except Sunday, as well. You will find all types of cheese and meat on display Restaurants and bars thumb right 180px the menu (File:Rifugio Alpino Boffalora (5).JPG) Italian bars in the center of major cities charge more (typically double whatever the final bill is) if you drink or eat seated at a table outside rather than standing at the bar or taking your order to go. This is because bars are charged a very high tax to place tables and chairs outside, so since most people do not use tables anyway, they had decided long ago to only charge those who do. The further away you are from the center streets, the less this rule is applied. When calling into a bar for a coffee or other drink you first go to the cash register and pay for what you want. You then give the receipt to the barman, who will serve you. Restaurants always used to charge a small ''coperto'' (cover charge). Some years ago attempts were made to outlaw the practice, with limited success. The rule now seems to be that if you have bread a coperto can be charged but if you specifically say that you don't want bread then no coperto can be levied. This has happened mainly because of backpackers who sat at a table, occupied it for an hour by just ordering a drink or a salad and consuming enormous amounts of bread. Some restaurants now levy a service charge, but this is far from common. In Italian restaurants a large tip is never expected. The customary 15% of the United States may cause an Italian waiter to drop dead with a heart attack. Just leave a Euro or two and they will be more than happy. The traditional meal can include (in order) ''antipasto'' (starter of cold seafood, gratinated vegetables or ham and salami), ''primo'' (first dish - pasta or rice dishes), ''secondo'' (second dish - meat or fish dishes), served together with ''contorno'' (mostly vegetables), cheeses fruit, ''dessert'', coffee, and spirits. Upmarket restaurants usually refuse to make changes to proposed dishes (exceptions warmly granted for babies or people on special diets). Mid-range restaurants are usually more accommodating. For example, a simple pasta with tomato sauce may not be on the menu but a restaurant will nearly always be willing to cook one for kids who turn their noses up at everything else on the menu. If you are in a large group (say four or more) then it is appreciated if you don't all order a totally different pasta. While the sauces are pre-cooked the pasta is cooked fresh and it is difficult for the restaurant if one person wants '''spaghetti''', another '''fettuccine''', a third '''rigatoni''', a fourth '''penne''' and a fifth '''farfalle''' (butterfly shaped pasta). If you attempt such an order you will invariably be told that you will have a long wait (because the time required for cooking isn't the same for all the types of pasta)! When pizza is ordered, it is served as a ''primo'' (even if formally it is not considered as such), together with other ''primi''. If you order a pasta or pizza and your friend has a steak you will get your pasta dish, and probably when you've finished eating the steak will arrive. If you want ''primo'' and ''secondo'' dishes to be brought at the same time you have to ask. Restaurants which propose '''diet food''', very few, usually write it clearly in menus and even outside; others usually don't have any dietetic resources. To avoid cover charges, and if you are on a strict budget,almost all the railway stations of Italy have a buffet or self-service restaurant ( Termini station in Rome is a great example of the latter). These are always reasonably priced, and generally the food is of a high quality. Gastronomia A Gastronomia is a kind of self-service restaurant (normally you tell the staff what you want rather than serving yourself) that also offers take-aways. This can give a good opportunity to sample traditional Italian dishes at fairly low cost. Note that these are not buffet restaurants. You pay according to what you order. Drink Bars, like restaurants, are non-smoking. Italians enjoy going out during the evenings, so it's common to have a drink in a bar before dinner. It is called '''Aperitivo'''. Within the last couple years, started by Milan, a lot of bars have started offering fixed-price cocktails at aperitivo hours (18 - 21) with a free, and often a very good, buffet meal. It's now widely considered stylish to have this kind of aperitivo (called '''Happy Hour''') instead of a structured meal before going out to dance or whatever. Water While safe to drink, the tap water (''acqua del rubinetto'') in some peninsular parts of Italy can be cloudy with a slight off taste. Most Italians prefer bottled water, which is served in restaurants. Make sure you let the waiter waitress know you want still water (''acqua naturale'' or ''acqua senza gas'') or else you could get water with either natural gas or with added carbonation (''frizzante'' or ''con gas''). Rome, in particular, has exceptional pride in the quality of its water. This goes right back to the building of aqueducts channeling pure mountain water to all the citizens of Rome during Roman times. Don't waste plastic bottles. You can refill your drinking containers and bottles at any of the constant running taps and fountains dotted around the city, safe in the knowledge that you are getting excellent quality cool spring water - try it! Wine Italian wine is exported all over the world, and names like Barolo, Brunello and Chianti are known everywhere. In Italy wine is a substantial topic, a sort of test which can ensure either respect or lack of attention from an entire restaurant staff. Doing your homework ensures that you will get better service, better wine and in the end may even pay less.
as the '''Socony-Vacuum Oil Company,''' was a major American (United States) oil (Petroleum) company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form '''ExxonMobil.''' Today Mobil continues as a major brand name within the combined company, as well as still being a gas station sometimes paired with their own store or On the Run (On the Run (convenience store)). Its former headquarters in Fairfax County, Virginia, are currently used as ExxonMobil's downstream headquarters.
Supermarket journal Journal of Marketing Research date Nov 1967 volume 4 issue 4 pages 356–361 author Bucklin, Louis P. *In the United States, major-brand supermarkets often demand slotting fees from suppliers in exchange for premium shelf space and or better positioning (such as at eye-level, on the checkout aisle or at a shelf's "end cap"). This extra supplier cost (up to $30,000 per brand for a chain for each individual SKU (Stock-keeping unit)) may
his own hit record (Gramophone record). In the US (United States) the label was distributed by Bell Records (Bell Records (1950s-70s)). right (Image:FolgersLogo.png) '''Folgers Coffee''' is a major brand of coffee in the United States, part of the food and beverage division of The J.M. Smucker Co. '''Willow Creek Community Church''' (or simply '''Willow Creek Church''') is a non-denominational, multi-generational Evangelical
. The company's current name is Total S.A. (since 2003). '''Elf Aquitaine''' was a French (France) oil company which merged with '''TotalFina''' to form '''TotalFinaElf'''. The new company changed its name to Total (Total S.A.) in 2003. Elf has been maintained as a major brand of Total. Bézier surfaces were first described in 1962 by the French (France) engineer Pierre Bézier who used them to design automobile bodies. Bézier
; the pronunciation is often heard from non-locals) is the capital of the district of Friesland (Friesland_(district)) in Lower Saxony, Germany. The name Jever is usually associated with a major brand of beer which is produced here, the city is also a popular holiday resort. Jever was granted city status in 1536. Unofficially Jever is sometimes referred to as Marienstadt (Maria city) in reference to Maria of Jever, the last independent ruler of the city. The inhabitants