; The city of ar-Raqqah was resettled from 1864 onwards, first as a military outpost, then as a settlement for former Bedouin Arabs and for Chechens, who came as refugees from the Caucasian war theaters in the middle of the 19th century. 20th century In the 1950s, in the wake of the Korean War, the worldwide cotton boom stimulated an unpreceded growth of the city, and the re-cultivation of this part of the middle Euphrates area. Cotton is still the main agricultural product of the region. The growth of the city meant on the other hand a removal of the archaeological remains of the city's great past. The palace area is now almost covered with settlements, as well as the former area of the ancient ar-Raqqa (today Mishlab) and the former Abbasid industrial district (today al-Mukhtalţa). Only parts were archaeologically explored. The 12th-century citadel was removed in the 1950s (today Dawwār as-Sā'a, the clock-tower circle). In the 1980s rescue excavations in the palace area began as well as the conservation of the Abbasid city walls with the Bāb Baghdād and the two main monuments intra muros, the Abbasid mosque and the Qasr al-Banāt. There is a museum, known as the Ar-Raqqah Museum, housed in an administration-building erected during the French Mandate period. Civil war , also transliterated ''Oways b. Anis al-Qarni'', ''Oveys Gharani'' and ''Veysel Karani'') was a Muslim mystic (Mysticism), martyr and philosopher of Yemen who lived during the lifetime of Muhammad, but never met Muhammad personally. Beale, ''Oriental Bibliotheca'' As reported by the renowned historical scholar Ibn Battuta, Uwais' tomb is found in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, where he was killed in the Battle of Siffin, where he fought on the side of Ali. Another shrine was made in his honor in Baykan, in the Siirt Province of Turkey. ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', ''Owais Karni''
, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002: Дефинитивни податоци (PDF)
of farmland. In 1912 Charles Seeger was hired to establish the music department at the University of California at Berkeley (University of California, Berkeley) but was forced to resign in 1918 because of his outspoken Pacifism during World War I. According to Dunaway, the British-born president of the university "all but fired" Charles Seeger (''How Can I Keep From Singing'', p. 26). Charles and Constance moved back east, making Charles' parents' estate in Patterson, New York, northeast of New York City, their base of operations. When baby Pete was eighteen months old, they set out with him and his two older brothers in a home-made trailer, on a quixotic mission to bring musical uplift to the working people in the American South. Ann Pescatello, ''Charles Seeger: A Life In Music'', 83–85. On their return, Constance taught violin and Charles composition at the New York Institute of Musical Art (later Juilliard (Juilliard School)), whose president, family friend Frank Damrosch, was Constance's adoptive "uncle". Charles also taught part time at the New School for Social Research. Career and money tensions led to quarrels and reconciliations, but when Charles discovered Constance had opened a secret bank account in her own name, they separated, and Charles
), p. 93 Economy The economy of the Anuradhapura Kingdom was based mainly on agriculture. Yogasundaram (2008), p. 66 The main agricultural product was rice, the cultivation of which was supported by an intricate irrigation network. Rice cultivation began around the Malvatu oya, Deduru oya and Mahaweli river and spread throughout the country. Siriweera (2004), p. 183 Shifting cultivation was also done during the rainy seasons. Goonaratne and Hirashima (1990), p. 153 Rice was produced in two main seasons named ''Yala'' and ''Maha''. Due to the extensive production of rice, the country was mostly self-sufficient. Siriweera (2004), p. 190 Cotton was grown extensively to meet the requirements of cloth. Sugarcane and Sesame were also grown and there are frequent references in classical literature to these agricultural products. Finger millet was grown as a substitute for rice, particularly in the dry zone of the country. Siriweera (2004), p. 182 Surpluses of these products, mainly rice, were exported. Siriweera (2004), p. 192 Seneviratna (1989), p. 54 thumb left Ancient coins belonging to the Anuradhapura period on display at the museum of Anuradhapura. alt A showcase with a number of coins arranged in a circle. (File:Anuradhapura-monedes.jpg) The primary goods exported during the Anuradhapura period are gemstones, spices, pearls and elephants, while ceramic ware, silks, perfumes and wines were imported from other countries. Siriweera (1994), p. 114 Foreign merchants, mainly Arabs, often acted as middlemen (Reseller) in these imports and exports. Luxury cloth was also imported from Eastern India and China. A stone inscription (Epigraphy) in Anuradhapura implies that the market or bazaar was an important functionality in the city. Siriweera (2004), p. 207 Trade was limited in villages since they were mostly self-sufficient, but essential commodities such as salt and metal had to be obtained from outside. Siriweera (2004), p. 212 The country's position in the Indian Ocean and its natural bays made it a centre of international trade transit. Siriweera (2004), p. 218 Ports such as ''Mahatittha'' (Mannar (Mannar, Sri Lanka)) and ''Gokanna'' (Trincomalee) were used as trading ports during the Anuradhapura Kingdom. Siriweera (2004), p. 228 thumb right 150px Bronze imitation of a Roman coin, Sri Lanka (File:Bronze imitation of Roman coin Sri Lanka South India 4th to 8th century CE.jpg), 4th-8th century Currency was often used for settling judicial fines, taxes and payments for goods According to ''Samantapasadika'', the use of coins in transactions involving the purchasing of items had become common by 5th century. or services. Siriweera (1994), p 120 However, remuneration for services to the king, officials and temples were often made in the form of land revenue. The oldest coins found at Anuradhapura date up to 200 BC. Siriweera (2004), p. 213 These earliest coins were punch marked (Hammered coinage) rectangular pieces of silver known as ''kahavanu''. These eventually became circular in shape, which were in turn followed by die struck (Milled coinage) coins. Siriweera (2004), p. 214 Uncoined metals, particularly gold and silver, were used for trading as well. Siriweera (2004), p. 215 Patterns of elephants, horses, swastika and Dharmacakra were commonly imprinted on the coins of this period. Codrington (1994), p. 19 The primary tax of this period was named ''bojakapati'' (grain tax) and charged for land used for cultivation. Siriweera (1994), p. 167 A water tax, named ''dakapati'' was also charged for the water used from reservoirs. Siriweera (1994), p. 168 Customs duties (Duty (economics)) were also imposed in ports. Siriweera (1994), p. 169 Those unable to pay these taxes in cash were expected to take part in services such as repairing reservoirs. The administration of taxes was the duty of ''Badagarika'', the king's treasurer. Siriweera (1994), p. 170 Culture Culture in the Anuradhapura Kingdom was largely based on Buddhism with the slaughter of animals for food considered low and unclean. As a result, animal husbandry, except for the rearing of buffalo (bubalus) and cattle, was uncommon. Elephants and horses were prestige symbols, and could only be afforded by the nobility. The skills needed to train and care for these animals were highly regarded . Siriweera (2004), p. 200 Cattle and buffalo were used for ploughing and preparing paddy fields. Siriweera (2004), p. 193 Dairy products formed an important part of people's diets while Pali and Sinhala literature often refer to five products obtained from the cow: milk, curd, buttermilk, ghee and butter. Siriweera (2004), p. 194 Bullocks and bullock carts were also used for transport. Siriweera (2004), p. 195 Metalwork was an important and well-developed craft, and metal tools such as axes, mammoties (Mammoty) and hoes were widely used. Weapons and tools of iron and steel were produced in large scale for the military. Ellawala (1969), p. 151 A good indication of the development of metalwork of this period is the Lovamahapaya, which had been roofed entirely with copper. Ellawala (1969), p. 152 Villages were usually concentrated around irrigation reservoirs to enable easy access to water for agriculture. Houses stood immediately below the reservoir embankment, between the water and the paddy fields below. This facilitated easy control of the water supply to the fields and also supported maintenance of domestic gardens for fruit and vegetable production. Siriweera (2004), p. 187 A village typically consisted of a cluster of dwellings, paddy fields, a reservoir, a grazing ground, shift crop (Shifting cultivation) reserves and a village forest. In areas of high rainfall, a perennial watercourse (Perennial stream) often took the place of the reservoir. Inland fishing was widespread during the Anuradhapura Kingdom period because of the numerous reservoirs. Siriweera (2004), p. 201 Although not entirely absent, sea fishing was not common during this period mainly because of the rudimentary nature of transporting sea fish to cities which were located far inland. Siriweera (1994), p. 39 frame center Typical layout of the tank, settlements and paddy fields in a traditional dry zone village. (File:Cross Section of Dry Zone Catena of Sri Lanka.png) Women appear to have been allowed considerable freedom and independence during this period. Ellawala (1969), p. 82 Dutthagamani frequently sought his mother's advice during his military campaign.
. Agriculture The municipality of Ensenada has three main agricultural zones: the Guadalupe-Calafia valleys to the north, the Ojos Negros valley to the east and the San Quintin valley to the south. The main crops are grapes, olives, tomato, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, green onions (scallion) and broccoli. Mining One of the earliest activities in the Ensenada region was gold and silver mining, and some of these mines remain in limited operation. In recent years, very large amounts of gravel have been extracted from creekbeds in rural areas and exported for infrastructure works in California in the US. However, this has been a controversial activity, as environmentalists have argued that depleting the creekbeds will decrease the amount of water that is absorbed by the soil during the brief rainy season, negatively impacting the agriculture. As of November 2005, the extraction of gravel remains unchecked. Said extraction activities have been linked to former Governor Ernesto Ruffo. Education thumb UABC, Ensenada campus (File:UABC-EnsenadaCampus.JPG) The following higher education institutions are based in Ensenada. * Autonomous University of Baja California, Ensenada (UABC) * Center of Nanociences and Nanotecnology National Autonomous University of Mexico (CNyN-UNAM) * Centro de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior (CETYS), Ensenada * Institute of Astronomy, National Autonomous University of Mexico (IA-UNAM) IAUNAM-E * Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education (CICESE) * Catholic University - Technological Baja California, Ensenada (TBC) * Technological Institute of Ensenada (ITE) * Universidad Del Noroccidente de Latinoamerica (UNDL) * Xochicalco University, Ensenada * Iuniversi, Ensenada With UNAM's research headquarters, the Marine Sciences Department of the UABC and the thriving CICESE scientific institute in town, Ensenada boasts the highest concentration of scientists and science students in all of Latin America, chiefly in the fields of astronomy, physics, biology, geology and oceanography. Fittingly, Ensenada has been coined ''the City Of Science''. Ensenada's four main institutions have a dominant focus on marine and agricultural biotechnology, nanoscience and nanotechnology, information and communication technologies, oceanography and marine science, optics and applied physics, and economic development. A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island (Santa Catalina Island, California) was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable. http: www.sandiegohistory.org journal 78winter plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1
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Batman to the Turkish port of İskenderun. Cotton is the main agricultural product. A railway line connects Batman with the nearby provinces of Diyarbakır and Elazığ (Elazığ Province) and with the capital Ankara. The Batman River flows though the area. Batman (Batman, Turkey)( ) is a multi-purpose stadium in Diyarbakır, Turkey. It is currently used mostly for football (football (soccer)) matches and is the home stadium of Diyarbakırspor. The stadium holds 12,963 and was built in 1960. #... that the modern border between Iran and Iraq dates back to the Treaty of Zuhab, which concluded the '''Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623–1639 (Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–1639))'''? (November 29, 2008) Wikipedia:Recent additions 235 #... that Turkish (Turkey) poet '''Süleyman Nazif''' witnessed first hand the decaying corpses of persecuted Christians in his home town of Diyarbakır in July 1915? (November 17, 2008) Wikipedia:Recent additions 235 #... that '''Süreyya Opera House''' in Istanbul, built in 1927 as a musical theater but used all the time as a cinema, gained its intended status only in 2007 after redevelopment? (October 30, 2008) Wikipedia:Recent additions 234 On the succession, however, of Selim I to the throne of Ottoman Sultanate, things took a very different turn. Not only had the attitude of Shah Ismail I become more threatening, but Sultan Selim I himself was more of the warrior than his Father.Selim I set out against him, and the Battle of Chaldiran was fought near Tabriz on August 23, 1514. The fanaticism of the Sufis, which led even to their women joining in the combat, failed against the cavalry and artillery of the Turks, and Ismail after a disastrous defeat fled and escaped. Selim I, his provisions failing, returned westward and spent the winter at Amasia. In the spring taking the field again, he attacked the bey of Dulkadirids who as Egypt's vassal had stood aloof, and sent his head with tidings of the victory to Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri. Selim I later overran Diyarbakır and Iraq, taking Roha, Nisibin, Mosul and other cities. Secure now against Shah Ismail I, a larger project dawned upon Selim I; it was the conquest of Egypt, and the fact that the invasion must be made from Syria. With no anxieties toward the North, he could now safely make the advance, and so in the spring of 1516 CE he drew together for this end a great and well-appointed army; and with the view of deceiving Egypt, represented his object to be the further pursuit of Shah Ismail I. Diyarbakır Ordered to appear before a court martial in Diyarbakır, together with Vartkes Hovhannes Serengülyan, both went to Aleppoby train, escorted by one gendarme, remained in Aleppo for a few weeks, waited the results of infructuous attempts by the Ottoman governor of the city to have them sent back to the capital (''some sources mention Cemal Pasha himself intervening for their return, but Talat Pasha insisting on them to sent to the court martial''), and then dispatched to Urfa and remained there for some time in the house of a Turkish deputy friend, taken under police escort and led to Diyarbakır by car -allegedly accompanied on a voluntary basis by some notable Urfa Armenians, and with many sources confirming, they were murdered by the well-known band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karaköprü or Şeytanderesi in the outskirts of Urfa, some time between 15 July and 20 July 1915. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo. Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag and Minassian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the well-known band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and ''lieutenants'' Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo. Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag and Minassian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the well-known band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and ''lieutenants'' Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo. Dr. Nazaret Daghavarian Տքթ. Նազարէթ Տաղաւարեան 1862 Sebastia (Sivas) Killed Physician, director of Surp Prgitch Hospital, deputy in the Ottoman parliament, deputy for Sivas in the Armenian National Assembly (Armenian National Assembly (Ottoman Empire)), founding member of Armenian General Benevolent Union. April 24, 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the well-known band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and ''lieutenants'' Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır, killed on the way to Urfa. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo. Dr. Nazaret Daghavarian Տքթ. Նազարէթ Տաղաւարեան 1862 Sebastia (Sivas) Killed Physician, director of Surp Prgitch Hospital, deputy in the Ottoman parliament, deputy for Sivas in the Armenian National Assembly (Armenian National Assembly (Ottoman Empire)), founding member of Armenian General Benevolent Union. April 24, 1915 Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by the well-known band of brigands led by Cherkes Ahmet, and ''lieutenants'' Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır, killed on the way to Urfa. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo. thumb Right 200px A w:Pegasus Airlines Pegasus Airline (File:Pegasusairlines.b737-800.tc-aap.bristol.arp.jpg) plane A Pegasus Airline (w:Pegasus Airlines) flight carrying 178 passengers was hijacked today by a man named Mehmet Gökşin Göl. The plane took off from the town of Diyarbakır (w:Diyarbakır) and headed toward Istanbul (w:Istanbul, Turkey), Turkey (w:Turkey)'s most populated city.
in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean to offer Community-supported agriculture (community-supported agriculture) baskets. Les Vallons de chambreule. Groupe de recherches écologiques de La Baie. Retrieved 2013-01-28. Milk production is still the main agricultural activity. The borough contains twenty-one dairy farms that are members of the Fédération des producteurs de lait du Québec. The are two major milk processing companies in the borough: ''La Laiterie de La Baie'', which employs seventy people and accounts for 25% of the region’s dairy market L'entreprise. Les laiteries de La Baie. Retrieved 2013-01-28. and the ''Fromagerie Boivin'' which uses between 12 and 17 million litres of milk a year to manufacture Cheddar cheese. Melissa Bruneau La route des fromages au Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean. February 28, 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-28. ''Les bergeries du Fjord'' make an sheep’s milk cheese. Logging thumbnail right The Port-Alfred mill, which was demolished in 2006 (File:Image-Usine Ville de la Baie Recut.jpg) The logging and wood substance processing industries generated 1,172 jobs in 2002. The 2004 closure of the Abitibi-Consolidated paper mill led to the direct or indirect loss of 780 jobs, totalling 30 million dollars in lost wages. Examen conjoint du projet Eastman 1-A et la dérivation Rupert. Promotion Saguenay and CLD de la Ville de Saguenay. May 2006. Retrieved 2013-01-28. The MDF La Baie plant, which was founded in 1996 and employs 120 people, had to cut eighty jobs in 2007 and 2008 because of the decreased demand for MDF panels (Medium-density fibreboard). Outside of large industry, La Baie’s logging sector includes small- and medium-sized businesses involved in forest management and wood transportation. Some local sawmills include the ''Scierie Armand Tremblay & Fils'' and the ''Scierie Gauthier'', which is the oldest business in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region. Scierie Gauthier Archive. Retrieved 2013-01-28. After the Abitibi-Consolidated-owned ''Scierie Saguenay'' closed in 2005, it transferred most of its fifty employees to the Saint-Fulgence sawmill. Alain Castonguay. Scierie Saguenay, à La Baie, ferme ses portes. December 2005. Retrieved 2013-01-28. Several small businesses manufacture wood into end items such as kitchen cabinetry, furniture, roof framing, and flooring. Quarries, Non-ferrous Materials, and Chemicals Although La Baie does not have any mines (mining), granitic rock (granitic) is extracted in Grenville Province, particularly Laurentian granite and gneiss. These quarries contain polychrome, Polychrome. Ministère des ressources naturelles. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-29. an architectural stone used in the World Financial Centre (World Financial Center) in New York (New York, New York), the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Ottawa (Ottawa, Ontario), and the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Centre (Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center) in Washington (Washington, D.C.)’s Federal Triangle. Polychrome M - Granite. 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-29. The borough’s other quarries specialize in crushed, building, and landscaping stone. Other minor industrial activities include glass-cutting, the production of plastic and chemical derivatives (such as cleaners and industrial degreasers), PVC window frames, and asphalt. Magella J. Gauthier, Carl Brisson, and Jean-François Fortin. L’exportation au Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Portrait des établissements manufacturiers exportateurs, 1994 à 2003. Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. 2004. Retrieved 2013-01-28. Metals In 2002, aluminum production at the Rio Tinto Alcan plant in Grande-Baie combined with metal fabrication and machining generated 1,147 jobs in the borough. The Grande-Baie aluminum smelter, which opened its doors in 1980, employs 684 people and produces 196,000 tonnes of aluminum annually. Société d'électrolyse et de chimie Alcan ltée, usine de Grande-Baie. Archive. 2006. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2013-01-28. Nearly 40% of the plant’s employees live in the borough. Frédéric Munger. Étude sur la mobilité de la main d'œuvre au Saguenay : rapport d’analyse. UQAC, CLD Fjord-du-Saguenay, 42 pages. Related industries such as aluminum fabrication, structural framing, and iron frame production are also essential to La Baie’s economy. Commerce thumbnail left The ''Galeries de La Baie'' shopping centre (File:Galerie La Baie.jpg) The borough’s market potential is estimated at 220 million dollars. Despite the presence of the ''Galeries de La Baie'' shopping centre, which employs 185 people, and Victoria Street, the borough’s main commercial artery, La Baie has the smallest area of commercial influence. Along with Dolbeau-Mistassini (Dolbeau-Mistassini, Quebec), La Baie’s residents are the least likely in the region to shop in their own neighbourhood. Even though the borough is closer to the lower Saguenay area and is linked there by a direct road, Chicoutimi is the region’s most popular shopping destination. Institutions ''Main article:'' Bagotville Airport thumbnail left The 425th tactical fighter squadron badge (File:Alouettebagotville.svg) thumbnail right A CF-18 interceptor plane of the 425th tactical fighter squadron taking off from Bagotville (File:CF18imp2.jpg) The Canadian Forces Base Bagotville is the borough’s main employer. It has 1,584 permanent and temporary employees, including the 837 military families of 3 Wing. Saguenay en chiffres archive , CLD de la Ville de Saguenay and Promotion Saguenay, 2005. Retrieved 2008-12-24 It brings 100 million dollars to the area, including 65 million dollars in salaries and 11 million dollars of federal investment in La Baie and the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region. The airbase’s control tower is managed by NAV Canada, which also collects weather data. Other federal institutions in the borough include a Department of Public Works and Government Services office inside the Bagotville base and a Human Resources and Skill Development office offering immigration and employment services. There is also a Community Futures Development Corporation office, an organization that focuses on community economic development. The borough’s provincial institutions include a ''Centre local d’emplois'', a ''Carrefour jeunesse emploi'', and a Société de l’assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ) branch. The Dubuc (Dubuc (electoral district)) MNA’s riding office is also located in the borough. Transportation Automobile thumbnail right The De la Grande-Baie Nord Boulevard (Highway 372) toward downtown La Baie (File:Route 372 La Baie.jpg) A provincial highway and two interregional highways cross La Baie. The main road, Highway 170 (Quebec Route 170), runs from Highway 70 (which junctions with Highway 175 (Quebec Route 175)) to Chicoutimi and Port-Alfred. Réseau routier national - Liste des routes du RRN au 31 décembre 2006. Conseil des ministres responsables des transports et de la sécurité routière. 2006. Retrieved 2013-01-28. It becomes an interregional highway along Ha! Ha! Bay toward lower Saguenay. The other interregional highway, the ''Route du petit Parc'' (Highway 381 (Quebec Route 381)), begins at Port-Alfred and heads toward Ferland-et-Boilleau (Ferland-et-Boilleau, Quebec). These interregional roads both connect the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region to Charlevoix (Charlevoix, Quebec). The only intermunicipal highway is Saint-Jean-Baptiste Boulevard, which becomes Grande-Baie Nord Boulevard (Highway 372 (Quebec Route 372)) on the eastern edge of the borough. It connects Rivière-du-Moulin (Rivière-du-Moulin, Quebec) in Chicoutimi to Bagotville. Automobile traffic in the borough passes mostly on Highway 170. The stretch between Bagotville Airport and Grande-Baie is used by 10,000 automobiles daily. Between Grande-Baie and lower Saguenay, it drops to 2,500 to 5,000 automobiles. Le transport des personnes. Transport Québec. 2006. Retrieved 2013-01-29. The Petit Parc (Highway 381) in direction of Ferland-et-Boilleau is used by 1,000 to 2,500 vehicles per day and the ligne Bagot (Grande-Anse Road) between Bagotville Airport and the Grande-Anse Maritime Terminal is travelled by less than 1,000 vehicles a day. In 2000, 5% of vehicles from outside the region came from the Laurentian Wildlife Reserve (Highway 175) and 30% from lower Saguenay using Highway 170. Over 1,000 heavy vehicles drive between La Baie and Chicoutimi every day using only this road. Less than 500 heavy vehicles a day come from lower Sagenay and Ferland-de-Boilleau. thumbnail left STS Terminal in La Baie (File:Terminus La Baie.jpg) Public transportation in the borough is provided by the City-owned ''Société de Transport de Saguenay'' (STS). Two bus lines link the Chicoutimi and La Baie terminals: the ''Via Saint-Jean-Baptiste'' line that uses Highway 372 and the ''Via Aéroport'' that goes by Highway 170. Horaires et circuits - Secteur La Baie. Société de transport du Saguenay. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-29. Three bus lines from the La Baie terminal serve the borough year-round and one during the winter. The ''Des Érables via Centre d’achats'' line travels to the Bagotville sector, the ''Polyvalente de La Baie via Avenue du Parc'' to Port-Alfred, and the ''Boulevard de la Grande-Baie Sud'' to Grande-Baie. The fourth bus line, ''Chemin Saint-Louis'', travels along Saint-Louis Road during the wintertime. Cyclists can travel through La Baie using Route Verte 8. The bicycle path enters La Baie by De la Grande-Baie Nord Boulevard and reaches Laurier-Simard Quay, where it stretches six kilometres along Ha! Ha! Bay. Maritime The La Baie Borough has two deep-water ports: * The port facilities in Port-Alfred at the end of Ha! Ha! Bay; and * The Grande-Anse Maritime Terminal (Port of Saguenay) located outside of Ha! Ha! Bay on the Saguenay River, on the north shore of Cap-à-l’ouest. Port-Alfred border "0" align "right" style "margin:15px; border: 2px solid #999; background-color:#FFFFFF" width "30%" + '''Traffic in Port-Alfred (2003) ''' - align "right" bgcolor #bdbbd7 style "color:#000080;text-align:center;font-size:105%;" style "padding:3px;" align center '''''Imported Goods''''' ''' * City of '''Saguenay (Saguenay, Quebec)''': Former cities of Chicoutimi, Jonquière, La Baie (La Baie, Quebec), Laterrière (Laterrière, Quebec); municipalities of Shipshaw (Shipshaw, Quebec) and Lac-Kénogami (Lac-Kénogami, Quebec); part of the township of Tremblay (Tremblay, Quebec) and 2 unincorporated areas. It is expected that A-70 will be extended westward to at least Alma (Alma, Quebec) and eastward to La Baie (La Baie, Quebec). A new alignment has already been determined for the westernmost section of A-70, and the central section (currently part of Route 170 (Quebec Route 170)) is already a 4-lane divided highway; service roads would need to be constructed as it is not limited access. The proposed route for the eastern section has also been determined. History The A-70 was originally designed to provide a limited-access highway link between Alma (Alma, Quebec) and La Baie (La Baie, Quebec). The autoroute has been built in increments since the early 1980s. It took nearly ten years for the first eight kilometers to be built. During the 1990s, highway planners modified the plans. Rather than building A-70 to parallel Route 170 (Quebec Route 170) between 8e Rang in Saint-Bruno (Saint-Bruno, Quebec) (km 5) and St-Benedict Road (km 25), instead Route 170 was rebuilt as a four-lane divided highway. This extension of A-70 was completed by 1999. Three years later, an additional 17 kilometers were opened, connecting this rebuilt section of Route 170 with the original portion of A-70. * '''CYBF''' - Bonnyville Airport - Bonnyville (Bonnyville, Alberta), Alberta * '''CYBG''' (YBG) - CFB Bagotville (Bagotville Airport) - Bagotville (La Baie, Quebec), Quebec * '''CYBK''' (YBK) - Baker Lake Airport - Baker Lake (Baker Lake, Nunavut), Nunavut
Timbuktu's ancient salt caravans under threat publisher BBC News url http: news.bbc.co.uk 1 hi world africa 8393442.stm accessdate 6 March 2011 From Timbuktu the salt is transported by boat to other towns in Mali. Agriculture There is insufficient rainfall in the Timbuktu region for purely rain-fed agriculture and crops are therefore irrigated using water from the River Niger. The main agricultural crop is rice. African floating rice (''Oryza glaberrima'') has traditionally been grown in regions near the river that are inundated during the annual flood. Seed is sown at the beginning of the rainy season (June–July) so that when the flood water arrives plants are already Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu