Places Known For

made significant


that several Croatian soldiers made significant contributions to the struggle against the Turks (Ottoman Empire). Among them there were ban (ban (title)) Petar Berislavić who won a victory at Dubica on the Una (Una (Sava)) river in 1513, the captain of Senj and prince of Klis Petar Kružić, who defended the Klis Fortress for almost 25 years, captain Nikola Jurišić who deterred by a magnitude larger Turkish force on their way to Vienna in 1532, or ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski who helped save Pest (Pest (city)) from occupation in 1542 and fought in the Battle of Szigetvar in 1566. The range forms a part of the Dinaric Alps and is located along the Adriatic coast, separating it from Lika in the interior. Velebit begins in the northwest near Senj with the Vratnik mountain pass and ends 145 km to the southeast near the source of the Zrmanja river northwest of Knin. Major mountain passes on Velebit include the aforementioned Vratnik or Senjsko bilo at 694 m.a.s.l., where the ''Josephina (Josephina (road))'' connects Senj with Josipdol; Oštarijska vrata at 928 m.a.s.l. that connects Karlobag and Gospić; and Prezid at 766 m.a.s.l. that connects Obrovac (Obrovac, Croatia) and Gračac. thumb left Town of Krk (town) Krk (File:Grad Krk 07.jpg). When the Venetians conquered Krk for the second time in 1118, the local noble family, the unknown Dujams, received Krk as part of a pact with Venice, and they became Counts. When Dujam died in 1163, Venice allowed his sons to make their position hereditary, after a payment of 350 Byzantine gold pieces as tax. In a short time the Krk Counts became so strong that at one time from 1244 to 1260, Venice rescinded their authority. This failed to impede their rise however. They increased economic exploitation, but they also endeavoured to strengthen old traditions and rights with various statutes (the Vinodol Code 1288 and the Vrbnik Statute, 1388). Dujam's youngest son, who died in 1209, succeeded in extending his authority to the mainland, began to serve the Croatian-Hungarian King and received the district of Modruš. Due to his economic strength and social standing, his opponents fought each other for his favour. The Counts became so strong that no power could threaten them (until the Turks (Ottoman Empire)). Members of his family were leaders in Split (Split (city)), Trogir and Senj, and from 1392 one of them became a Croatian-Dalmatian Ban. In 1430 they took the surname Frankopan (Frangipane), claiming to have Roman origins. That year they adopted a coat of arms showing two lions breaking a piece of bread (Latin: frangere pane, break bread). From 1449, the descendants of Nikola V founded eight branches of his family, and together with Zrinski Counts were the ruling feudal family in the whole of Croatia right up to 1671. The Frankopans produced seven Croatian Bans, and many of them were patrons of Croatian artists. Kranjčević was born in Senj. Rebellious as a teenager, he completed his secondary education in a Gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)), but did not graduate from it. Soon after joining the elite Germanico-Hungaricum Institute in Rome, where he was supposed to become a priest, he changed his mind and left. The short stay in the Eternal City would show through in his poetry years later. image 300px border (File:Uskoken im Senjer Kanal.JPG) caption Stitch with Uskok-ships chasing a large ship. Museum of Fortress Nehaj in Senj, Croatia. active Mainly from early 16th-18th century Uskok Code 140px thumb right Sculptural relief of Ivan Lenković (File:IvanLenkovic.jpg), ruler of Senj and Military Frontier commander As a group whose central reason for being brought together was Christianity, the Uskoks’ explanation for piracy and warfare rested in their religion. These people felt they were fighting a holy war against the Muslim enemy in defense of the boundaries of Christendom. WikiPedia:Senj commons:Senj


king , when he leveled the castle at Moson in 1271. Béla IV (Béla IV of Hungary), King of Hungary at the time, did not consider it worthwhile to try and rebuild the castle at Moson, and thus turned to Óvár as a promising site for a future fortress. The King gave a man named Conrad, who was of the Győr tribe, lands in Moson and funds to be able to accomplish this task. Though he made significant improvements to the castle, he defected to Ottokar II and Duke Albert (Albert I of Germany) of Austria. For this impunity, he was deprived of his lands, and from then on Óvár was an estate of the Hungarian queens. The first settlers to Óvár were refugees from the destroyed Moson, and in the 14th century it became a bustling city with new industry and urbanization. Mills along the Lajta became a source of employment and attention, as many were owned by the royal house. In 1354, Queen Elisabeth (Elizabeth of Bosnia) gave Óvár the title of "queen's town". This gave the townspeople the right to elect their own parish priest, have their own jurisdiction, inherit possessions, and pay no customs in all of Hungary. Later kings recognized these rights, but the townspeople still had to struggle to maintain them. After Louis II (Louis II of Hungary)'s marriage to Mary of Habsburg, Óvár became a key defense on the Austrian border, which would come into play during the Turkish invasion (Ottoman-Hungarian Wars). In 1529, after the Turk (Ottoman Turk)s were repulsed at the Siege of Vienna, they destroyed Óvár almost completely, leveling all of its Medieval buildings, including the castle and the Romanesque (Romanesque architecture) church. The armies of János Szapolyai and the Archduke Ferdinand (Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor) also sacked the town. However, once again the inhabitants went about rebuilding it. During the Reformation, the town was almost completely converted to Lutheranism, and the famous preacher Huszár Gal opened a Lutheran school at Magyaróvár in 1555. Counterreformative (Counterreformation) movements forbade Protestantism in 1672, closing down the school and the Lutheran church. Due to the lax nature of the new statutes, and the rights of the townspeople as enforced by Ferdinand and Archduke Maximilian (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor), however, religion did not become compulsory. During this time, Moson and Óvár alike were attacked by various armies, including Turkish and German (Germans) mercenaries. After the fall of Győr in 1594, the castle was modernized to withstand a possible future attack by Italian (Italians) engineers. During the 17th century Magyaróvár enjoyed great urban development and some independence. In 1683, the new castle was helpless against the retreating Turkish army, which had been repulsed again (Battle of Vienna) at Vienna. Both Moson and Magyaróvár were set ablaze. Though the town archives were now completely destroyed, the damage was repaired more quickly this time around, at least quickly enough to allow Rákóczi (Francis II Rákóczi) to use the castle as a base during his war for independence from the Habsburgs (Rákóczi's War for Independence). In 1721, after the revolution was crushed, the castle at Magyaróvár lost its strategic importance, and all military materiel was transferred to Bratislava. However, the town prospered greatly after the war, with the establishment of new guilds, a town doctor, and the Piarist school. The Austrian government wished to limit the independence of the town, but the people were able to hold on to a degree of autonomy; an agreement to this effect was signed in 1796 after delegates had been sent to Vienna and Buda. In 1809, Napoleon's army demanded the town's provisions for his wars of conquest (Napoleonic Wars), and although this impoverished the people, they saved the town from destruction. During the revolution of 1848 (Hungarian Revolution of 1848), Magyaróvár and Moson both contributed to the fight for independence. On October 23 of that year, Kossuth Lajos made a recruitment speech in the town. The regiments skirmished with the Austrian troops but were sorely defeated. For the rest of the 19th century, the towns continued to grow. Factories, hospitals, schools, and other social institutions were established. In 1855, a railway station was built on the line from Győr to Bruck an der Leitha. This was a time of relative peace. By 1908 there was already talk of unifying the two towns. During the First World War, the Austrians maintained an armory (Armory (military)) in Magyaróvár. As a consequence of the Treaty of Trianon, most of Moson county was lost to non-Hungarian lands and all signs of the Habsburg rule were destroyed. What followed was another stretch of peace, during which time Moson and Magyaróvár were administratively unified as Mosonmagyaróvár. However, cultural differences and even rivalry would persist until the later 1900s. During the Second World War, unemployment plummeted and the town's industry prospered. The town did not suffer much damage during the war; in 1946, its significant German (German people) population was deported. In 1948, bus services were created. During the later 1940s most of the town's institutions were nationalized (nationalization) by the communist regime (People's Republic of Hungary). As many as 50 protesting civilians were killed during the revolution of '56 (Hungarian Revolution of 1956), and the town had a slow time recovering. During the communist years, a new "town center" was developed between the existing Medieval centers of Moson and Magyaróvár, and there was significant development, including the opening of a university, new schools, and other public projects. After the rise of the capitalist regime (Hungary#The third Hungarian Republic (1989–present)) in 1989, the Young Democrats controlled the city government for a few years, increasing tourism and making developments to the gas and sewage infrastructure. Notably, the piarist school was reopened. Since 1994, the socialists (Hungarian Socialist Party) have been in power in Mosonmagyaróvár, but it is likely that this will change in the upcoming 2010 elections. Dentistry Wikipedia:Mosonmagyaróvár commons:Category:Mosonmagyaróvár

Venetian Dalmatia

The Governors of Dalmatia were based in Zara, while they were under direct supervision of the "Provveditore Generale dello Stato da Mar", who was based in Corfu and was directly controlled by the Doge in Venice. thumb right 200px Sebastiano Venier (Image:Jacopo Tintoretto 037.jpg) -"Capitano generale da mar" (Chief admiral) and " Procurator-Provveditore generale dello Stato da Mar" (including Venetian Dalmatia)- at the Battle of Lepanto Main and most famous Venetian "Provveditori generali" (Governors-general) of Dalmatia: Incomplete list: c.1420 - 1595 no data; 1595 - 1597 Cristoforo Valier + Francesco Erizzo (sindici); 1597 - 1599 Benedetto Moro (provveditore); 1599 - 1603 Filippo Pasqualigo (provveditore); 1603 - 1604 Niccolò Donà (provveditore); 1604 - 1605 Giambattista Contarino (provveditore extraordinario); 1605 - 1608 Andrea Gabriel 1608 - 1611 Giangiacomo Zane (1st time) + Giusto Antonio Belegno; 1611 - 1612 Filippo Pasqualigo; 1612 - 1613 Marcantonio Venier; 1613 - 1614 Nicolò Donà; 1614 - 1616 Lorenzo Venier; 1616 - 1617 Giangiacomo Zane (2nd time); 1617 - 1622 Giustin Antonio Belegno; 1618 - 1620 Girolamo Giustinian + Antonio Priuli (commissaries); 1620 - 1622


;Underground Museum". Zibo made significant contributions to the formation and prosperity of Silk Road. Zibo was one of the biggest suppliers of silk products. Zhoucun, one of the townships in Zibo, was considered one of the four 'dry port' during that period, alongside with Foshan, Jingdezhen and Zhuxian. The major trade streets such as 'Dajie', 'Sishijie', 'Yinzijie' are well preserved to the date. In 2004, FIFA President Sepp Blatter visited Zibo to celebrate FIFA's 100 year anniversary. FIFA has since then recognized the city as the birthplace of football (football (soccer)). http: en tournaments men afc-u16-championship 1063-tournaments 5533-afc-chief-hails-zibo.html Culture Dialect Zibo dialect has classic features of Northern Chinese but also has specific characteristics of its own. In Zibo dialect, points of articulation of low vowel is particularly deep in the mouth, and most areas do not have retroflex consonant except part of Linzi District. Zibo dialect does not have many features that distinguish it with mandarin (Mandarin Chinese) when it comes to the sentence patterns, while differences may occur in the pattern people ask questions and their expression to probability of actions. As minor differences do exist, Zibo dialect may be divided into three major sections according to the administration districts: Huantai-Zhangdian-Zhoucun being areas on the transport corridor between Jinan and Weifeng had a mild mandarin accent which is somewhere between Beijing, Jinan, Qingdao and Zichuan accents. Boshan has its own accent which is derived as it is the traditional center of the Zibo prefecture. Zichuan district again has its own distinct accent with many colloquialisms. Cuisine Traditional Zibo cuisine is part of Shandong Cuisine although Zibo cuisine is, in fact, not a real branch of the Lu Cuisine (Shandong cuisine), whilst Boshan Cuisine is. Boshan cuisine restaurants can only be found in Zibo, and nearby places. Featured local snacks, including Zhou Cun Pancake, Shi Ha Ma Dumpling, Vegetable Pancake, Sauced Mutton, and Bean-curd Case (fried bean-curd stuffed with vegetables and meat), enjoy a good reputation among residents and tourists. Zibo is also home to diverse restaurants of other Chinese cuisine branches just like many other cities in the PRC. Western restaurants are also emerging here and there in all districts of this city to cater for a growing diversity of needs from the people. Traditional Drama The "Five-Voiced Drama" is a unique kind of local drama that originated in central Shandong and was once populous among the folks here. This form of art got its name because the show is often performed by 4-5 people, and the performance is featured by gorgeous singing tunes and vivid lyrics. The straight performance and the local style also help it to be distinguished from other Chinese dramas. The plays that are acknowledged to namy people include Wang Xiao Gan Jiao (Salesboy), Wang Erjie Si FU (Lonely lady) and so on. Zibo Five-voiced Drama Troup is the only theatrical troup all around the country that professionally perform this drama. By far, Five-Voiced Drama has been listed as a "National Intangible Cultural Heritage". Artware Boshan colored glaze (Ceramic glaze) is the wonderful work in Shan Dong Province. The history of production of colored glaze in Bo Shan is very long and better known. In the years of Hong Wu of Ming Dynasty, the emperor’s servants set up “Out Factory” to produce colored glaze for imperial family’s use such as “blue and green curtain”. By the end of Ming Dynasty, the folk colored glaze was produced and developed day by day, too. In the year of Jingtai there were four big stoves in Xi Yejie Street to produce enamel (Enamel paint) material. Before and after the period of Jiajing, the colored glaze products such as pearl light, pearl rejecting, bed-curtain and mosquito net hook and so on were made by the master of Bo Shan and gradually form the colored glaze trade. In 1617(the 46th year of Wan Li), some people led by Sun Yanshou initiated to organize the guild of colored glaze which is the first organization in Yanshan Town. The colored glaze products returned the transportation and sale to Beijing and the southern parts of China besides selling in locality. Brilliant culture of Boshan Boshan Government Honors earned * National Hygienic City (2006)--- National Patriotic (Public) Health Campaign Commission of P.R. China * National Garden City (2005)---Ministry of Construction of P.R. China * Best Tourism City in China (2001)---National Tourism Administration of P.R. China * Historical and Cultural City (1994)---State Council of P.R. China Tourist Attractions Zibo enjoys abundant historical and cultural sites of interest. The Linzi Museum of Ancient Chariots, the Museum of the History of the State of Qi, the Zibo City Museum and the Zibo Museum of Ceramics are the most recommendable places for tourists who want to learn about Zibo's long history and about the Qi Culture. Yuanshan National Forest Park, situated southwest of Baoshan District in Zibo, is a spot worth visiting. It consists of the Great Wall of the Qi State, the grass skiing field, Dinosaur Valley and a folk garden. The Great Wall of Qi was built by the Qi State during the Spring-and-Autumn and Warring States Periods over 2,500 years ago. Tourist Attractions of Zibo Economy The Silk Road, prosperous throughout the Han (Han Dynasty) and Tang (Tang Dynasty) Dynasties, is the famous passageway in China's history for economic and cultural exchange between East and West. The Shandong area, with Zibo as its center, was the major center of silk supply at that time, and was one of the origins of the "Silk Road", Today, Zibo, as a producer of silk and light textile products, remains an important place in the whole country and enjoys a great reputation on the market both at home and abroad.. Zibo abounds in natural resources. More than 50 kinds of mineral reserves have been found and coal, iron, bauxite, coal clay, chemical limestone, pottery clay, etc. are the main place of origin in Shandong Province because of their big reserves, high grade, and broad distribution. Zibo’s north part is abundant in petroleum and natural gas. The city was initially established as a mining city, but now it is undergoing technological upgrading and industrial transformation for further development. Before 2002, on account of high proportion of heavy industry and carelessness about industrial pollution, the city paid a high price in both its environment and economy. Afterwards, people of this city made up their minds to improve the environment. Small coal mines and chemical factories were closed, while all big plants were asked to install sewage disposal to get control of gas and dust. Nowadays Zibo is proud to have the first three municipal sewage treatment plants that with the treated water reaches the Grade-A1 standard of "Integrated wastewater discharge standard"GB8978—1996. People's Daily Retrieved on Oct.23,2008 Air here is also widely acknowledged to be much better now. In 2008, the total industrial output value of Zibo reached 532 billion RMB. After one hundred years of development, Zibo has a solid industrial foundation. Since 1992, Zibo has always been one of the top 50 cities in China with the greatest comprehensive strength. In 2008, its GDP was 231.7 billion yuan RMB, ranking just below Qingdao, Yantai, Jinan and Weifang within the province. The ratio of the agriculture, industry and service sectors was 3.5%, 64.8%, 31.7%, which indicate the city still has a lot to do in readjusting its industrial structure. Transportation As an important traffic hub of Shandong province, Zibo enjoys convenient transportation. The Jiaoji Railway, Zhangbo Railway, Zidong Railway and Xintai Railway form a cross in Zibo while the Jiqing Expressway and Binlai Expressway form another cross. The center of Zibo is only Wikipedia:Zibo

Belgorod Oblast

for the aircraft factory, Zaporizhia Engine Plant. In 1938, Kirilenko became an active participant in party politics and was eventually selected to the position of Second Secretary of the Voroshilov District Party Committee in Zaporozhye Oblast. The following year, he was voted in as First Secretary. Later that year he was appointed to Second Secretary of the Zaporizhzhya Regional Party Committee of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In this role, Kirilenko made significant contributions to the development of metallurgical (Metallurgical engineering) and electrical engineering, but also other sorts of industry. wikipedia:Belgorod Oblast Commons:Category:Belgorod Oblast


:''For the monastery, see Alaverdi Monastery.'' :''In Georgian culture, the alaverdi is the person granted the right to speak right after the toastmaster, see Tamada.'' Chess and boxing training academies are operating in the town since 2006. Nature and nearby attractions thumb Nature at the Debed river canyon in Alaverdi (File:326 Alaverdi vallée du Débed.JPG) The area around Alaverdi is rich with historical monuments and natural life. The town itself is built in the canyon of Debed river, surrounded with high mountains and green forests. Many samples of the Armenian architectural heritage are located near the town of Alaverdi: *Odzun Church of the 5th century. *Horomayr Monastery of the 7th century near Odzun village. *Surp Hovhannes church of Ardvi from the 8th century. *Kaytson Castle of the 9th century located near the shores of Debed river. *Sanahin Monastery founded in the 10th century. *Haghpat Monastery of the 10th century. *Church of the Forty Martyrs from the 11th century. *The medieval bridge of Sanahin near Alaverdi, built in 1195. *Kayan Berd, a black fortress built in 1233 near Alaverdi. *House-museum of Hovhannes Tumanyan, located in Dsegh village near Alaverdi. Demographics thumb The Greek diaspora centre in Alaverdi (File:Greeks in Armenia001.JPG) Alaverdi is mainly inhabited by ethnic Armenians with a minor Greek (Greek people) community that was once considered the largest in Armenia. The Greeks in Armenia speak the Pontic dialect (Pontic language) and they are fluent in both Armenian (Armenian language) and Russian (Russian language). The Madan neighbourhood of Alaverdi

Bells Corners

transit service to Bells Corners was modified Category:Neighbourhoods in Ottawa

Voronezh Oblast

Near the Oldenburg's estate, Ramon (Ramon, Russia) in Voronezh province (Voronezh Oblast), Olga had her own villa, called "Olgino" after the local town


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