Places Known For

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crop but rice was also grown. There was a small Chinese town, about long. "The shops are somewhat better than at Karashar, but not so good as at Turfan." Younghusband, Francis E. (1896


The Galilee earthquake of 1837 caused widespread damage and over 200 deaths. Three weeks afterward, contemporaries reported "a large rent in the ground...about a foot wide and fifty feet long." All the Galilee villages that were badly damaged at the time, including Jish, were situated on the slopes of steep hills. The presence of old landslides has been observed on aerial photographs. The fact that the village was built on dip slopes consisting of soft bedrock and soil has made it more vulnerable to landslides. Damage Caused By Landslides During the Earthquakes of 1837 and 1927 in the Galilee Region According to Andrew Thomson (Andrew Thomson (Broughton)), no houses in Jish were left standing. The church fell, killing 130 people and the old town walls collapsed. A total of 235 people died and the ground was left fissured. At the end of the 19th century, Jish was described as a "well-built village of good masonry" with about 600 Christian and 200 Muslim inhabitants. Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 198 British Mandate At the time of the 1922 census of Palestine, Jish had a population of 380 Christians and 341 Muslims. Barron, 1923, Tables XI, XVI The Christians were classified as 71% Maronite (Maronite Church) and 29% Greek Catholic (Melchite). By the 1931 census (1931 census of Palestine), Jish had 182 inhabited houses and a population of 358 Christians and 397 Muslims. Mills, 1932, p. 107 In 1945, Jish had a population of 1,090 and the village spanned 12,602 dunams, mostly Arab-owned.

Nag Hammadi

the translations now available. The fact that four manuscript "editions" of this text survived—two "long" versions and two "short" versions—suggests how important this text was in early gnostic Christian circles. It should also be noted that in the three Nag Hammadi codices where the ''Apocryphon of John'' appears, the text in each case is the first text of the collection. Oxyrhynchus 654 had a heading which seems to describe the work as a collection of "sayings" addressed to Thomas and some other disciple, and when the Nag Hammadi ''Gospel of Thomas'' was discovered in 1945, it was identified as a Coptic version of the Greek work of which these two were fragments. The Gospel of Thomas contains sayings attributed to Jesus, some of which are included in the canonical gospels, but many are not found elsewhere. The individual sayings are generally cited by logion number, which in most division schemes range from 1 to 114. Scholarship on Gnosticism has been greatly advanced by the discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi texts, which shed light on some of the more puzzling comments by Plotinus and Porphyry (Porphyry (philosopher)) regarding the Gnostics. More importantly, the texts help to distinguish different kinds of early Gnostics. It now seems clear that "Sethian" and "Valentinian (Valentinus (Gnostic))" This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus is attacking a Gnostic myth known to us best at present in the form it took in the system of Valentinus. The Mother, Sophia-Achamoth, produced as a result of the complicated sequence of events which followed the fall of the higher Sophia, and her offspring the Demiurge, the inferier and ignorant maker of the material universe, are Valentinian figures: cp. Irenaeus, ''Adversus haereses (On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis)'' 1.4 and 5. Valentinius had been in Rome, and there is nothing improbable in the presence of Valentinians there in the time of Plotinus. But the evidence in the Life ch.16 suggests that the Gnostics in Plotinus's circle belonged rather to the other group called Sethians on Archonties, related to the Ophites or Barbelognostics: they probably called themselves simply "Gnostics." Gnostic sects borrowed freely from each other, and it is likely that Valentinius took some of his ideas about Sophia from older Gnostic sources, and that his ideas in turn influenced other Gnostics. The probably Sethian Gnostic library discovered at Nag Hammadi included Valentinian treatise: ep. Puech, Le pp. 162-163 and 179-180. gnostics attempted "an effort towards conciliation, even affiliation" with late antique philosophy Schenke, Hans Martin. "The Phenomenon and Significance of Gnostic Sethianism" in The Rediscovery of Gnosticism. E. J. Brill 1978 , and were rebuffed by some Neoplatonists (Neoplatonism), including Plotinus. Plotinus considered his opponents "heretics" Introductory Note This treatise (No.33 in Porphyry's chronological order) is in fact the concluding section of a single long treatise which Porphyry, in order to carry out the design of grouping his master's works, more or less according to subject, into six sets of nine treatise, hacked roughly into four parts which he put into different Enneads, the other three being III. 8 (30) V. 8 (31) and V .5 (32). Porphyry says (Life ch. 16.11) that he gave the treatise the Title "Against the Gnostics" (he is presumably also responsible for the titles of the other sections of the cut-up treatise). There is an alternative title in Life. ch. 24 56-57 which runs "Against those who say that the maker of the universe is evil and the universe is evil. The treatise as it stands in the Enneads is a most powerful protest on behalf of Hellenic philosophy against the '''un-Hellenic heresy''' (as it was from the Platonist as well as the orthodox Christian point of view) of Gnosticism. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 ,"imbeciles" and "blasphemers" They claimed to be a privileged caste of beings, in whom alone God was interested, and who were saved not by their own efforts but by some dramatic and arbitrary divine proceeding; and this, Plotinus claimed, led to immorality. Worst of all, they despised and hated the material universe and denied its goodness and the goodness of its maker . For a Platonist, is utter blasphemy -- and all the worse because it obviously derives to some extent from the sharply other-worldly side of Plato's own teaching (e.g. in the Phaedo). At this point in his attack Plotinus comes very close in some ways to the orthodox Christian opponents of Gnosticism, who also insist that this world is the work of God in his goodness. But, here as on the question of salvation, the doctrine which Plotinus is defending is as sharply opposed on other ways to orthodox Christianity as to Gnosticism: for he maintains not only the goodness of the material universe but also its eternity and its divinity. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 erroneously arriving at misotheism as the solution to the problem of evil, taking all their truths over from Plato. The teaching of the Gnostics seems to him untraditional, irrational and immoral. They despise and revile the ancient Platonic teachings and claim to have a new and superior wisdom of their own: but in fact anything that is true in their teaching comes from Plato, and all they have done themselves is to add senseless complications and pervert the true traditional doctrine into a melodramatic, superstitious fantasy designed to feed their own delusions of grandeur. They reject the only true way of salvation through wisdom and virtue, the slow patient study of truth and pursuit of perfection by men who respect the wisdom of the ancients and know their place in the universe. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 This state of affairs continued through to modern times; in 1945, however, there was a chance discovery of a cache of 4th-century Gnostic manuscripts near Nag Hammadi, Egypt. The texts, which had been sealed inside earthen jars, were discovered by a local man called Mohammed Ali, and now this collection of texts is known as the ''Nag Hammadi library''; this allowed for the modern study of undiluted 'Gnostic scripture' for the first time. The translation of the texts from Coptic (Coptic language), their language of composition, into English and other modern languages took place in the years approaching 1977, when the full Nag Hammadi library was published in English translation. This has clarified recent discussions of gnosticism, though many would agree that the topic still remains fraught with difficulties. The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian (Early Christianity) Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic tractates (treatise); they also include three works belonging to the ''Corpus Hermeticum (Hermetica)'' and a partial translation of Plato's ''Republic'' (Plato's Republic). The codices are currently housed in the Coptic Museum in Cairo.

Tal Afar

wikipedia:Tal Afar


for Nuclear Research Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and from the United States' (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (w:Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). The elusive element was first detected in 1998 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (w:Joint Institute for Nuclear Research), Dubna (w:Dubna), Russia, when a plutonium target was bombarded with calcium ions accelerated in a cyclotron (w:cyclotron). Until now no other groups had been able to confirm the Russian team's results. "It’s unusual for important results like the Dubna group’s claim to have produced 114 to go unconfirmed for so long," said Ken Gregorich, part of the Berkeley team.


: mostly the Community Centre. Date: 1st half of Aug * Veszprem Gala Games Festival (Veszprémi Ünnepi Játékok), concerts in the Castle. Date: Aug * Street Music Festival (Utcazene Fesztivál). Amateur artists. Several days long. * "Spring Games" (Tavaszi Játékok) International Children's - Youth and Sports and Arts Festival * Veszprém Beer Festival (Sörfesztivál) - end of Jun early Jul * Veszprém Spring Festival (Veszprémi Tavaszi Fesztivál) * Festival of Dance (A Tánc Fesztiválja


generated title -- and had an almost spherical radiation pattern, so that the satellite beeps were transmitted with equal power in all directions; making reception of the transmitted signal independent of the satellite's rotation. The whip-like pairs of antennas resembled four long "whiskers" pointing to one side, at equal 35 degrees angles with the longitudinal axis of the satellite. ref name "RSW" >


: index.cfm?PgNm TCE&Params A1SEC886342 Development of Canadian Airports The airport was opened by the Curtiss Flying School, part of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, as a pilot training school in 1915. Long Branch John Alexander Douglas McCurdy, the first person to fly an airplane in the British Empire

, was hired as the airport's first manager. In 1917 the airport was run by the Royal Flying Corps (Royal Flying Corps Canada), and then closed in 1919. It is recognized by the existence of Aviation Road in the Lakeview, Mississauga community and an Ontario Historical plaque. Logo Location Mississauga and Etobicoke Region Toronto image_caption address 100 Queensway West, Mississauga, ON (Ontario) coordinates Wikipedia:Mississauga Commons:Category:Mississauga

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