regional road. The Dublin–Cork railway line (rail transport in Ireland) passes by the town, but the station, from which at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, newly raised battalions of the Royal Munster Fusiliers and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers (The Royal Dublin Fusiliers) who had completed their training at the local military barracks, set out for the Western Front (Western Front (World War I)). Origins of the name Barry (De Barry Family) family: Boutez-en
in Newfoundland (Dominion of Newfoundland), where it was home berthed. Local military authorities had insisted that the ship travel without lights to not make itself a target. In fact, if the ship had been lit up it is unlikely she would have been hit, as she would clearly have been a civilian vessel. This controversy, which raged in Canada in the weeks which followed her destruction, was further complicated by the presence of at least 57 military personnel from Britain (UK), Canada and the United States on board, thus actually legitimizing her as a military target.
was observed by Moses Hazen, a retired British officer who lived near the fort. Hazen rode to Montreal to report the action to the local military commander, and then continued on to Quebec City, where he reported the news to General Carleton on May 20. Major Charles Preston and 140 men were immediately dispatched from Montreal to Saint-Jean in response to Hazen's warning. Lanctot (1967) (#Lanctot), pp. 44,50 La Vallée-du-Richelieu (La Vallée-du-Richelieu Regional County Municipality) '''Chambly (Chambly, Quebec)''' (V), Carignan (Carignan, Quebec) (V), Saint-Basile-le-Grand (Saint-Basile-le-Grand, Quebec) (V), McMasterville* (McMasterville, Quebec) (M), Otterburn Park (Otterburn Park, Quebec) (V), Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec) (V), Belœil (Belœil, Quebec) (V) - 16 Montérégie ''Regional county municipalities and equivalent territories (Regional county municipality)''(*): Brome-Missisquoi (Brome-Missisquoi Regional County Municipality) '''Harold J. Robertson''' (born on March 4, 1896, date of death unknown) was a National Football League player (Player (game)). He was born in Chambly, Quebec, Canada. Area code 450 was created in 1998 when 514 was confined to the Island of Montreal. Among the cities served by area code 450 are Longueuil and Laval (Laval, Quebec). The communities of Boucherville, Varennes (Varennes, Quebec), Roussillon (Roussillon Regional County Municipality, Quebec), Joliette, Saint-Hyacinthe (Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec), Granby (Granby, Quebec), Chambly (Chambly, Quebec), Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Vaudreuil-Dorion are also part of this area code. '''Marc-André Moreau''' (born on January 22, 1982 in Chambly, Quebec) is a Canadian (Canada) freestyle skier (freestyle skiing). The American invasion of Quebec (Invasion of Canada (1775)) arrived near his home at Saint-Jean on September 6. On that day, Hazen met with General Philip Schuyler, explaining to him that Fort Saint-Jean was well-defended and unlikely to be taken by siege, and that the local habitants were unlikely to assist the American effort. This gloomy portrait led Schuyler to consider retreating; but the arrival of additional American troops, and a more optimistic assessment from James Livingston (James Livingston (American Revolution)), a grain merchant living near Chambly (Chambly, Quebec), encouraged the Americans to renew the attack. Stanley (#Stanley), pp. 39–40 Livingston went on to form the 1st Canadian Regiment in November 1775. Smith (#SmithFourteenII), p. 86
The Phoenicians of Carthage settled at Cherchell in the 4th century BC and named the town '''Iol''' or '''Jol'''. The town became a part of the kingdom of Numidia under Jugurtha, who died in 104 BC. The town became very significant to the Berber (Berber people) monarchy and generals of Numidia. The Berber Kings Bocchus I and Bocchus II lived there, as occasionally did other Kings of Numidia. Iol was situated in an area called Mauretania, which was a part of the Numidian kingdom. The last Numidian king Juba II and his wife, the Greek (Greeks) Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic dynasty) princess Cleopatra Selene II were forced to flee the other part of Numidian kingdom because the local population disapproved of their king being too Romanized, which caused civil unrest between 26 and 20 BC. Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus had intervened in the situation and divided the Numidian Kingdom into two. One half of the kingdom became a part of the Roman province of Africa Nova. Western Numidia and Mauretania (the second half of the kingdom) became one kingdom. '''Iol''' was renamed '''Caesarea''' or '''Caesarea of Mauretania''', in honor of the emperor. Caesarea would become the capital of the Roman client kingdom of Mauretania. The kingdom of Mauretania became one of the important client kingdoms in the Roman Empire, and their monarchs were one of the most loyal client monarchs that served Rome. Juba and Cleopatra did not just rename their new capital, but rebuilt the town in fine Roman style on a large, lavish and expensive scale. The construction and sculptural projects in Caesarea and throughout the kingdom were built on a rich mixture of ancient Egyptian (Ancient Egyptian architecture), Greek (Greece) and Roman (Ancient Rome) architectural styles. The monarchs are buried in their mausoleum, the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania which can still be seen. The seaport capital and its kingdom flourished during this period with most of the population being of Greek (Greeks) and Phoenician origin with a minority of Berber (Berber people)s. It remained a significant power center under Numidian rule with a Greco-Roman civilization (Greco-Roman world) as a veneer, until 40 AD, when its last monarch Ptolemy of Mauretania was murdered on a visit to Rome. The murder of Ptolemy set in motion a series of reactions resulting in a devastating war with Rome. In 44 after a four-year bloody revolt, the capital was captured and Roman Emperor Claudius divided the Mauretanian kingdom into two provinces. The province of which Caesarea became the capital was called Mauretania Caesariensis. The city itself was settled with Roman soldiers and was given the rank of a ''colonia (colonia (Roman))'', and so was also called '''Colonia Claudia Caesarea'''. In later centuries, the Roman population expanded, as did the Berber population, resulting in a mixed Greco-Phoenician, Berber, and Roman population. The city featured a hippodrome, amphitheatre, basilica, numerous Greek temples, and Roman civic buildings. During this heyday, the city had its own school of philosophy, academy, and library. As a significant city of the Roman Empire it had trading contacts across the Roman world. Subsequently, the town was the birthplace of the Roman Emperor Macrinus and Greek grammarian Priscian. Additionally, the city also featured a small but growing population of converted Christians and was noted for the religious debates and tumolts which featured the hostility of Roman public religion toward Christians. Caesarea thus has its own martyred Catholic saint, Marciana (Marciana of Mauretania) (her feastday is on 9 January). This virgin martyr was accused of vandalizing a statue of the goddess Diana (Diana (mythology)). After being tortured, Marciana was gored by a bull and mauled by a leopard in the amphitheatre at Caesarea. By the 4th century, the conversion of the population from pagan to Christian beliefs resulted in nearly half of the population being Christianized. Apart from some bishops who may have been of the church in Caesarea and whose names are engraved in inscriptions that have been unearthed, the first bishop whose name is preserved in extant written documents is Fortunatus, who took part in the Council of Arles of 314, which condemned Donatism. A letter of Symmachus mentions a bishop named Clemens in about 371 372 or 380. The town became a Donatist centre and at the joint Conference of Carthage in 411, was represented both by the Donatist Emeritus and by the Catholic Deuterius. Augustine of Hippo has left an account of his public confrontation with Emeritus at Caesarea in the autmn of 418, after which Emeritus was exiled. The last bishop of Caesarea whose name is known from written documents was Apocorius, one of Catholic bishops whom Huneric summoned to Carthage in 484 and then sent into exile. An early 8th-century ''Notitia Episcopatuum'' still included this see. Joseph Mesnage, ''L'Afrique chrétienne'', Paris 1912, pp. 447–450 Charles Courtois, ''v. Césarée de Maurétanie'', in ''Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques'', vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 203-206 No longer a residential bishopric, Caesarea in Mauretania is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. ''Annuario Pontificio 2013'' (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 867 In the 5th century, the city remained an extremely loyalist power for the Roman Empire. Additionally, the city's elite held considerable control of international trade. Although the city had been in a state of stagnation for over a hundred years and had even lost population as most cities in the Roman Empire, it still remained much as it had been since establishment. Consequently, the Roman Empire relied on much of its North African dominion for essential food stuffs, luxury goods, and a not insignificant number of elite rulers. Thus, in the waning days of the Empire it became a target of the Vandals and their expedition to bring down their Imperial opponents. A Vandal army and fleet burnt the town and fortified many of its old magnificent Roman era buildings into Vandal citadels. Although this devastation was significant, the Vandal era saw restoration of much of the damage, an expansion in the size of the population, and the creation of a vibrant Romanized Germanic community. The city's port meanwhile served as a base for some of the Vandal fleet which continued to reign supreme in the western seas. In turn, the city saw its economic fortunes revive as Vandal merchants cornered the market on shipping. However, much of this wealth was of necessity channelled toward military developments, as the Vandals were forced to defend their conquest against both Byzantine and Berber attacks. After several decades of war with the Eastern Roman Emperor, the Vandal Kingdom of Africa (Vandal Kingdom) was ground down and the city was recaptured under the Byzantine Empire's Emperor Justinian I. The Emperor kept the walls strong but tore down the Vandal citadels, restored the old Roman buildings and returned to the city to a traditional post of Byzantine civilization. However, the vibrant Germanic community which had brought new economic development to the area was ruthlessly suppressed. Although the majority of its population was left unscathed, its economic power was ruined and its place as an aristorcracy was overthrown with new Byzantine courtiers. Post-Roman history However, the unintended consequences of the Byzantine's wars and suppression of the Vandals left much of the coast without the strong military abilities of the Vandal nobility and their armies. As a result, Berber raids and settlements, which had been checked by the Vandals returned once more. Additionally, under the stratified and centralized economic practices of the Empire, many of the small freeholding farmers both of Vandal and Roman origin lost economic opportunities which left them prey to more powerful rich landlords, and the whole system decayed. Eventually, powerful armies of Arabs under the banner of Islam ultimately swept through the city, which became increasingly acculturated toward Berbers and Arabs. By the 10th century, the city's name had transformed in the local dialect from a Latin to a Berber and ultimately into the Arabicized name of for Caesarea, '''Sharshal'''. Finally, following reconquest by Europeans in the 19th century the city name was changed to '''Cherchell''' which is the French spelling of the contemporary Arabic Berber name of the town. In the city's remaining Byzantine history, it went into slow decline in which the city's remaining Roman and what remained of the semi-Romanized Vandal elite held a stratified position over the growing numbers of Berbers it allowed to settle in return for cheap labor. However, this reduced the economic status of small freeholders and urban dwellers, especially what remained of the Vandal population who provided most of the local military forces. Furthermore, the increasing use of Berber workers replaced the declining quasi-Roman population of free peasants. By the 8th century, the city and surrounding area lacked both a strong urban core of free citizens, or a rural population of freeholding farmers, nor did it support a competent defense. Over a period of fifteen years, successive waves of Arab armies into Byzantine North African territory (including what is now Algeria) wore down the smaller and less motivated Imperial armies, until finally, Moslem tribesmen lay siege to the city of Caesarea. Despite being resupplied by Byzantine fleets, the small Byzantine ruling class and its dependents were eventually overwhelmed by Islamic forces. Much of the Byzantine nobility and its civil service fled to other parts of the Empire, while what remained of the Roman and semi-Roman population accepted Islamic supremacy in return for protected status. For two generations, what remained of the quasi-Roman population and Berbers launched several revolts often in conjunction with reinforcements from the Empire. Islamic forces duly crushed these revolts. After several revolts by Berbers and what remained of the Roman and tiny Vandal populations, Arab Moslems tore down much of the city's defenses and recycled its crumbling Roman buildings. The city, already little more than a relic of its former glory, was now surrounded by a camp of Moslem warriors and their retinue. Additionally, joined by growing numbers of Arab tribesmen, most of the town was converted forcibly or otherwise over the following two centuries. Nonetheless, later Berbo-Islamic rule was more tolerant and respectful of its Greco-Roman Christian past and endeavored to rebuild aspects of the towns former civilization. For the following few centuries, the city remained a power center of Arabs and Berbers with a small but significant population of semi-Roman Christians. During this period, several attempts at reconquest were made by Europeans, who under various nationalities such as Spanish, French, or Norman managed to hold the city off and on for a few generations before being pushed out again by Moslems. Notable of these in providing material for historical review, especially of what remained of its Roman and Byzantine infrastructure and population was the Norman Kingdom of Africa. Eventually, Ottoman Turks managed to successfully reconquer the city from Spanish occupation in the 16th century, using the city primarily as a fortified port. In 1520, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured the town and annexed the Algerian Pashalic. His elder brother Oruç Reis built a fort over the town. Under Turkish occupation, the city's importance as a port and fort led to it being inhabited by Moslems of many nationalities, some engaging in privateering and piracy on the Mediterranean. In reply, European navies and especially the French Navy and the Knights Hospitaller (self-proclaimed descendants of the Crusaders) laid siege to the city and occasionally captured it for limited periods of time. For a century in the 1600s and for a brief period in the 1700s the city either was under Spanish or Hospitallar control. During this period a number of palaces were built, but the overwhelming edifice of Hayreddin Barbarossa's citadel, was considered too militarily valuable to destroy and uncover the previous ancient buildings of old Caesarea. In 1738, a terrible earthquake shook the town and left the town defenses damaged. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars and Revolutions of the early 19th century, the French under both British, American, and other European powers were encouraged to attack and destroy the Barbary Pirates. From 1836 to 1840 various allied navies, but mostly French hunted down the Barbary pirates and conquered the Barbary ports while threatening the Ottoman Empire with war if it intervened. In 1840, the French after a significant siege captured and occupied the town. The French lynched the Barbary Pirates including the local pasha for Crimes against the laws of nations. fact In turn, many ancient statues and buildings were either restored and left in Cherchell, or taken to museums in Algiers, Algeria or Paris, France for further study. However, not all building projects were successful in uncovering and restoring the ancient town. The Roman amphitheatre was considered mostly unsalvageable and unnecessary to rebuilt. Its dress stones were used to the build a new French fort and barracks. Materials from the Hippodrome were used to build a new church. The steps of the Hippodrome were partly destroyed by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie in a search for the tomb of Saint Marciana. French occupation also brought new European settlement, to join the city's long-established communities of semi-Arabized Christians of local origin and old European merchant families, in addition to Berbers and Arab Muslims. Under French rule, European and Christians became a majority of the population again until World War II. In the immediate years before World War Two, losses to the French national population from World War One, and a declining birthrate in general among Europeans kept further colonial settlement to a trickle. Arab and Berber populations started seeing an increase in growth. French-Algerian colonial officials and landowners encouraged larger numbers of surrounding Berber tribesmen to move into the surrounding region to work the farms and groves cheaply. In turn, more and more Berbers and Arabs moved into the city seeking employment. By 1930 the combined Berbo-Arab Algerian population represented nearly 40% of the city's population. The changing demographics within the city were disguised by the large numbers of French military personnel based there and the numbers of European tourists visiting the what had become known as the Algerian Riviera. Additionally, during World War II, Cherchell, with its libraries, cafes, restaurants, and hotels served as a base for the United States Army and Allied War effort (Allies of World War II), hosting a summit conference (List of World War II conferences) between the US and UK in October 1942. The end of the war with its departure of Allied forces and a reduction of French naval personnel due to rebasing saw an actual decline in Europeans living in the city. Additionally, the general austerity of the post-war years dried up the tourism industry and caused financial stagnation and losses to the local Franco-Algerian community. In 1952, a census recorded that the Frenco-Algerian population had declined to 50% of the popupation. For the remaining 1950's Cherchell was only slightly caught up by the Algerian War of Independence. With its large proportion of Europeans, French control and influence was strong enough to discourage all but the most daring attacks by anti-French insurgents. By 1966, after independence from the French, Cherchell had lost nearly half of its population and all of its Franco-Algerian population. Cherchell has continued to grow post-independence, recovering to peak colonial-era population by the 1980s. Cherchell currently has industries in marble, plaster quarries and iron mines. The town trades in oils, tobacco and earthenware. Additionally, the ancient cistern
in two columns into Biafra. The Nigerian army offensive was through the north of Biafra led by Colonel Shuwa and the local military units were formed as the 1st Infantry Division (1st Division (Nigeria)). The division was led mostly by northern officers. After facing unexpectedly fierce resistance and high casualties, the right-hand Nigerian column advanced on the town of Nsukka which fell on 14 July, while the left-hand column made for Garkem, which was captured on 12 July. At this stage
J. Massey Rhind, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia Museums in New Glasgow include the Carmichael Stewart House Heritage Museum, local Military Museum, and local Sports Hall of Fame. Glasgow Square Theatre, located on the downtown riverfront, is a 285 seat auditorium that hosts year-round concerts, plays, and other community functions. The theatre can be transformed into an outdoor amphitheatre, one of the few theatres in Canada (if not the only) that can do that. During the summer it hosts celebrations for Canada Day on June 30, the New Glasgow Riverfront Jubilee during the first weekend in August, and the Race on the River Dragon Boat Festival in mid-August. The Roseland Cabaret nightclub operates in the former Roseland film theatre (Roseland Theatre (Nova Scotia)) in downtown New Glasgow, one of the oldest film theatres in Nova Scotia and site of a famous 1946 civil rights case. Jennifer Vardy Little, “Setting the Record Straight”, ‘ ‘The News’ ‘ New Glasgow, April 14, 2010 The award winning New Glasgow Jubilee features popular local and national musical acts. It has become the town's most successful event since its inception in 1995. The Race on the River features teams representing local companies and organizations paddling along the East River to raise money for local charities. New Glasgow's oldest summer mainstay, The Festival of the Tartans, has been scaled back over the years. There is no longer a parade. The festival is a celebration of the town's Scottish roots. Sports New Glasgow's John Brother MacDonald Stadium (formerly New Glasgow Stadium) used to be home to the Pictou County Crushers of the Maritime Junior Hockey League and the Weeks Major Midgets of the Nova Scotia Major Midget Hockey League. The team now plays at the Pictou County Wellness Center. The Crushers were based in Halifax (Halifax Regional Municipality) and known as Team Pepsi until 2004 when the Weeks Hockey Organization bought the club and moved it to New Glasgow. After struggling to attract fans in Halifax's crowded hockey market, the team is now one of the league's top draws. New Glasgow hosted the 2005 MJAHL All Star game and the 2006 MJAHL Entry Draft. It was announced on December 29, 2006, that New Glasgow would host the 2008 Fred Page Cup, where the Crushers defeated the defending FCP winners from Pembroke, Ontario in the championship game. The town hosted the Telus Cup (then Air Canada Cup), in 1997 and the 2001 World Under 17 Hockey Championships (co-hosted with Truro (Truro, Nova Scotia)). In 2007, New Glasgow hosted its first Major Junior hockey game (St. John's Fog Devils vs P.E.I. Rocket). On February 9, 2008, New Glasgow was one of six communities across Canada selected to be showcased on CBC Sports' day-long ''Hockey Day in Canada'' The Town of New Glasgow, Nova Scotia - Hockey Day in New Glasgow Hockey Day in New Glasgow The New Glasgow segments featured hometown NHL player Jon Sim and the town's annual Westside winter carnival. New Glasgow is the home of the annual Johnny Miles running event weekend, named after the two time Boston Marathon winner. It is the second largest running event in Atlantic Canada, behind only Halifax's Blue Nose Marathon. Notable residents birth_place New Glasgow (New Glasgow, Nova Scotia), NS (Nova Scotia), CAN (Canada) height_ft 5 DATE OF BIRTH September 29, 1977 PLACE OF BIRTH New Glasgow (New Glasgow, Nova Scotia), NS (Nova Scotia), CAN (Canada) DATE OF DEATH The league got their second national Championship when the '''Halifax Oland Exports''' won the 2002 Royal Bank Cup on home ice. One year later, after financial trouble with Oland Brewery, the franchise's name was changed to Halifax Team Pepsi. In the spring of 2004, the Weeks Hockey Organization bought the club, moved it to New Glasgow (New Glasgow, Nova Scotia) and renamed it the Pictou County Weeks Crushers. On that same day Halifax got a new team as they were granted an expansion franchise, the Halifax Wolverines (Bridgewater Lumberjacks). On November 8, 1946, Viola Desmond refused to sit in the balcony designated exclusively for blacks in the Roseland Theatre in New Glasgow (New Glasgow, Nova Scotia) but, instead, she took her seat on the ground floor where only white people were allowed to sit. After being forcibly removed from the theatre and arrested, Desmond was eventually found guilty of not paying the one-cent difference in tax on the balcony ticket from the main floor theatre ticket. She was fine (fine (penalty))d $20 ($251.30 in 2010 http: www.bankofcanada.ca en rates inflation_calc.html ) and court costs ($6). She paid the fine but decided to fight the charge (criminal charge) in court. MacLeod studied political science at St. Francis Xavier University. Prior to her election, MacLeod was a federal Conservative aide on Parliament Hill and a political commentator. Her family ties to politics include Donald MacLeod, a former Cabinet Minister under Robert Stanfield in Nova Scotia, and Donald Cameron (Donald William Cameron), a former Premier of Nova Scotia. Her father, Danny MacLeod, served three decades as a municipal councillor in New Glasgow (New Glasgow, Nova Scotia), Nova Scotia until his death on August 29, 2007.
as well as automobile-construction, commercial, textile, agricultural and cooperative polytechnic colleges. The city has a historical museum. Following the fall of the Soviet Union the monument for the Soviet hero D.N.Medvedev was removed, and the N.I.Kuznetsov monument was moved to another location within the city. Instead, in order to reflect the controversial history of the region the monuments for "People died in the honour of Ukraine", and "Soldiers died in local
military battles" were installed. Buildings *Church of the Assumption (1756) *Cathedral of the Intercession (2001) *Cathedral of the Ascension (1890) *A classicism-style gymnasium building (1839) *During Soviet times the centre of the city from Lenin street to Peace Avenue (1963 architects R.D. Vais and O.I. Filipchuk) was completely rebuilt with Administrative and Public buildings in neo-classical, Stalinist style. Memorials Рівне, план міста, 1:12000. Міста
during the climactic Battle of Moscow. It was occupied from October 12, 1941 to January 4, 1942. In 1944, the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa)—who were arrested by advancing Soviet front in the Vilno (Vilnius) area. Administrative and municipal status Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Charter of Kaluga Oblast'' Within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the '''City (City of federal subject significance) of Kaluga'''—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (administrative divisions of Kaluga Oblast). As a municipal division (subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions), the City of Kaluga, together with one settlement of urban type in Dzerzhinsky District (Dzerzhinsky District, Kaluga Oblast) and one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District, is incorporated as '''Kaluga Urban Okrug'''. Law #7-OZ Economy In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines ;Kaluga Machine Works (manufactures track machines for railways), plant a foreign company MACO Door & Window. In recent years Kaluga has become one of the centers of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area. On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, with further expansion plans planned to be completed by, or during, 2009. The investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant currently assembles the Volkswagen Passat and Škoda Octavia. Planned annual capacity from 2009: up to 150,000 vehicles. The 307 remains in production for several countries, especially those that prefer Sedan_(automobile) saloon bodies such as Brazil and China.
in legislation unifying Northern Germany. The Reichstag decided on laws concerning (e.g.): * free movement of the citizens within the territory of the Confederation (1867) * a common postal system (1867 1868) * common passports (1867) * Prussian military laws replacing local military regulation (1867) * equal rights for the different denominations (1869) The North German Confederation became a member of the Zollverein, the German customs union of 1834. After negotiations in 1867, on 1 January 1868
by rebel troops, led by Maj. Gen. Soedarsono. President Soekarno asked the local military commander in Surakarta, Lieutenant Colonel Soeharto (who later became President Soeharto often spelled Suharto ) to arrest Major General Soedarsono and the rebel group. Lt. Col. Soeharto refused to follow this command unless it was given directly by the Military Chief of Staff, General Soedirman. President Soekarno was angry at this rejection of his authority to give direct commands to all levels