, who was a great promoter of both Galician and Castilian Spanish languages. Not just the kings encouraged literary creation in Galician-Portuguese, but also the noble houses of Galicia and Portugal, as being an author or bringing reputed troubadours into one's home became a way of promoting social prestige; as a result many nobleman, businessmen and clergymen of the 13th and 14th centuries became notable authors, such as Paio Gomes Charinho, lord of Rianxo, and the aforementioned kings
literary creation in Galician had stopped by the 16th century, when printing press became popular; the first complete translation of the Bible was not printed until the 20th century. As for other written uses of Galician, legal charters (last wills, hirings, sales, constitutional charters, city council book of acts, guild constitutions, books of possessions, and any type of public or private contracts and inventories) written in Galicia are to be found from 1230 to 1530—the earliest one
at Cicero talk ) 10:59, 1 July 2011 (UTC) Archivo:lluiscalvo.jpg thumb '' ' Bald Lluís i Guardiola, author of the picture: Kike València''' '' ' Bald Lluís i Guardiola''' (Zaragoza, May 27 of 1963) it is a poet, writer and essayist español (España) in catalán (language catalán). He studied Geography, but he now works as cultural technician. Besides the literary creation, it habitually collaborates
. In Morocco and Tunisia the instrument, called ''zamr'', has a single or double bell. The Moroccan instrument has six holes in each pipe. The Moroccan ''mizmār'' or ''zamr rīfī'' is over 100 centimetres long, again with six holes in each pipe, ending in two bull's horns. Origins The melhun, originally a pure literary creation, emerged as a poetic art today known in Morocco under the name of "qasida" (meaning "poem") (Arabic (Arabic alphabet): القصيدة) or "zajal" (Arabic (Arabic alphabet): الزجل). Combined with music, it quickly spread across the country where it acquired fame particularly among artisans. '''Gnawa music''' is a mixture of sub-Saharan African, Berber (Berber people), and Sufi religious songs and rhythms. It combines music and acrobatic dancing. The music is both a prayer and a celebration of life. Though many of the influences that formed this music can be traced to sub-Saharan Africa, and specifically, the Western Sahel, its practice is concentrated in north Africa, mainly South-western Algeria and Morocco. (See Gnawa for more details) *'''Mohamed Kouyou''' - In 1984 he played at the opening of the Moroccan (Morocco) Pavilion at Disney World. He also plays in essaouira's gnawa festival *'''Essaïd Bourki''' - He has his origins in the south of Morocco. He performed with his group in Belgium in 1990. He is considered the secret master of Essaouira. Besieged in 1190 by vastly superior force under the Almoravid King of Morocco Yusuf I (Yaqub, Almohad Caliph), he and his knights managed to defeat the monarch's forces and thus defending the north of the fledgling Kingdom. The estate has hosted the Manhasset negotiations, a round of talks between Morocco and the Polisario Front, August 10–12, 2007, as part of a set of UN-led meetings centering on the future of Western Sahara, among others. Created in 1969, the Pan-African film and television festival of Ouagadougou has evolved into an internationally recognized and respected event in not only the African continent but in the world at large. Alimata Salambere, the cultural minister of Burkina Faso from 1987 to 1991 was one of the founders of FESPACO. At its third edition in 1972, the name of the festival became FESPACO (Festival Pan-Africain du Cinema et de la Television de Ouagadougou). FESPACO became an institution by governmental decree on January 7, 1972. In that year, the first official winner of the best film award was ''Le Wazzou Polygame'' by Oumarou Ganda of Niger. Since then, the best film award has been won by directors from Cameroon, Morocco, Mali, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. '''Mauretania Tingitana''' was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco and Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The province extended from the northern peninsula, opposite Gibraltar, to Chellah (or Sala) and Volubilis to the south, C. Michael Hogan, ''Chellah'', The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham and as far east as the Oued Laou river. Its capital city was the city of Tingis, modern Tangier, after which it was named. Other major cities of the province were Iulia Valentia Banasa and Lixus (Lixus (ancient city)). University of Granada: Mauretania Tingitana (in Spanish) When the Umayyad Caliphs conquered all of Northern Africa, replacing Christianity and Paganism with Islam, both Mauretanias were reunited as the province of ''al-Maghrib'' (Arabic for 'the West', and still the official name of the Sherifian kingdom of Morocco). This province also included over half of modern Algeria. ''Cervus elaphus barbarus'' Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria E ''Gazella dorcas massaesyla'' Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia E ''Hyaena hyaena barbara'' Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia E Aquila heliaca adalberti Spain, Morocco, Algeria E World War I After temporary duty off Tampico, ''Nashville'' sailed from Norfolk on 2 August 1917, arriving Gibraltar on 18 August to patrol off the Moroccan (Morocco) coast. After serving as convoy escort off North Africa and in the western Mediterranean until 15 July 1918, ''Nashville'' departed Gibraltar, arriving on 1 August at Charleston, South Carolina. *Mombasa *Morocco enclaves **Agadir Yusef was an effective general and administrator, evidenced by his ability to organize and maintain the loyalty of the hardened desert warriors and the territory of Abu Bakr, as well as his ability to expand the empire, cross the Atlas Mountains onto the plains of Morocco, reaching the Mediterranean and capturing Fez (Fes, Morocco) in 1075, Tangier in 1079, Tlemcen in 1080, Ceuta in 1083, as well as Algiers, Ténès and Oran in 1082-83. He is regarded as the co-founder of the famous Moroccan city Marrakech (in Berber ''Murakush'', corrupted to ''Morocco'' in English). The site had been chosen and work started by Abu Bakr in 1070. The work was completed by Yusef, who then made it the capital of his empire, in place of the former capital Aghmāt (Aghmat). By the time Abu Bakr died in 1087, after a skirmish in the Sahara as result of a poison arrow, Yusef had crossed over into al-Andalus and also achieved victory at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (Battle of Sagrajas), also known as the ''Battle of Sagrajas'' in the west. He came to al-Andalus with a force of 15,000 men, armed with javelins (javelin (weapon)), daggers, most of his soldiers carried two swords, shields, cuirass of the finest leather and animal hide, as well as drummers for psychological combat. Yusef's cavalry was said to have included 6,000 shock troops from Senegal mounted on white Arabian horses. Camels were also put to use. On October 23, 1086, the Almoravid forces, accompanied by 10,000 Andalusian fighters from local Muslim provinces, decisively checked the Reconquista, defeating the largest Christian army ever assembled up to that point, significantly outnumbered. The death of Yusef's heir, however, prompted his speedy return to Africa. The Sanhaja confederation, which consisted of a hierarchy of Lamtuna, Musaffa and Djudalla Berbers (Berber people), represented the military's top brass. Amongst them were Andalusian Christians and heretic Africans, taking up duties as ''diwan al-gund'', Yusef's own personal bodyguard; including 2,000 black horsemen (cavalry), whose tasks also included registering soldiers and making sure they were compensated financially. The occupying forces of the Almoravids were made up largely horsemen, totaling no less than 20,000. Into the major cities of al-Andalus, Seville (7,000), Granada (1,000), Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (1,000), 5,000 bordering Castile (Castile (historical region)) and 4,000 in western Andalusia, succeeding waves of horsemen in conjunction with the garrisons that had been left there after the Battle of Sagrajas, made responding, for the Taifa emirs, difficult. Soldiers on foot used bows (Bow (weapon)) & arrows (Arrow (weapon)), sabres, pike (pike (weapon))s, javelins (javelin (weapon)), each protected by a cuirass of Moroccan (Morocco) leather and iron piked shields. During the siege of the fort-town Aledo, in Murcia, previously captured by the Spaniard (Spanish people) ''Garcia Giménez'', Almoravid and Andalusian (Andalusian people) hosts are said to have used catapults, in addition to their customary drum beat. Yusef also established naval bases in Cadiz, Almeria and neighboring ports along the Mediterranean. Ibn-Maymun, the governor of Almeria, had a fleet at his disposal. Another such example is the Banu-Ganiya fleet based off the Balearic Islands that dominated the affairs of the western Mediterranean for much of the 12th century. http: books.google.com books?id 374eAAAAIAAJ&printsec frontcover&source gbs_summary_r&cad 0#PPA5,M1 thumb Zellige (Image:Mekhnes Place El-Hedine Mosaique3.jpg), the Moroccan mosaic '''Morocco''' is a country with a multiethnic society and a rich culture, civilization, and etiquette. Throughout Moroccan history (History of Morocco), Morocco has hosted many peoples, in addition to the indigenous Berbers (Amazigh people), coming from the East (Phoenicians, Jews, and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan African), and North (Romans (Ancient Rome) and Vandals). All of these have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It has also hosted many forms of belief, from Paganism, Judaism, Christianity to Islam. page 305 ) was a Muslim Berber (Berber people) religious (religion) scholar, teacher and political leader from southern Morocco. He was the founder and spiritual leader of the Almohad (Almohad dynasty) movement, a puritanical reform movement launched among the Masmuda Berbers (Berber people) of the Atlas Mountains. Ibn Tumart launched the open revolt against the ruling Almoravids (Almoravid dynasty) during the 1120s. After his death, his followers, the Almohads, went on to conquer much of North Africa and Spain. He is also known as El-Mahdi (المهدي) in reference to his prophesied redeeming. Many of the details of Ibn Tumart's life were recorded by hagiographers (hagiography), whose accounts probably mix legendary elements from the Almohad cult of their founding figure and spiritual leader. A French translation of the relation of the Almohad hagiographer Mohammed al-Baydhaq, can be found in Lévi-Provençal (1928). A Spanish translation of the arguably most reliable Almohad chronicle ''al-Bayan al-Mughrib'' of Ibn Idhari al-Marrakushi (Ibn Idhari), can be found in Huici Miranda (1951). Ibn Idhari was a principal source for the account, ''Kitab al-'Ibar'', of Ibn Khaldun. Ibn Khallikan's entry on Ibn Tumart can be found in English translation in ''Biographical Dictionary'', 1843 M. de Slane trans., Paris, vol. 3, p.205) Ibn Tumart was born sometime between 1078 and 1082 in the small village of Igiliz (exact location uncertain Fromherz (2005: p.177) identifies Igiliz (and Ibn Tumart's nearby cave) with the modern small village of Igli, some 30 km east of Taroudant in the Sous valley ) in the Sous valley of southern Morocco. H. Kennedy (1996) He was a member of the Hargha people, a Berber (Berber people) tribe of the Anti-Atlas range, part of the Masmuda (Berber (Berber languages): ''imesmuden'') tribal confederation. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers headed west into Morocco. He stopped by Fez (Fes, Morocco), the intellectual capital of Morocco, and engaged in polemical debates with the leading Malikite scholars of the city. Having exhausted them, the ''ulama'' of Fez decided they had enough and expelled him from the city. He proceeded south, hurried along from town to town like a vagabond (reportedly, he and his companions had to swim across the Bou Regreg, as they could not afford the ferry passage). Shortly after his arrival in Marrakesh, Ibn Tumart is said to have successfully sought out the Almoravid ruler Ali ibn Yusuf at a local mosque. In the famous encounter, when ordered to acknowledge the presence of the emir, Ibn Tumart reportedly replied "Where is the emir? I see only women here!" - an insulting reference to the tagelmust veil worn by the Almoravid ruling class. Messier (2010: p.141) (According to one source, Ibn Tumart attacked the emir's own sister for going unveiled). signatories parties 22: Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Liberia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Tunisia, and Ukraine depositor Secretary-General of the United Nations State parties to the convention There are 22 state parties where the convention is ratified: Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Liberia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Tunisia, and Ukraine *'''Mali''' - Bamako (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamako) *'''Morocco''' - Rabat (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rabat), Tanger (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tanger) *'''Mozambique''' - Beira (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beira), Maputo (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maputo), Nampula (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nampula) '''Binter Canarias S.A.''' is an airline based in Gran Canaria, Spain. It is a regional carrier operating inter-island services within the Canary Islands, in addition to services to Morocco, and Portugal. The airline carried 2.9 million passengers in 2008. Binter Canarias The Company Binter Canarias received Europe's best regional airline 2005 http: www.bintercanarias.com noticias 117 2005 binter-canarias-europes-best-regional-airline-2005 and, on September 24, 2010, it was announced that Binter Canarias had won the European Regions Airline Association (ERA) Gold Award: Airline of the Year for 2010 2011. http: www.eraa.org about awards-a-honours http: www.lanzaroteinformation.com content binter-airline-year Islamic conquest and Reconquista For almost seven hundred years, Spain was the battleground for the opposing forces of the Islamic Caliphate and Western Christian forces. Both Muslims and Christian were motivated by religious conviction, which inspired the warfare. The initial Islamic invasion of Iberia (Umayyad conquest of Hispania) was sudden and unexpected. The varied Moorish tribes of Morocco united under the leadership of Arab generals sent by the reigning Umayyad caliph and crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in 711 under the leadership of the Berber (Berber people) Tariq ibn Ziyad. Tariq won a swift victory at the Guadalete (Battle of Guadalete) and defeated and killed the reigning Gothic king, Roderic. Montgomery, p.13. In a campaign lasting eight years, the whole of Iberia was subjected to Umayyad authority, except for the Asturias mountain range in the far northwest and the pockets of resistance in Navarre. The Islamic offensive ultimately paused after the losses it suffered in Frankland (Francia) and in the Asturias, where battles such as those at Tours (Battle of Tours) and Covadonga (Battle of Covadonga) showed some of the potential weaknesses of the Arab methods of warfare. Davis, p.105. Despite a resurgence during the 10th century, the Caliphate of Córdoba's attempts to reverse the Reconquista failed, and by the 11th century, Christian Iberia was united under Sancho the Great, the King of Navarre, whilst the caliphate was divided and engulfed by civil war, the period of the ''taifas''. The 11th century saw the development of a concept of Christian holy war, to be waged against Islam with the purpose of recapturing long lost territories - the Crusade (Crusades). Crusading, under other names, also took place in Spain; Franks and Normans and even Papal troops took to Spain in increasing numbers to join the locals in their fight against "the Moor." The last threat of the 11th century came in the form of the Almoravids, who with their well disciplined forces first established a hegemony over Morocco and then extended it over al-Andalus. While the ''Reconquista'' paused in the west, to the east Alfonso the Battler, the King of Aragon, redoubled efforts to retake the valley of the Ebro. In 1212, the ''Reconquistadores'' gained a decisive victory over the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Shortly after the battle, the Castilians retook Baeza and, then, Úbeda, major fortified cities near the battlefield, and gateways to invade Andalucia. Thereafter, Ferdinand III of Castile retook Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain) in 1236, Jaén (Jaén, Spain) in 1246, and Seville in 1248; then he took Arcos, Medina-Sidonia, Jerez and Cádiz, effectively bringing the bulk of the reconquista to a conclusion. History TWR started in 1952, when Paul Freed set up the organization to reach Spain by broadcasting from Morocco. Later, after TWR was evicted from Morocco, the network operated from Monaco for many years using a high-powered transmitter system abandoned by the Nazis (Nazism) after World War II. Other major transmitting sites include Guam, Bonaire, Sri Lanka, Cyprus, and Swaziland. Tea was introduced to Morocco in the 18th century through trade with Europe. The '''''grands caids''''' were Berber feudal rulers of southern quarter of Morocco under the French Protectorate (French Morocco). WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco
were Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) and Germaine de Staël (1766–1817). More recent authors include Charles Ferdinand Ramuz (1878–1947), whose novels describe the lives of peasants and mountain dwellers, set in a harsh environment and Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric Sauser, 1887–1961). Also Italian and Romansh-speaking authors contributed but in more modest way given their small number. Probably the most famous Swiss literary creation, ''Heidi'', the story of an orphan girl who lives with her grandfather in the Alps, is one of the most popular children's books ever and has come to be a symbol of Switzerland. Her creator, Johanna Spyri (1827–1901), wrote a number of other books around similar themes. Media commons:Confoederatio Helvetica
on April 21, 1930, in Jaú, Brazil. In 1948 she enrolled in the Law Course at Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo (Largo São Francisco), finishing it in 1952. There she met her best friend, the writer Lygia Fagundes Telles. In 1966, Hilda moved to ''Casa do Sol'' (Sunhouse), a country seat next to Campinas, where she hosted a lot of writers and artists for several years. Living there, she dedicated all her time to literary creation. In the Roman Catholic church, the movement became particularly popular in the Filipino (Filipino people), Korean (Koreans), and Hispanic communities of the United States, in the Philippines, and in Latin America, mainly Brazil. Travelling priests and lay people associated with the movement often visit parishes and sing what are known as charismatic masses. It is thought to be the second largest distinct sub-movement (some 120 million members) within global Catholicism, along with Traditional Catholicism. David Barrett, "Christian World Communions: Five Overviews of Global Christianity, AD 1800-2025," INTERNATIONAL BULLETIN OF MISSIONARY RESEARCH, Volume 33, No 1, 25-32 In Brazil, the explosion of soybean cultivation has led to losing large tracts of forest land leading to ecological damage.
;ref Hull, p.99; Toy, p.133. '''Jean Charles Emmanuel Nodier''' (April 29, 1780, Besançon – January 27, 1844, Paris), was a French (France) author who introduced a younger generation of Romanticists (Romanticism) to the ''conte fantastique'', gothic literature, vampire tales, and the importance of dreams as part of literary creation, and whose career as a librarian is often underestimated by literary historians