, the Province of Gorizia was an administrative unit of the Fascist regime, governed by a Government-appointed prefect and the local Fascist hierarchy. All municipal autonomy was abolished and the ''podestà'', appointed by the prefect, replaced the elected mayors. All legal political activity outside the regime became impossible and most of the civil society institutions, at least the Slovenian ones, were dismantled. In 1927, the first militant anti-fascist (Militant anti-fascism) organization
%) *Albanians 1,303,032 (13.99%) *Yugoslavs 441,941 (4.75%) *Hungarians 390,468 (4.19%) *Muslims (Muslims by nationality) 215,166 (2.31%) *Croats 149,368 (1.60%) *Romani (Romani people) 110,956 (1.19%) *Macedonians (Macedonians (ethnic group)) 48,986 *Slovenes 12,006 Politics In the Socialist Republic, the only legal political party was the League of Communists of Serbia (SKS), which was part of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ). The party remained relatively stable and loyal to the federal party until the late 1980s, when the party became split over what action to take in Kosovo when protests and fights broke out between ethnic Albanians and Serbs. The more traditional Communists supported President Ivan Stambolic, who advocated continued neutrality as a means to solve the dispute; while more radical and nationalist-leaning members supported Slobodan Milosevic, who advocated the protection of Kosovo's Serbs, who had claimed that their population was being pressured to leave Kosovo by Albanian separatists. Milosevic utilized public sentiment and opposition to Kosovo separatism to rally large numbers of supporters to help him overthrow the Communist leadership in Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro in what was known as the anti-bureaucratic revolution. Afterwards, the Serbian League of Communists selected Milosevic as its leader. Milosevic took a hard stand on Albanian nationalism in Kosovo and pressured the Yugoslav government to give him emergency powers to deal with Kosovo separatists. Furthermore he reduced the autonomy of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina and installed politicians loyal to him to serve as their representatives. In the congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists in 1990, Milosevic and his subordinate representatives for Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro attempted to silence opposition from the Socialist Republic of Slovenia who opposed the actions taken against Kosovo, by blocking all reforms proposed by the Slovene representatives. The tactic failed and Slovenia, along with its ally Croatia, abdicated from the Yugoslav Communist Party. This caused the Yugoslav Communist party to fall apart, and then the state of Yugoslavia itself one year later. Heads of institutions Chairman of ASNOS (1944 - 1945) *Siniša Stanković (12 November 1944 - 7 April 1945) Presidents *'''President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (1945 - 1953)''' **Siniša Stanković (7 April 1945 - March 1953) *'''Presidents of the National Assembly (1953 - 1974)''' **Petar Stambolić (December 1953 - April 1957) **Jovan Veselinov (April 1957 - 26 June 1963) **Dušan Petrović (Dušan Petrović (President of the National Assembly)) (26 June 1963 - 6 May 1967) **Miloš Minić (6 May 1967 - 6 May 1969) **Dragoslav Marković (6 May 1969 - 19 April 1974) **Živan Vasiljević (19 April - 6 May 1974) *'''Presidents of the Presidency (1974 - 1990)''' **Dragoslav Marković (6 May 1974 - 5 May 1978) **Dobrivoje Vidić (5 May 1978 - 5 May 1982) **Nikola Ljubičić (5 May 1982 - 5 May 1984) **Dušan Čkrebić (5 May 1984 - 5 May 1986) **Ivan Stambolić (5 May 1986 - 14 December 1987) **Petar Gračanin (14 December 1987 - 20 March 1989) **Ljubiša Igić (20 March - 8 May 1989) (acting) **Slobodan Milošević (8 May 1989 - 28 September 1990) Prime Ministers *'''Minister for Serbia in Yugoslav government''' ** Jaša Prodanović (7 March 1945 - 9 April 1945) *'''President of the Government''' **Blagoje Nešković (9 April 1945 - 5 September 1948) **Petar Stambolić (5 September 1948 - 5 February 1953) *'''President of the Executive Council''' **Petar Stambolić (5 February 1953 - 16 December 1953) **Jovan Veselinov (16 December 1953 - 6 April 1957) **Miloš Minić (6 April 1957 - 9 June 1962) **Slobodan Penezić Krcun (9 June 1962 - 6 November 1964) **Stevan Doronjski (Acting; 6 November 1964 - 17 November 1964) **Dragi Stamenković (17 November 1964 - 6 June 1967) **Đurica Jojkić (6 June 1967 - 7 May 1969) **Milenko Bojanić (7 May 1969 - 6 May 1974) **Dušan Čkrebić (6 May 1974 - 6 May 1978) **Ivan Stambolić (6 May 1978 - 5 May 1982) **Branislav Ikonić (5 May 1982 - 6 May 1986) **Desimir Jevtić (6 May 1986 - 5 December 1989) **Stanko Radmilović (5 December 1989 - 28 September 1990) See also *Serbia *History of Serbia *Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consider it a key moment in the breakup of Yugoslavia and a contributor to the Yugoslav wars. * Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia) (1944–1946), Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) (1946–1963), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992) ** People's Republic of Serbia (Socialist Republic of Serbia) (1944–1963), Socialist Republic of Serbia (1963–1990), Republic of Serbia (Republic of Serbia (1990–2006)) (1990–1992) *** Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (1945–1963)) (1944–1963), Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (1963–1990), Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Vojvodina) (1990–1992) * Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia) (1944–1946), Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) (1946–1963), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992) ** People's Republic of Serbia (Socialist Republic of Serbia) (1944–1963), Socialist Republic of Serbia (1963–1990), Republic of Serbia (Republic of Serbia (1990–2006)) (1990–1992) *** Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (1945–1963)) (1944–1963), Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (1963–1990), Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Vojvodina) (1990–1992)
. His political party, the Cameroon National Union (CNU), became the sole legal political party on 1 September 1966 and in 1972, the federal system of government (federation) was abolished in favour of a United Republic of Cameroon, headed from Yaoundé. DeLancey and DeLancey 19. Ahidjo pursued an economic policy of planned liberalism, prioritising cash crops and petroleum exploitation. The government used oil money to create a national cash reserve, pay farmers, and finance major development projects; however, many initiatives failed when Ahidjo appointed unqualified allies to direct them. DeLancey and DeLancey 7. International airports are located in Douala and Yaoundé. The airport at Bamenda is now closed. The Wouri estuary provides a harbour for Douala, the country's principal seaport. In the north, the Bénoué River is seasonally navigable from Garoua across into Nigeria. Cameroon's population is almost evenly divided between urban and rural dwellers. West 3. Population density is highest in the large urban centres, the western highlands, and the northeastern plain. Neba 109–11. Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua are the largest cities. In contrast, the Adamawa Plateau, southeastern Bénoué depression, and most of the South Cameroon Plateau are sparsely populated. Neba 111. Airports The main international airport is the Douala International Airport. Secondary international airports are at Yaoundé and Garoua. In total, there were 34 airports in 2008, only 10 of which had paved runways. Among the international airlines serving Cameroon are Alitalia, Swiss, Iberia and Air Mali. The Cameroonian armed forces have bases spread all over Cameroon, including in Ngaoundéré. Air Force bases are located in Garoua, Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda.
European Junior Championships San Sebastián, Spain bgcolor "gold" align "center" 1st European Indoor Championships (1977 European Athletics Indoor Championships) San Sebastián, Spain bgcolor "silver" align "center" 2nd thumb right Iñaki Gabilondo (File:Iñaki Gabilondo.jpg) '''José Ignacio Gabilondo Pujol''' (San Sebastián, October 19, 1942) is a Spanish (Spain) journalist, and TV news anchor. Gabilondo started his career at 21 (1963) in Radio Popular (COPE) until 1969, when he became the director of Radio San Sebastián (Cadena SER). Two years later, he directed the news department of Cadena SER Sevilla.
the sole legal political party on 1 September 1966 and in 1972, the federal system of government (federation) was abolished in favour of a United Republic of Cameroon, headed from Yaoundé. DeLancey and DeLancey (#DeLancey) 19. Ahidjo pursued an economic policy of planned liberalism, prioritising cash crops and petroleum exploitation. The government used oil money to create a national cash reserve, pay farmers, and finance major development projects; however, many initiatives failed when Ahidjo appointed unqualified allies to direct them. DeLancey and DeLancey (#DeLancey) 7. thumb left Paul Biya has ruled the country since 1982 (File:Paul Biya 2014.png) Ahidjo stepped down on 4 November 1982 and left power to his constitutional successor, Paul Biya. However, Ahidjo remained in control of the CNU and tried to run the country from behind the scenes until Biya and his allies pressured him into resigning. Biya began his administration by moving toward a more democratic government, but a failed coup d'état (Cameroonian Palace Guard Revolt) nudged him toward the leadership style of his predecessor. DeLancey and DeLancey (#DeLancey) 8. An economic crisis (economic crisis of Cameroon) took effect in the mid-1980s to late 1990s as a result of international economic conditions, drought, falling petroleum prices, and years of corruption, mismanagement, and cronyism. Cameroon turned to foreign aid, cut government spending, and privatised (privatization) industries. With the reintroduction of multi-party politics in December 1990, the former British Cameroons pressure groups called for greater autonomy, and the Southern Cameroons National Council advocated complete secession as the Republic of Ambazonia. DeLancey and DeLancey (#DeLancey) 9. In February 2008, Cameroon experienced its worst violence in 15 years when a transport union strike in Douala escalated into violent protests (2008 Cameroonian anti-government protests) in 31 municipal areas. In May 2014, in the wake of the Chibok schoolgirl kidnapping, Presidents Paul Biya of Cameroon and Idriss Deby of Chad announced they are waging war on Boko Haram, and deployed troops to the Nigerian border. Commons:Category:Cameroon WikiPedia:Cameroon Dmoz:Regional Africa Cameroon
; (capitals appear in parentheses): Commons:Category:Equatorial Guinea WikiPedia:Equatorial Guinea Dmoz:Regional Africa Equatorial Guinea
. In Africa, Portuguese is a growing language and projected by UNESCO to be one of the most spoken languages within 50 years. As the populations of Angola and Mozambique continue to grow, their influence on Portuguese will become increasingly important. Angola and Mozambique, along with São Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and Equatorial Guinea are known as the ''Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa'' (Official Portuguese Language African Countries) or PALOP (Portuguese-speaking African countries), forming a community of some 16 million speakers (9 million use it as first or only language; the rest are bilingual, using the language daily). The educational aid of Brazil and Portugal to these countries also increases the need of people to educate their children in Portuguese. Portuguese especially grew in use after the independence of Portugal's former colonies. Independence movements from Guinea-Bissau to Mozambique saw it as an instrument to achieve their countries' development and national unity. The residents of these countries use European Portuguese. Guinea-Bissau In Guinea-Bissau, the most widely spoken language is a Portuguese Creole known as ''Crioulo'' or Upper Guinea Creole (Kriol), and the formal use of Portuguese seems to be decreasing. However, the situation there is different from Cape Verde (where only Portuguese and Portuguese Creoles are spoken). In Guinea-Bissau, there are numerous languages and Portuguese and its Creole are spoken by about 74% of the inhabitants (as first and second language), of which Portuguese itself is only spoken by 14% (11.4% according to the 1992 census). This is mostly due to internal political instability which affects education. In the country, several different African languages are spoken, and the lingua franca is Upper Guinea Creole, which is taught informally throughout the country, as it is an important vehicle of communication between different tribes, including mestiços, because of the lack of a nationwide educational system. The Dioula language and people are distinct from the Diola (Jola) people of Guinea-Bissau and Casamance. Africa In certain African countries, the CPD is not officially required, but is often used to facilitate temporary importation of a vehicle. Countries where the CPD may be used include: Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Congo (Republic of the Congo), Egypt, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The '''Guinea-Bissau national football team''' is the national team of Guinea-Bissau and is controlled by the Federação de Futebol da Guiné-Bissau. They are a member of the Confederation of African Football (CAF). Before 1975, they were known as the ''Portuguese Guinea national football team''. On 20 June, France sent a draft resolution to the UNSC for authorization of Operation Turquoise under a two-month Chapter VII mandate. After two days of consultations and the personal approval of the U.N. Secretary General (United Nations Secretary-General), it was adopted as Resolution 929 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 929) (1994), on 22 June, with 10 votes of approval and five abstentions. The first contingents of the force of 2,550 French troops and 500 African troops from Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Mauritania, Egypt, Niger and the Republic of the Congo entered Rwanda the next day. The equipment included 100 APC (armored personnel carrier )s, 10 helicopters, a battery of 120 mm mortar (Mortar (weapon))s, 4 Jaguar fighter bombers (SEPECAT Jaguar), 8 Mirage fighters (Dassault Mirage III), and reconnaissance aircraft. Caplan, Gerard, Pambazuka News 142: Rwanda Ten Years After the Genocide: Some Reminders of the International Response to the Crisis, Pambazuka News, 5 February 2004 The helicopters were intended to lay a trail of food, water and medicine. The area that was selected ended up with the result that refugees were enabled to escape predominantly westward, into eastern Zaire. The zone affected by Operation Turquoise was changed after 2 members of a French reconnaissance unit were captured by the victorious RPF (Rwandan_Patriotic_Front) rebels and were released in exchange for a revision in the area of Operation Turquoise. http: sites.tufts.edu jha archives 123 From 1969 to 1971, Jerónimo de Sousa participated in the Colonial War, against the liberation movements that were struggling in the Portuguese colonies in Africa. He served in Guinea-Bissau, forced to fight the Marxist movement of liberation, the PAIGC. thumb left African manatee in Toba Aquarium (File:Trichechus senegalensis.jpg) in Toba, Mie, Japan. African manatees can be found in much of the western region of Africa, such as in the countries of Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. Not only are these manatees found in many countries, but also in many different kinds of bodies of water, ranging from brackish to freshwater. They can be found in oceans, rivers, lakes, coastal estuaries, reservoirs, lagoons, and calm shallow bays on the coast. However, a limiting factor of where the African manatee can live is temperature. It is very rare to find an African manatee in water with a temperature below 18 degrees Celsius. Distribution and habitat This orchid is native to tropical and South Africa (Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Burundi, Camerun, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Central African Republic, Republic of Guinea, Gabon, Ruanda, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Malawi, Republic of Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), Ansellia africana in World Checklist of Orchidaceae. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew found alongside coasts and rivers in the canopy of trees, usually at elevations lower than 700 m (occasionally up to 2,200 m). In 1961, guided by António de Oliveira Salazar, he offered himself for voluntary service in Portuguese colonies of West Africa. Between 1961 and 1963, he held the command of the 345th Cavalry Battalion in Angola, distinguishing himself and his unit. At the end of his tenure, he was nominated for, and served as, the Military Governor (List of colonial heads of Portuguese Guinea) of Guinea-Bissau from 1968, and again in 1972, during the period of the Colonial War (Portuguese Colonial War), where his administration favoured a policy of respect for ethnic Guineans and the traditional authorities. At the same time, he continued to practice a range of initiatives in the War, from clandestine meetings (he met secretly
groups within the western Ukrainian community. The Division's prime organizer and highest ranking Ukrainian officer, Dmytro Paliiv, had been the leader of a small legal political party in the Second Polish Republic. Many of his colleagues had been members of the pre-war moderate, left-leaning democratic UNDO movement (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance) Timothy Snyder. (2004) ''The Reconstruction of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press: pg. 218. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
''' ( Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan