Places Known For

leading position


Duchy of Austria

15 df yes ) was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg dynasty (House of Habsburg) to a leading position among the Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) feudal dynasties. Originally a Swabian (Duke of Swabia) count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria (Duchy of Austria) and Styria (Duchy of Styria), territories that would remain under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years and would form the core of the Habsburg Monarchy and the present-day country of Austria. In November 1274 it was decided by the Imperial Diet (Reichstag (Holy Roman Empire)) at Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that King Ottokar II must answer to the Diet for not recognizing the new king. Ottokar refused to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria (Duchy of Austria), Styria (Duchy of Styria) and Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia) with the March of Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg (House of Babenberg) heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Margrave Hermann VI of Baden (Hermann VI, Margrave of Baden). Rudolph refuted Ottokar's succession to the Babenberg patrimony, declaring that the provinces reverted to the Imperial crown due to the lack of male-line heirs (a position that however conflicted with the provisions of the Austrian ''Privilegium Minus''). King Ottokar was placed under the imperial ban; and in June 1276 war was declared against him. Innocent also sent a flow of money to Germany to cut off Frederick's power at its source. The archbishops of Cologne (archbishops of Cologne) and Mainz (archbishop of Mainz) also declared Frederick deposed, and in May 1246 a new king was chosen in the person of Heinrich Raspe. On 5 August 1246 Heinrich, thanks to the Pope's money, managed to defeat an army of Conrad, son of Frederick, near Frankfurt. But Frederick strengthened his position in Southern Germany, acquiring the Duchy of Austria, whose duke had died without heirs, and one year later Heinrich died as well. The new anti-king was William II, Count of Holland. Father and son were eventually reconciled to assist the King's aim of acquiring the neighbouring Duchy of Austria. The Duchy had been without a ruler since the death of Duke Frederick II (Frederick II, Duke of Austria) in 1246. Wenceslaus initially attempted to acquire the duchy by marrying his heir, Vladislav, to the last Duke's niece Gertrude (Gertrude, Duchess of Austria). That match had been cut short by Vladislav's death and Gertrude's re-marriage to Herman VI, Margrave of Baden. The latter was rejected by the Austrian estates and could not establish his rule in Austria. Wenceslaus used this as pretext to invade Austria in 1250 – according to some sources, the estates called upon him in to restore order. *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Otto de la Roche (1205–1225) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) Dukes of Austria In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated the march to a duchy (Duchy of Austria), independent of the Duchy of Bavaria. *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Otto de la Roche (1205–1225) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) *'''Holy Roman Empire''' (House of Luxembourg) - Sigismund, King of the Romans (Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor) (1410–1437) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - Albert V (Albert II, King of the Romans) (1404–1439) **'''Bavaria-Ingolstadt''' - Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria (1413–1443) *'''Holy Roman Empire''' (House of Luxembourg) - Sigismund, King of the Romans (Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor) (1410–1437) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - Albert V (Albert II, King of the Romans) (1404–1439) **'''Bavaria-Ingolstadt''' - Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria (1413–1443) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Nerio I Acciajuoli (1388–1394) *'''Duchy of Austria''' (Albertinian line) - Albert III (Albert III, Duke of Austria) (1365–1395) *'''Inner Austria''' (Leopoldian line) - William (William, Duke of Austria), Duke of Styria (Styria (duchy)), Duke of Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia) and Count of Tyrol (County of Tyrol) (1386–1406) About 900 the ''Enisiburg'' castle, later ''Ennsegg'' Palace, was built on the Georgenberg hill to serve as a protective fortress against Magyar (Hungarian prehistory) invasions. The surrounding settlement prospered from the 12th century onwards, when Ottokar II, Margrave of Styria established a market (market town) here. In 1186 the Georgenberg Pact was signed, an inheritance contract between Ottokar IV, Duke of Styria, who lacked a male heir, and the Babenberg (House of Babenberg) duke of Austria (Duchy of Austria), Leopold V (Leopold V, Duke of Austria). Following the death of Ottokar IV in 1192, his duchy of Styria — then significantly bigger than the contemporary state, reaching from present day Slovenia to Upper Austria — fell to the House of Babenberg. Thus, Enns became Austrian. **'''County of Arenberg''' - Eberhard I (III) (Eberhard I (III), Count of Arenberg) (1308–1387) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - (House of Habsburg) - Albert II the Wise (Albert II, Duke of Austria) (1330–1358)**'''Duchy of Bavaria''' (House of Wittelsbach) - ***Albert, Duke of Bavaria (Albert, Count of Holland) (1347–1404) **#Waldemar I (Waldemar I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst) (1316–1367) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - (House of Habsburg) - Albert II the Wise (Albert II, Duke of Austria) (1330–1358)**'''Duchy of Bavaria''' (House of Wittelsbach) - ***Albert (Albert, Count of Holland) (1347–1404) *'''Duchy of Auschwitz''' - (Piast dynasty) - John I Scholastyk (Jan I Scholastyk, Duke of Auschwitz) (1321 1324-1375 1376) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - (House of Habsburg) - Albert II the Wise (Albert II, Duke of Austria) (1330–1358) *'''Margraviate of Baden-Baden''' - Frederick III (Frederick III, Margrave of Baden) (1348–1353) *'''Holy Roman Empire''' (House of Wittelsbach) - Louis IV (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor) (1314–1347) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - Albert II, Duke of Austria (1330-1358) **'''County of Hainaut and County of Holland''' (House of Avesnes) - William II, Count of Hainaut William IV, Count of Holland (William II, Count of Hainaut) (1337–1345) *'''Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg''' - Henry III von Schönegg (Henry III von Schönegg, Bishop of Augsburg) (1337–1348) *'''Duchy of Austria''' (House of Habsburg) - Albert II (Albert II of Austria) (1330–1358) *'''Margraviate of Baden-Eberstein''' - Herman IX (Herman IX, Margrave of Baden-Eberstein) (1314–1362) *'''Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg''' - Henry III von Schönegg (Henry III von Schönegg, Bishop of Augsburg) (1337–1348) *'''Duchy of Austria''' (House of Habsburg) - Albert II (Albert II of Austria) (1330–1358) *'''Margraviate of Baden-Eberstein''' - Herman IX (Herman IX, Margrave of Baden-Eberstein) (1314–1362) *'''Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg''' - Henry III von Schönegg (Henry III von Schönegg, Bishop of Augsburg) (1337–1348) *'''Duchy of Austria''' (House of Habsburg) - Albert II (Albert II of Austria) (1330–1358) *'''Margraviate of Baden-Eberstein''' - Herman IX (Herman IX, Margrave of Baden-Eberstein) (1314–1362) *#Henry III von Schönegg (Henry III von Schönegg, Bishop of Augsburg) (1337–1348) *'''Duchy of Austria''' (House of Habsburg) - Albert II (Albert II of Austria) (1330–1358) *'''Margraviate of Baden-Eberstein''' - Herman IX (Herman IX, Margrave of Baden-Eberstein) (1314–1362) *'''Holy Roman Empire''' (House of Wittelsbach) - Louis IV (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor) (1314–1347) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - Albert II, Duke of Austria (1330-1358) **'''Brabant (Duchy of Brabant)''' - John III (John III, Duke of Brabant), Duke of Brabant (1312-1355) *'''Holy Roman Empire''' (House of Wittelsbach) - Louis IV (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor) (1314–1347) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - Albert II, Duke of Austria (1330-1358) **'''Brabant (Duchy of Brabant)''' - John III (John III, Duke of Brabant), Duke of Brabant (1312-1355) *'''Holy Roman Empire''' (House of Wittelsbach) - Louis IV (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor) (1314–1347) **'''Duchy of Austria''' - Albert II, Duke of Austria (1330-1358) **'''Brabant (Duchy of Brabant)''' - John III (John III, Duke of Brabant), Duke of Brabant (1312-1355) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Otto de la Roche (1205–1225) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Otto de la Roche (1205–1225) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Otto de la Roche (1205–1225) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) *# Guy I de la Roche (1225–1263) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Guy I de la Roche (1225–1263) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''County of Auvergne''' - Guy II (Guy II of Auvergne) (1195–1224) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Guy I de la Roche (1225–1263) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''Dauphinate of Auvergne''' - Robert IV (1169–1235) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Guy I de la Roche (1225–1263) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''Dauphinate of Auvergne''' - Dalfi d'Alvernha (Robert IV) (Dalfi d'Alvernha) (1169–1235) *'''Duchy of Athens''' - Guy I de la Roche (1225–1263) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''Dauphinate of Auvergne''' - Dalfi d'Alvernha (Robert IV) (Dalfi d'Alvernha) (1169–1235) *'''Kingdom of Aragon''' - James I (James I of Aragon) (1213–1276) *'''Duchy of Austria''' - Leopold VI (Leopold VI of Austria) (1198–1230) *'''Dauphinate of Auvergne''' - Dalfi d'Alvernha (Robert IV) (Dalfi d'Alvernha) (1169–1235) Duke of Austria Leopold succeeded his father as Duke of Austria upon his death on 13 January 1177. Soon after becoming Duke, Leopold lent his support to Frederick of Bohemia in his struggle against Duke Soběslav II (Soběslav II, Duke of Bohemia), who had campaigned in the Austrian duchy, and in 1179, Leopold reached a peace agreement with Bohemia. On 17 August 1186, he negotiated the Georgenberg Pact with Ottokar IV of Styria (Ottokar IV, Duke of Styria), by which Styria (Duchy of Styria) and the central part of Upper Austria were amalgamated into the Duchy of Austria after 1192. This was the first step towards the creation of modern Austria. Background The House of Habsburg had gained rulership of the Duchy of Austria in 1282. Rudolph IV (1339-1365) attempted to restore the Habsburgian influence on the European political scene by trying to build relations with Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor) and increasing the respect of the Austrian rulers. However, Rudolph IV did not belong to the seven Prince-electors, who - as dictated by the Golden Bull of 1356 - had the power to choose the King. Like Charles IV had made Prague the center of his rule, Rudolph did the same for Vienna, giving it special privileges, launching construction projects and founding the University of Vienna. All this aimed at increasing the legitimacy and influence of the House and its Austrian lands. For this purpose, in the winter of 1358 1359, Rudolph IV ordered the creation of a forged document called Privilegium Maius ("the greater privilege"). The '''Albertinian line''' was a line of the Habsburg dynasty, begun by Albert III (Albert III of Austria), who, after death of his brother Rudolf IV (Rudolf IV of Austria) the Founder, split the Habsburg territories with his brother. Albert was the prince of the Duchy of Austria, while the southern territories (Inner Austria) were ruled by his brother - Leopold III (Leopold III of Austria (Habsburg)). Albert's son was also called Albert, who took the rule over his territories in 1394 as Albert IV (Albert IV of Austria). He died in 1404 leaving a wife, Joan of Wittelsbach and a son - Albert V (Albert V of Austria), who became King of the Romans, King of Bohemia and of Hungary. Albert had married Elisabeth, daughter of the king of Hungary and Bohemia, Sigismund of Luxemburg, and after his death in 1437, he was crowned as the king of these countries. He died a year later. thumb Monks' cells (File:Kartause-mauerbach-zellen.jpg) Mauerbach Charterhouse was founded in 1314 by the Austrian (Duchy of Austria) duke Frederick the Fair, who was later buried here. After the charterhouse was dissolved in 1782 his remains were moved to their present location in the Ducal Crypt (Ducal Crypt (Vienna)) in the Stephansdom, Vienna. The new foundation was settled by 12 monks under Prior Gottfried descending from Seiz (Žiče Charterhouse) (Žiče) in Styria (Duchy of Styria) and was consecrated in 1316. In 1342 the Prague Charterhouse (at Smíchov), destroyed in the Hussite Wars, was settled by monks who probably came from Mauerbach.


Kriminalpolizei

The Blue Police was subordinate to German Ordnungspolizei.


Kano

to the Shia branch (see Shia in Nigeria). Christians and followers of other non-Muslim religions form a small part of the population and traditionally lived in the Sabon Gari, or Foreign Quarter. Transportation thumb right 100px Kano municipal council gate (2009) (File:Kano municipal council gate.jpg) Kano is strategically located and owns its leading position as commercial hub in the sub-Saharan Africa. Kano is linked to many African cities by road


Saarland

territory . From 9 November 1937 he also held a leading position (Gruppenführer) in the Schutzstaffel and the staff of the Reichsführer-SS, Heinrich Himmler. Lorraine is the only French region to have borders with three other countries: Belgium (Wallonia), Luxembourg, and Germany (Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate). It also borders the French regions of Franche-Comté, Alsace, and Champagne-Ardenne. The location of Lorraine led to it being seen as a strategic asset and as the crossroads of four nations, it had a very important role in European affairs. WikiPedia:Saarland Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Saarland Commons:Category:Saarland


Podgorica

Budućnost Podgorica . World-famous players Predrag Mijatović and Dejan Savićević were born in Podgorica and made their debut in that team. FK Zeta (from the Podgorica suburb of Golubovci) has also reached the former first league of Serbia and Montenegro. These clubs, along with FK Mogren of Budva, usually compete with each other for leading position in the First League of Montenegro. Other clubs from Podgorica and its surroundings play in the Montenegrin First League e.g. FK Dečić (Tuzi), FK Kom and FK Mladost (FK Mladost Podgorica). One of the most popular clubs from the suburbs is FK Ribnica from Konik (Konik, Montenegro). The volleyball team OK Budućnost Podgorica and the women's handball team ŽRK Budućnost T-Mobile have had significant success in European competition. Budućnost Podgorica is the most important sports club in Podgorica. Its name means ''Future''. Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, are born in Podgorica. Sporting events like the annual Podgorica Marathon and the ''Morača River'' jumps attract international competitors. Podgorica was the host of 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League. Venues thumb Podgorica City Stadium (File:PGStadium.jpg) Podgorica has a number of sporting venues; some are under reconstruction and expansion. The main ones are: *Podgorica City Stadium. When the eastern stand is completed, it will have a capacity of 24,000. It is the home of FK Budućnost Podgorica and the Montenegro national football team. It is currently the only venue in Montenegro that complies with FIFA standards for international football matches. *Morača Sports Center, a multi functional indoor sport facility. It has a capacity of 4,200 seats. It hosted one group of Eurobasket 2005, while other games were played in Belgrade (Belgrade Arena), Vršac (Millennium Center), and Novi Sad (Spens Sports Center). Almost every football club in Podgorica has its own stadium, although these are often only fields with small stands or no stands at all. Other notable venues are the Stadion malih sportova under Gorica hill and the sport shooting range under Ljubović hill. There are many other sports facilities around the city, most notably indoor soccer fields. Economy thumb Central Bank of Montenegro (File:Podgorica National bank of Montenegro.JPG) Podgorica is not only the administrative centre of Montenegro but also its main economic engine. Most of Montenegro's industrial, financial, and commercial base is in Podgorica. Before World War I, most of Podgorica's economy was in trade and small-scale manufacture – an economic model established during the long rule of the Ottoman Empire. After World War II, Podgorica became Montenegro's capital and a focus of the rapid urbanization and industrialization of the Yugoslav era (SFRY). Industries such as aluminium and tobacco processing, textiles (textile industry), engineering, vehicle production, and industrialized wine production were established in and around the city. In 1981, Podgorica's GDP per capita was 87% of the Yugoslav average. WikiPedia:Podgorica Commons:Category:Podgorica Dmoz:Regional Europe Montenegro Localities Podgorica


Schutzstaffel

commanders of the camp, Kriminalpolizei officers ''SS (Schutzstaffel)-Sturmbannführer'' Christian Wirth and ''SS (Schutzstaffel)-Hauptsturmführer'' Gottlieb Hering, had been — in common with almost all of their staff — involved in the Nazi euthanasia Action T4 program since 1940. Wirth had the leading position as a supervisor of all six euthanasia institutions in the Reich; Hering as the non-medical chief of Sonnenstein (Sonnenstein der Pirna) (Pirna, Saxony) and Hadamar. As a participant of the first T-4 test gassing of handicapped people at Brandenburg, Wirth had been a killing expert from the beginning. He was, therefore, an obvious choice to be the first commandant of the first extermination camp in the General Government. It might have been his proposal to transfer the T-4 technology of killing by carbon monoxide gas in stationary gas chambers to Bełżec, because the comparable technology of mobile gas vans used before December 1941 in the extermination camp Chelmno (Chelmno concentration camp) had proven insufficient for the planned number of victims. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. '''Otto Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann)''' (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi (w:Nazi) and ''SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-Obersturmbannführer (w:Obersturmbannführer)'' (Lieutenant Colonel). Due to his organizational talents and ideological reliability, he was tasked by ''Obergruppenführer (w:Obergruppenführer)'' Reinhard Heydrich (w:Reinhard Heydrich) to facilitate and manage the logistics of mass deportation to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe and worked under Ernst Kaltenbrunner until the end of the war. He was captured by Israeli Mossad (w:Mossad) agents in Argentina and indicted by Israeli court on fifteen criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity (w:crimes against humanity) and war crimes (w:war crimes). He was convicted and hanged. '''Otto Skorzeny (w:Otto Skorzeny)''' (June 12, 1908 – July 7, 1975) was an Austrian SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-''Standartenführer (w:Standartenführer)'' (colonel) in the German (w:Germany) Waffen-SS (w:Waffen-SS) during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front (w:Eastern Front (WWII)), he was chosen as the field commander to carry out the rescue mission (w:Gran Sasso raid) that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif (w:Operation Greif), in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' language, uniforms, and customs. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was involved with the Werwolf guerrilla movement (w:Werwolf) and the ODESSA (w:ODESSA) network where he would serve as Spanish coordinator. thumb right Christian Wirth (File:Wirth, Christian.jpg) '''Christian Wirth (w:Christian Wirth)''' (24 November 1885 — 26 May 1944) was a German (w:Germany) policeman and SS (w:Schutzstaffel) officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland (w:History of the Jews in Poland), known as Operation Reinhard (w:Operation Reinhard). His nicknames included '''Christian the Terrible''' and '''The Wild Christian'''. 27-year-old Robin Parkircher arrived in Israel (w:Israel) today to apologize to Holocaust (w:Holocaust) survivors for his grandfather's behavior. Parkircher's grandfather was an SS (w:Schutzstaffel) guard in a Nazi (w:Nazi) concentration camp (w:concentration camp) near Bremen (w:Bremen (city)), Germany (w:Germany), where over eight hundred women were incarcerated. In an interview, Parkircher told Israeli Yediot Aharonot (w:Yedioth Ahronoth) newspaper that years after his grandfather passed away, Parkircher found a picture of him wearing an SS uniform (w:uniform). After inquiring with his grandmother, he discovered about his grandfather's service as a camp guard.


Uppsala

Further reading *


Brandenburg

;). Prior experience of killers in Nazi murders of disabled people The two commanders of the camp, Kriminalpolizei officers ''SS (Schutzstaffel)-Sturmbannführer'' Christian Wirth and ''SS (Schutzstaffel)-Hauptsturmführer'' Gottlieb Hering, had been — in common with almost all of their staff — involved in the Nazi euthanasia Action T4 program since 1940. Wirth had the leading position as a supervisor of all six euthanasia institutions in the Reich; Hering as the non-medical chief of Sonnenstein (Sonnenstein der Pirna) (Pirna, Saxony) and Hadamar. As a participant of the first T-4 test gassing of handicapped people at Brandenburg, Wirth had been a killing expert from the beginning. He was, therefore, an obvious choice to be the first commandant of the first extermination camp in the General Government. It might have been his proposal to transfer the T-4 technology of killing by carbon monoxide gas in stationary gas chambers to Bełżec, because the comparable technology of mobile gas vans used before December 1941 in the extermination camp Chelmno (Chelmno concentration camp) had proven insufficient for the planned number of victims. WikiPedia:Brandenburg Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Brandenburg Commons:Category:Brandenburg


Harbin

: baike.baidu.com view 58562.htm?fr ala0_1_1 哈尔滨啤酒 , Baidu.com it has a leading position in Northeast China and owns the Hapi beer brand. Biological warfare project In 1932, he began his preliminary experiments in biological warfare as a secret project for the Japanese military at Zhongma Fortress. In 1936, Unit 731 was formed. Ishii built a huge compound – more than 150 buildings over six square kilometers – outside the city of Harbin, China. The research was secret


Hesse

of Electrical Engineering came into being as the sixth faculty of the TH Darmstadt, which was a novelty in academia, because until then no other polytechnic or university had had its own Faculty of Electrical Engineering. This forward-looking higher education policy paved the way for Darmstadt to take up a leading position in the rapidly developing field of Electrical Engineering, which in turn led to a continuously rising number of students, so that the closure of the TH Darmstadt never was demanded again. Birth and vocation Cope was baptized (baptism) '''Maria Anna Barbara Koob''' (later changed to Cope). She was born 23 January 1838 in Heppenheim in the Grand Duchy of Hesse (modern-day Germany) to Peter Koob (1787–1862) and Barbara Witzenbacher (1803–1872). The following year her family emigrated (emigration) to the United States, settling in Utica (Utica, New York), New York. They became parochial members of the Parish of St. Joseph (St. Joseph's Church (Utica, New York)), where Cope attended the parish school. By eighth grade, her father had become an invalid and, as the oldest child in the house, she became a factory worker to help support the family. Wikipedia:Hesse Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Hesse Commons:Hessen


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