Republic of Georgia Georgian capital Tbilisi and installs a Moscow-directed communist government. * February 27 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is formed in Vienna. Independence After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the city served as a location of the Transcaucasus interim government which established, in the spring of 1918, the short-lived independent Transcaucasian Federation with the capital in Tbilisi. At this time, Tbilisi had roughly the same number of Armenians as Georgians, with Russians being the third largest ethnic group. At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in Ganja on May 28, 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a federal Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia). This was the first Democratic Republic established in Islamic World. In Baku, however, a coalition of Bolsheviks, Dashnaks and Mensheviks fought against a Turkish-Islamic army led by Nuru Pasha. This coalition known as the "Baku Commune" also inspired or tacitly condoned the massacres of local Muslims by well-armed Dashnak-Armenian forces. This coalition, however, collapsed and was replaced by a British-controlled government known as Central Caspian Dictatorship in July 1918. British forces under General Dunsterville occupied Baku and helped the mainly Dashnak-Armenian forces to defend the capital. However, Baku fell on September 15, 1918 and an Azeri-Ottoman army entered the capital, causing British forces and much of the Armenian population to flee. The Ottoman Empire, however, capitulated on October 30, 1918 and the British occupational force re-entered Baku. - align center February 25 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia''' supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922. - - align center May 26 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - thumb left (File:Oliver Wardrop 2.jpg) In July 1919 the British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon offered Wardrop the post of the first British Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Tbilisi. The government of independent Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia) and its head Noe Zhordania welcomed Sir Oliver's return to Georgia. Wardrop, a capable diplomat tried to promote Georgian culture and gather all the support from the west for the newly formed country under the threat of Bolshevik (Bolshevik Russia) aggression. However, in February 1921 Soviet Russia's Red Army invaded Georgia, putting an end to the short-lived democratic republic. In England, Wardrop organized the set-up of the Georgian Society and the Georgian Committee in London. In 1930, along with W.E.D. Allen (William Edward David Allen), he formed the Georgian Historical Society which published its own journal ''Georgica''. His sister Marjory Wardrop (1869–1909) translated the 12-century Georgian epic by Shota Rustaveli, ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' into English (English language). image 300px (File:Red Army in Tiflis Feb 25 1921.jpg) caption Soldiers of the 11th Red Army entering the Democratic Republic of Georgia's capital of Tiflis in February 1921 dates
Code reportedly being implemented in the Chechen Republic-Ichkeriya, Article 148 punishes "anal sexual intercourse between a man and a woman or a man and a man". For first- and second-time offenders, the punishment is caning. A third conviction leads to the death penalty, which can be carried out in a number of ways including stoning or beheading. Amnesty International: Amnesty International
working against laws punishing sexual relations between men , September 1, 1997. On February 1, 2009, the ''New York Times'' released extensive evidence to support allegations of consistent torture and executions under the Kadyrov government. The accusations were sparked by the assassination in Austria of a former Chechen rebel who had gained access to Kadyrov's inner circle, 27-year-old Umar Israilov.
, page 1, column 1. The publication was a 4-page broadsheet with a cover price of 5 cents. ''The Alarm'' listed the International Working People's Association as its publisher and touted itself as "A Socialistic Weekly" on its page 2 masthead (masthead (publishing)). See, for example, Masthead, ''The Alarm,'' vol. 1, no. 5 (November 1, 1884), pg. 2, column 1. !-- Deleted image removed: right Fred Lerdahl (Image:Fred Lerdahl.jpg) -->
. * February 21 – Rezā Khan (Rezā Shāh) and Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee stage a coup d'état in Iran. * February 25 – The Red Army enters Georgian (Democratic Republic of Georgia) capital Tbilisi and installs a Moscow-directed communist government. * February 27 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is formed in Vienna. Exploration and Colonization * The city of Tbilisi (Georgia (Georgia (country))) on the Kura River is founded by king Vakhtang I (Vakhtang I of Iberia) of Iberia (Caucasian Iberia). Its location gives it control of the trade routes (Silk Road) between western and eastern Transcaucasia (South Caucasus). * Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol (County of Tyrol), expels her husband John Henry of Bohemia, to whom she had been married as a child. She subsequently marries Louis of Bavaria (Louis V the Brandenburger) without having been divorced, which results in the excommunication of the couple. * Tbilisi becomes a capital of European Christian Cathedra after city Smirna. George V (the brilliant) returns Jerusalem and Grave of Christ from Muslims. * Saluzzo is sacked by Manfred V of Saluzzo. Bristol was among the first cities to adopt the idea of town twinning (Twin towns and sister cities). In 1947 it was twinned with Bordeaux and then with Hannover, Commons:Category:Tbilisi
cataloguedvd catalogue_195.html R·U·S·C·I·C·O-DVD of Stalker Institutionalised reform talks since 1980 In 1980, the ''Internationaler Arbeitskreis für Orthographie'' (International Working Group for Spelling) was formed, with linguists from East Germany, West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland taking part. The organization was meant for young people, both male and female, between the ages of 14 and 25 and comprised about 75% of the young population of former East Germany. http: flagspot.net flags de%7Dfdj.html After being a member of the Thälmann Pioneers (Ernst Thälmann Pioneer Organisation), which was for schoolchildren ages 6 to 14, East German youths would usually join the FDJ. http: www.calvin.edu academic cas gpa tp.htm While the movement was intended to indoctrinate East Germany's young people in Marxism-Leninism, it did not concentrate on this to the exclusion of other activities. It arranged thousands of holidays for young people through its ''Jugendtourist'' agency, and ran discos and open-air rock concerts. http: histclo.com youth youth org pio nat ger ypgl-fdj.htm The Festival of Political Songs was an officially sponsored event from 1970 to 1990. History The West German (West Germany) government treated the FDJ with suspicion because of its pro-communist orientation and of its links to East Germany. In 1951 the government of Konrad Adenauer banned the FDJ along with the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). '''Dr. Gregor Gysi''' ( The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.
of Germany SAPD , he was opposed to the introduction of Leninist schemes of organization into the party. Following the Nazi (Nazism) rise to power, he emigrated to Basel, Switzerland in 1933 and was later employed by the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam from 1936 to 1939. He was a supporter of the 2½ International (International Working Union of Socialist Parties). When revolution erupted in Paris in February 1848, Liebknecht hurried to the scene. He arrived too late to do much in Paris, but he did join a legion that was heading for Germany to instigate revolution there. In the course of that poorly planned expedition, he was arrested in Baden and charged with treason. On the eve of his trial, revolution erupted once more, and a mob secured his release. He then became a member of the ''Badische Volkswehr'' and an adjutant of Gustav von Struve and fought in the ill-fated'' Reichverfassungskämpfe'' ("federal constitution wars"). After the revolutionaries' defeat, he escaped to Switzerland and became a leading member of the ''Genfer Arbeiterverein'' (Worker's Association of Geneva), where he met Friedrich Engels. Musical Background Stein associates with such Boston jazz musicians as Bill Pierce, Kenneth Weinberger, John LaPorta, and Bob Freedman. He has performed onstage with David "Fathead" Newman (David Newman (jazz musician)), Lou Donaldson, Dr. Lonnie Smith (Lonnie Smith (jazz musician)), Johnny Vidacovich, and Idris Muhammad. He has also performed concerts in Europe, conducting tours in Germany, France and Switzerland, in Brazil, as well as in the United States. Stein's compositions (musical composition) and performances are a range of jazz, including blues, bebop, bossas, and swing (Swing (genre)). Timepieces The Palace Museum has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1,000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace's own workships, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Of these, the largest portion come from Britain. commons:Confoederatio Helvetica
two empires, while the Triple Entente gathered the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland into an alliance with the Russian Empire. ''The Communist Manifesto'' had stated that "the working class has no country (patriotism)" and exclaimed "Proletarians of all countries, unite! (Workers of the world, unite!)" Massive majorities voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the international
working class to resist war if it was declared. A milestone in the history of the region was the arrival of the Russians in the 16th and 17th centuries, contemporaneous and in many regards analogous to the European colonization of the Americas. During the Russian Empire, Siberia was an agricultural province and served as a place of exile, among others for Avvakum, Dostoevsky (Fyodor Dostoevsky), and the Decembrists (Decembrist revolt). The 19th century witnessed
several important democratic societies, such as the International Working Men's Association (IWMA, First International), the Reform League and several cooperative building schemes. The '''Registrar of Companies''' for England, Wales & Scotland is the official responsible for Companies House, which deals with all filings relating to the Companies Act 1985 to 2006 (Companies Act 2006), ensuring the document filings are kept up-to-date and deals with any breaches
is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn. * September 18 – A new theatre to hold the Royal Opera House opens in London to replace the first, burnt down in a fire in 1808. The price increases lead to the Old Price Riots (Old Price Riots, 1809) which last for 64 days. * February 27 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is formed in Vienna. * February 28 – Russian sailors rebel in Kronstadt (Kronstadt rebellion) * May 10 – The Centennial Exposition begins in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. * May 11 – May 12 – Berlin Memorandum: Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary propose an armistice between Turkey and its insurgent (Insurgency)s. * May 16 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin Memorandum. July–September thumb 300px right '' Punch (magazine) Punch (File:Punch - The Dogs of War.png)'' cartoon from June 17. Russia preparing to let slip the "Dogs of War," its imminent engagement in the growing Balkan conflict between Slavic states (Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)) and Turkey, while policeman John Bull (Britain (United Kingdom)) warns Russia to take care. The Slavic states of Serbia and Montenegro would declare war on Turkey two weeks later. * July 1 – Serbia declares war (Declaration of war) on the Ottoman Empire. * February – Napoleon attacks Russia. * February 7 – Battle of Eylau: Napoléon (Napoleon I of France)'s French Empire (First French Empire) begins fighting against Russian and Prussian forces of the Fourth Coalition. * February 8 – Battle of Eylau: Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) fights a hard, but inconclusive battle against the Russians under Bennigsen (Levin August, count von Bennigsen). * February 7 – Battle of Eylau: Napoléon (Napoleon I of France)'s French Empire (First French Empire) begins fighting against Russian and Prussian forces of the Fourth Coalition. * February 8 – Battle of Eylau: Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) fights a hard, but inconclusive battle against the Russians under Bennigsen (Levin August, count von Bennigsen). * February 10 – The United States Coast Survey is established; work begins on August 3, 1816. * July 5 – A disastrous British (United Kingdom) attack is mounted against Buenos Aires during the second failed invasion (British invasions of the Río de la Plata#Second invasion - 1807) of the Río de la Plata. * July 7–July 9 – The Peace of Tilsit is signed between France, Prussia and Russia. Napoleon and Russian Emperor Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) ally together against the British (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). The Prussians are forced to cede more than half their territory, which is formed into the Duchy of Warsaw in their former Polish (Poland) lands and the Kingdom of Westphalia in western Germany. * July 13 – With the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the last Stuart (House of Stuart) claimant to the throne of the United Kingdom, the movement of Jacobitism comes to an effective end. * February 4 – Ludwig Prandtl, German physicist (d. 1953) * February 8 – Valentine O'Hara, Irish (Ireland) author and authority on Russia and the Baltic States (d. 1945) * February 21 – Jeanne Calment, World's Longest Lived Person (d. 1997) * May 10 ** Persian Expedition of 1796: Russian troops storm Derbent. ** War of the First Coalition – Battle of Lodi: General Napoleon Bonaparte defeats Austrian rearguard in forcing a crossing of the bridge over the River Adda (Adda River) in Italy. The Austrians lose some 2,000 men, 14 guns, and 30 ammunition wagons. * February 17 – The British (United Kingdom) recognize the independence of the Orange Free State; its official independence is declared 6 days later. * February 27 – Britain (United Kingdom) sends Russia an ultimatum to withdraw from two Romanian provinces it had conquered, Moldavia and Wallachia. * February 28 – The Republican Party (United States) is founded in Ripon, Wisconsin. * June 10 – The first class of the United States Naval Academy graduated at Annapolis, Maryland. * June 21 – Battle of Bomarsund (Bomarsund, Åland) in the Åland Islands (which later became part of Finland - in 1920:) The Royal Navy seaman's mate Charles D. Lucas throws a live Russian artillery shell overboard by hand before it explodes, for which he was awarded the first Victoria Cross in 1857. * August 9 – King Johann (John of Saxony) succeeds to the throne of Saxony. * August 16 – Russian troops in the island of Bomarsund (Bomarsund, Åland) in Åland surrender to French (France)–British (United Kingdom) troops. * August 27 – English (English people) lawyer Alfred Wills and party set out for the first ascent of the Wetterhorn in Switzerland, regarded as the start of the "golden age of alpinism". Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia