, was declared a criminal organization by the International Military Tribunal, and banned in Germany after 1945. Background The SS expanded from a small paramilitary unit to a powerful force that served as the ''Führer'''s bodyguard, the Nazi Party's "Protection Squadron" and a force that, fielding almost a million men (both on the front lines and as political police), managed to exert as much political influence in the Third Reich as the ''Wehrmacht'', Germany's regular armed forces. According to the Nuremberg trials, as well as many war crimes investigations and trials conducted since then, the SS was responsible for the majority of Nazi war crimes. In particular, it was the primary organisation which carried out the Holocaust. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. '''Otto Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann)''' (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi (w:Nazi) and ''SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-Obersturmbannführer (w:Obersturmbannführer)'' (Lieutenant Colonel). Due to his organizational talents and ideological reliability, he was tasked by ''Obergruppenführer (w:Obergruppenführer)'' Reinhard Heydrich (w:Reinhard Heydrich) to facilitate and manage the logistics of mass deportation to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe and worked under Ernst Kaltenbrunner until the end of the war. He was captured by Israeli Mossad (w:Mossad) agents in Argentina and indicted by Israeli court on fifteen criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity (w:crimes against humanity) and war crimes (w:war crimes). He was convicted and hanged. '''Otto Skorzeny (w:Otto Skorzeny)''' (June 12, 1908 – July 7, 1975) was an Austrian SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-''Standartenführer (w:Standartenführer)'' (colonel) in the German (w:Germany) Waffen-SS (w:Waffen-SS) during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front (w:Eastern Front (WWII)), he was chosen as the field commander to carry out the rescue mission (w:Gran Sasso raid) that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif (w:Operation Greif), in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' language, uniforms, and customs. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was involved with the Werwolf guerrilla movement (w:Werwolf) and the ODESSA (w:ODESSA) network where he would serve as Spanish coordinator. thumb right Christian Wirth (File:Wirth, Christian.jpg) '''Christian Wirth (w:Christian Wirth)''' (24 November 1885 — 26 May 1944) was a German (w:Germany) policeman and SS (w:Schutzstaffel) officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland (w:History of the Jews in Poland), known as Operation Reinhard (w:Operation Reinhard). His nicknames included '''Christian the Terrible''' and '''The Wild Christian'''. 27-year-old Robin Parkircher arrived in Israel (w:Israel) today to apologize to Holocaust (w:Holocaust) survivors for his grandfather's behavior. Parkircher's grandfather was an SS (w:Schutzstaffel) guard in a Nazi (w:Nazi) concentration camp (w:concentration camp) near Bremen (w:Bremen (city)), Germany (w:Germany), where over eight hundred women were incarcerated. In an interview, Parkircher told Israeli Yediot Aharonot (w:Yedioth Ahronoth) newspaper that years after his grandfather passed away, Parkircher found a picture of him wearing an SS uniform (w:uniform). After inquiring with his grandmother, he discovered about his grandfather's service as a camp guard.
. ''The Order of the Death’s Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS''. New York: Penguin Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-14139-012-3 * ''Judgment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg'' - declaring SD and Gestapo to be criminal organizations. See: http: avalon.law.yale.edu imt judorg.asp#gestapo * Kater, Michael. ''The Nazi Party: A Social Profile of Members and Leaders, 1919-1945''. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1983. ISBN 978-0-67460-655-5 * Kershaw, Ian. ''Hitler: 1889-1936, Hubris''. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 978-0-39332-035-0 * Kershaw, Ian. ''Hitler: 1936-1945, Nemesis''. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001. ISBN 978-0-39304-994-7 * Albert Bruce Matthews (Bruce Matthews (Canadian Army officer)) Aftermath In 1830 Albert had acquired a city palace in Berlin on Wilhelmstraße, then called ''Prinz-Albrecht-Palais''. An adjacent street off Wilhelmstraße laid out in 1891 was named ''Prinz-Albrecht-Straße''. After the Nazi ''Machtergreifung'' it became notorious as the seat of the Gestapo and the Reichsführer-SS. The ''Prinz-Albrecht-Palais'' itself from 1934 served as the headquarters of the SS Sicherheitsdienst under Reinhard Heydrich, from 1939 the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA). In 1944 the building was heavily damaged by air raids (Bombing of Berlin in World War II) and finally demolished in 1955. Since 1951 the street is named Niederkirchnerstraße, the area is now part of the Topography of Terror project. In 1940, Landau transferred to KdS SD (Sicherheitsdienst) in Radom governed by the General Government where he met typist Gertrude, to whom he later addressed his letters.
tradition stemming from its military and international military influences. In the mid to late 19th century, Leavenworth had one of the largest Jewish communities in Kansas. http: www.jewishencyclopedia.com articles 9695-leavenworth Leavenworth had multiple orthodox congregations by 1870, many of these Jews ultimately intermarried and over generations became Christian. http: web.ku.edu ~ksreligion docs history judaism.pdf Leavenworth is part of the Archidocese of Kansas City, Kansas, which is responsible for four Catholic parishes in Leavenworth. There are two United Methodist Churches, the First United Methodist Church and Trinity United Methodist Church. Other religions include Lutheran, Southern Baptist, American Baptist, African Methodist Episcopalian, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, United Church of Christ, Community Church of Christ, Church of the Nazarene, Grace and Truth Fellowship, Assemblies of God, Presbyterian, Seventh-Day Adventist and the Islamic Center of Leavenworth. A few churches conduct services in Hangul. Many Leavenworth residents also attend services on Fort Leavenworth, which has one of the second largest Catholic U.S. military congregations. He moved to Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1861 and engaged in the transportation of military supplies to the various posts on the plains. He was engaged in the building of railroads, especially the Missouri River (Missouri River Railroad) and Kansas Central Railroad. He was elected as a Republican (Republican Party (United States)) to the U.S. Senate and served from March 4, 1871, to March 24, 1873, when he resigned in the face of a movement to expel him for bribery and corruption. Grossman, Mark; ''Political corruption in America: an encyclopedia of scandals, power, and greed'', ABC-CLIO, 2003 ISBN 1-57607-060-3. p. 44 From 1877 to 1897, he manufactured wagons and carriages, and from 1897 to 1915 he was president of the First National Bank of Leavenworth.
, Shkodër was taken over by Austria-Hungary and was the center of the zone of their occupation. After World War I, the international military administration of Albania was temporarily located in Shkodër, and in March 1920, Shkodër was put under the administration of the national government of Tirana. In the second half of 1920, Shkodër resisted another threat, the military intervention of the forces of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia). 290px left thumb The pedestrian street known as ''Sheshi'' or ''Pjaca'' on Kol Idromeno Street (File:Rruga Kolë Idromeno, Shkodër.jpg) Shkodër was the center of democratic movements of the years 1921–1924. The democratic opposition won the majority of votes for the Constitutional Assembly, and on May 31, 1924, the democratic forces took over the town and from Shkodër headed to Tirana. From 1924 to 1939, Shkodër had a slow industrial development, small factories that produced food, textile, and cement were opened. From 43 of such in 1924, the number rose to 70 in 1938. In 1924, Shkodër had 20,000 inhabitants, the number grew to 29,000 in 1938. Shkodër was the seat of a Catholic (Roman Catholicism) archbishopric (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult) and had a number of religious schools. The first laic school was opened here in 1913, and the State Gymnasium was opened in 1922. It was the center of many cultural associations. In sports Shkodër was the first city in Albania to constitute a sports association, the "Vllaznia" (brotherhood). Vllaznia is the oldest sport club in Albania. During the early 1990s, Shkodër was once again a major center, this time of the democratic movement that finally brought to an end the communist (Communist and post-Communist Albania) regime established by Enver Hoxha. In the later 2000s (decade), the city experiences a rebirth as main streets are being paved, buildings painted and streets renamed. In December 2010, Shkodër and the surrounding region was hit by probably the worst flooding in the last 100 years. The '''Bushati family''' was a prominent family in Albanian history for part of the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule of the region. The family ruled the Pashalik of Scutari from 1757 to 1831. Their dominance of the Scutari region was gained through a network of alliances with various highland tribes. Even after the fall of the pashaluk in 1831, the Bushatis continued to play an important role in the Albanian society. During the 19th century, Scutari (Shkodër) was also known as a cultural centre and in the 1840s the Bushati Library was built. In 1469, Giosafat Barbaro was made Provveditore of Scutari (Shkodër), in Albania. ''Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time'', Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.261 ISBN 978-0-691-01078-6 He was in command of 1200 cavalry, which he used to support Lekë Dukagjini . In 1472, Barbaro was back in Venice, where he was one of the 41 senators chosen to act as electors, who selected Nicolo Tron as Doge. Role in the Uprising In 1804, the year of the First Serbian Uprising, he was a Buljubaša (the commander of a četa), under Milenko Stojković. In 1805 he took part in the Battle of Ivankovac against Hafiz-paša, after which the Правитељствујушчи совјет awarded him the rank of Bimbaša (a commander of 1000 men) and Vojvoda (Voivode). After the Battle of Deligrad in 1806 against Ibrahim-Paša of Shkodër, he became one of the most important men in Serbia. image location Shkodër, Albania opened 1947 as "Vojo Kushi Stadium" '''Loro Boriçi Stadium''' is a multi-purpose stadium in Shkodër, Albania. It is currently used mostly for football (football (soccer)) matches and is the home ground of Vllaznia Shkodër. The stadium holds 16,000 spectators and was reconstructed in 2001. It is named in honour of Loro Boriçi, famous player in 1940s and 1950s. It is also the second largest stadium in Albania behind the Qemal Stafa stadium (Qemal Stafa (stadium)) in Tirana which seats 19,600. HSH's infrastructure runs east to Pogradec, south to Vlorë and north to Shkodër. There is also a branch line to capital city Tirana. The network was extended beyond Shkodër in the 1980s into what is now Montenegro, via the Albanian border town of Han i Hotit. But that section of the system is for freight only. There is also no physical rail connection between Albania and neighbouring Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia) as well as Greece. * 1910 Soufli, Drama (Drama, Greece) (closed in 1921), Serres (closed in 1921), Ioannina (closed in 1921), Kayseri, Inebolu, Ordu, Geyve, Bolvadin, Mansureh * 1911 Manchester, Scutari of Albania (Shkodër) (closed in 1914), Rhodes (closed in 1921), Diyarbekir, Elazig, Bitlis, Van (Van, Turkey), Ceyhan, Saida (Sidon) (closed in 1921), Hodeida (closed in 1921), Benghazi (closed in 1912). * 1912 Bolu, Urfa, Sandıklı, Söke, Djeddah (closed in 1916)
Military Funds (FMF) restricted under ASPA were not affected by the 2006 waivers or the ASPA amendment. On October 17, 2006 President Bush signed into law an amendment to ASPA as part of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 removing International Military Education and Training (IMET) restrictions for all nations. On November 22, 2006 President George W. Bush issued ASPA waivers with respect to the Comoros and Saint Kitts and Nevis, followed by a similar waiver with respect to Montenegro on August 31, 2007. '''Osagyefo Lenin Ernesto Burton-Godwin''' (born 25 November 1977 in Birmingham, West Midlands (West Midlands (county))), known commonly as '''Sagi Burton''', is an English (England)-born former Kittitian international (Saint Kitts and Nevis) football (Association football) defender (Defender (association football)). In a fourteen year professional career in English football he made 344 appearances in league and cup competitions. Club career Born of Kittitian (Saint Kitts and Nevis) and Jamaican descent, Burton began his footballing career as a trainee at Bolton Wanderers (Bolton Wanderers F.C.), before switching to Crystal Palace (Crystal Palace F.C.) in 1994. He went on to make his début in the Premier League match at Derby County (Derby County F.C.) on 20 December 1997. He played the full ninety minutes, in what was a goalless draw at Pride Park (Pride Park Stadium). Following Palace's relegation (Promotion and relegation), he played 23 of the club's 46 First Division (Football League First Division) matches in the following season (1998–99 in English football). Despite this, he was still allowed to drop down a division to join Colchester United (Colchester United F.C.) for a nominal fee in May 1999. After making just twelve appearances in league and cup, six months later he was on his way to back into the First Division after signing for Sheffield United (Sheffield United F.C.) on a free transfer. This spell would prove to be even briefer, and in January 2000 he joined Brian Horton's Port Vale (Port Vale F.C.), also of the First Division, again on a free transfer. He made 22 appearances for the Staffordshire club in 1999–2000 (1999–2000 Port Vale F.C. season), and found himself on the scoresheet in home draws with Charlton Athletic (Charlton Athletic F.C.) and Barnsley (Barnsley F.C.). He established himself as "a powerful presence" and "impressive in the air". WikiPedia:Saint Kitts and Nevis Dmoz:Regional Caribbean Saint Kitts and Nevis Commons:Category:Saint Kitts and Nevis
forming an organised persecution network. Dams, Carsten and Stolle, Michael, ''The Gestapo: Power and Terror in the Third Reich'', p 82. Nuremberg trials thumb right 200px German Gestapo agents arrested after the liberation of Liège, Belgium, are herded together in a cell in Liege. October 1944 (File:Capturedgestapoagents.jpg) Between 14 November 1945 and 3 October 1946, the Allies established an International Military Tribunal
;archives.gov" U.S. National Archives, "The Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal", (IMT) Nuremberg, (14 November 1945-1 October 1946). http: www.archives.gov iwg research-papers trial-of-war-criminals-before-imt.html (accessed October 04, 2014) The trials began in November 1945. On 1 October 1946, the IMT rendered its judgement on 21 top officials of the Third ''Reich'' (Third Reich): 18 were sentenced to death or to long prison
: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945''. New York & London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52182-371-5 * U.S. National Archives, "The Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal", (IMT) Nuremberg, (14 November 1945 – 1 October 1946). http: www.archives.gov iwg research-papers trial-of-war-criminals-before-imt.html (accessed October 4, 2014) * U.S. National Archives. Press Release (March 23, 2000). "German Police Records Opened
for Fiscal Year 2007 removing International Military Education and Training (IMET) restrictions for all nations. On November 22, 2006 President George W. Bush issued ASPA waivers with respect to the Comoros and Saint Kitts and Nevis, followed by a similar waiver with respect to Montenegro on August 31, 2007. The '''Fédération Comorienne de Football''' (FFC) is the governing body of football (Football (soccer)) in the Comoros. It was founded in 1979, affiliated to FIFA in 2005 and to CAF (Confederation of African Football) in 2003. It organizes the national football league and the national team (Comoros national football team). The first official international played in Comoros was played on the 17.11.2007 against Madagascar for the qualification of 2010 FIFA World Cup and the African Cup of Nation 2010. Countries with diplomatic relations but no extradition treaty The United States maintains diplomatic relations, but does not have extradition treaties with the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, the Central African Republic, Chad, China (People's Republic of China), Comoros, Congo (Kinshasa) (Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo), Congo (Brazzaville) (Republic_of_the_Congo), Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia (Republic_of_Macedonia), Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Micronesia (Federated_States_of_Micronesia), Moldova (Republic of Moldova), Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, São Tomé & Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican (Vatican_City), and Vietnam. Commons:Category:Comoros WikiPedia:Comoros Dmoz:Regional Africa Comoros
sinks U-864 off the coast of Fedje, Norway, in a rare instance of submarine-to-submarine combat. * 1930 – Elm Farm Ollie becomes the first cow (cattle) to fly in a fixed-wing aircraft and also the first cow to be milked in an aircraft. *1932 – The Empire of Japan declares Manzhouguo (the obsolete Chinese (Chinese language) name for Manchuria) independent from the Republic of China. *1938 – During the Nanking Massacre Nanking Safety Zone International Committee renamed "Nanking International Rescue Committee" and safety zone in place for refugees falls apart. The Empire of Japan administrated the islands from 1920 under the South Pacific Mandate granted by the League of Nations. During this period, the Japanese population grew to over 100,000 throughout Micronesia, while the indigenous population was about 40,000. Sugar cane, mining, fishing and tropical agriculture became the major industries. In World War II, Japan (Empire of Japan)ese-held Yap was one of the islands bypassed in the U.S. "island-hopping" strategy, although it was regularly bombed by U.S. ships and aircraft, and Yap-based Japanese bombers did some damage in return. The Japanese garrison comprised 4,423 Imperial Japanese Army men under the command of Colonel Daihachi Itoh and 1,494 Imperial Japanese Navy men.
) while a Mandarin official (Mandarin (bureaucrat)) helplessly looks on. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial, was convened to try (criminal procedure) the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: "Class A" (crimes against peace), "Class B" (war crimes), and "Class C" (crimes against humanity), committed during World War II. was an administrative post not of Cabinet rank in the government of the Empire of Japan. The Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal was responsible for keeping the Privy Seal of Japan and State Seal of Japan. With the rise of the 1917 revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917), the Altay attempted to make their region a separate Burkhanist republic called Oryot, but their support for the Mensheviks during the Civil War (Russian Civil War) led to the venture's collapse after the Bolshevik victory and the rise of Stalin. In the 1940s, the Altay were accused of being pro-Japanese (Empire of Japan), and the word "oyrot" was declared counterrevolutionary. By 1950, Soviet industrialization (History of the Soviet Union (1927-1953)#Planning) policies brought Russian immigrants reducing the proportion of Altay from 50% to 20% of the population. "Altay", Centre for Russian Studies, NUPI, retrieved 17 October 2006 Ethnic Altaians currently make up about 31% of the Altai Republic's population. Altai Republic :: official portal At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on August 8, 1945, Soviet foreign minister Molotov (Vyacheslav Molotov) informed Japanese ambassador Sato (Naotake Satō) that the Soviet Union had declared war on the Empire of Japan, and that from August 9 the Soviet Government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. Soviet Declaration of War on Japan, August 8, 1945. (Avalon Project at Yale University) At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on August 9, 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion simultaneously on three fronts to the east, west and north of Manchuria. The operation was subdivided into smaller operational and tactical parts: *Khingan-Mukden Offensive Operation (August 9, 1945 - September 2, 1945)
1930 Reichswehr 1918 battles World War I World War II In May 1925, Rediess joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) and in December 1925 was approved for membership in the Nazi Party. He led a Düsseldorf SA company in 1927 and was transferred to the SS (Schutzstaffel) with his unit in 1930. Promotion swiftly followed for Rediess, achieving the rank of Lieutenant General (''SS-Obergruppenführer'') in 1935. *This is for us a ground for satisfaction, since we desire that the fight in the religious camps should come to an end. We are happy that in Rome yesterday we succeeded in signing a Concordat (w:Concordat of 1933) on the basis of which all political action in the parties will be forbidden to priests for all time, happy because we know what is wanted by millions who long to see in the priest only the comforter of their souls and not the representative of their political convictions. Thus the political fight for power is finished. ** Speech to the Sturmabteilung (w:Sturmabteilung) (SA) at Dortmund (w:Dortmund), 9 July 1933; from
disk and his international military identification papers (Geneva Convention Card). The area was searched thoroughly but even until today there is still no clue to what happened to him and he is widely presumed dead. In September 1918, Chauvel was able to effect a secret redeployment of two of his mounted divisions. Allenby launched a surprise attack on the enemy and won the Battle of Megiddo (Battle of Megiddo (1918)). He