Places Known For

independent religious


Baton Rouge, Louisiana

'''I-12 (Interstate 12)''' Baton Rouge, Louisiana (I-10 (Interstate 10)) to Slidell, Louisiana (I-10 (Interstate 10) I-59 (Interstate 59)) Louisiana Intrastate Interstate (List of intrastate Interstate Highways) ''Associated routes: none'' align right 85.59 * Reno, Nevada: KREN (KREN-TV) (now CW affiliate) * Baton Rouge, Louisiana: WLFT-CA (now independent religious) * Charlottesville, Virginia: WADA-LP (now Fox Broadcasting


Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

– (ABC (American Broadcasting Company)) * W07DP-D – (CTVN (Cornerstone Television Network)) * WITF-TV – (PBS (Public Broadcasting Service)) * WPMT – (Fox (Fox Network)) * WGCB-TV – independent, religious * PCN-TV (Pennsylvania Cable Network), is a cable television network (television network) dedicated to 24-hour coverage of government and public affairs (Public affairs programming) in the commonwealth (Commonwealth (United States)). * Roxbury News


Weimar Republic

of Prussia Frederick William III united —through a series of decrees— the Lutheran Church and the Reformed (Reformed churches) (Calvinist) Church in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). The church body (Landeskirche), which in 1817 emerged through this union became the biggest independent religious organisation in Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic) with about 18 million parishioners. Oppressions and interferences by various governments caused the church body to undergo two schisms (Schism (religion)) (one permanent since the 1830s, one temporary 1934–1948) – including the persecution of many parishioners. The majority of parishioners stayed in a state of unease with the changes and many were skeptical towards the democracy of the Weimar Republic. Authoritarian traditions competed with liberal and modern ones. The traditional affinity to the former princely holders of the summepiscopacy often continued. So when in 1926 the leftist parties successfully launched a plebiscite to the effect of the expropriation of the German former regnal houses (Expropriation of the Princes in the Weimar Republic) without compensation, the ''Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union'' called up for an abstention from the election, holding up the commandment Thou shalt not steal. Claus Wagener, "Die Vorgeschichte des Kirchenkampfes", p. 54. Thus the plesbiscite missed the minimum turnout and failed. A problem was the spiritual vacuum, which emerged after the church stopped being a state church. Otto Dibelius (F. K. Otto Dibelius), since 1925 general superintendent of Kurmark within the ''Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg'', published his book ''Das Jahrhundert der Kirche'' (''The century of the Church'' Otto Dibelius, ''Das Jahrhundert der Kirche: Geschichte, Betrachtung, Umschau und Ziele'', Berlin: Furche-Verlag, 1927. No ISBN. ), in which he declared the 20th century to be the era when the Evangelical Church may for the first time develop freely and gain the independence God would have wished for, without the burden and constraints of the state church function. He regarded the role of the church as even the more important, since the state of the Weimar Republic – in his eyes – would not provide the society with binding norms any more, thus this would be the task of the church. Claus Wagener, "Die Vorgeschichte des Kirchenkampfes", p. 65. The church would have to stand for the defense of the Christian culture of the Occident. In this respect Dibelius regarded himself as consciously anti-Jewish, explaining in a circular to the pastors in his general superintendency district of ''Kurmark'', "that with all degenerating phenomena of modern civilisation Judaism plays a leading role". In the German original:"… daß bei allen zersetzenden Erscheinungen der modernen Zivilisation das Judentum eine führende Rolle spielt". Published in his circular (Rundbrief; No. 2, 3 April 1928), recorded at the Evangelisches Zentralarchiv: 50 R 19. Here quoted after Ursula Büttner, "Von der Kirche verlassen", p. 37. His book was one of the most read on church matters in that period. Born in Königsberg, East Prussia, (now Kaliningrad, Russia), Hindenburg followed his father into the German Army. Initially, his career did not prosper, as Hindenburg's superiors considered him to be of low intelligence Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


Kingdom of Prussia

the 19th century, King Frederick William III (Frederick William III of Prussia) united —through a series of decrees— the Lutheran Church and the Reformed (Reformed churches) (Calvinist) Church in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). The church body (Landeskirche), which in 1817 emerged through this union became the biggest independent religious organisation in Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic) with about 18 million parishioners. Oppressions and interferences by various governments caused the church body to undergo two schisms (Schism (religion)) (one permanent since the 1830s, one temporary 1934–1948) – including the persecution of many parishioners. Protestant Church Bodies in Prussia's new Provinces In 1850 the prevailingly Catholic principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, ruled by Catholic princely branches of the Hohenzollern family, joined the Kingdom of Prussia and became the Province of Hohenzollern. There had hardly been any Protestants in the tiny area, but with the support from Berlin congregational structures were built up. Until 1874 three (later altogether five) congregations were founded and in 1889 organised as a deanery of its own. The congregations were stewarded by the ''Evangelical Supreme Church Council'' (see below) like congregations of expatriates abroad. Only on 1 January 1899 the congregations became an integral part of the Prussian state church. No separate ecclesiastical province was established, but the deanery was supervised by that of the Rhineland. In 1866 Prussia annexed the Kingdom of Hanover (then converted into the Province of Hanover), the Free City of Frankfurt upon Main (Free City of Frankfurt), the Electorate of Hesse, and the Duchy of Nassau (combined as Province of Hesse-Nassau) as well as the Duchies of Schleswig (Duchy of Schleswig) and Holstein (Duchy of Holstein) (becoming the Province of Schleswig-Holstein), all prevailingly Lutheran territories, where Lutherans and the minority of Calvinists had not united. After the trouble with the ''Old Lutherans'' in pre-1866 Prussia, the Prussian government refrained from imposing the ''Prussian Union'' onto the church bodies in these territories. Also the reconciliation of the Lutheran majority of the citizens in the annexed states with their new Prussian citizenship was not to be further complicated by religious quarrels. Thus the Protestant organisations in the annexed territories maintained their prior constitutions or developed new, independent Lutheran or Calvinist structures. These were the ''Evangelical State Church of Frankfurt upon Main'' ( ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


Democratic Republic of the Congo

-06 Abrahamic religions Historically, the Bahá'í Faith arose in 19th century Persia, in the context of Shi'a Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which draws from Islam but also other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its


Kenya


Vietnam

it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which draws from Islam but also other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable. Noted for being dispersed worldwide


India

publications the-world-factbook geos xx.html#people format doi ISSN 1553-8133 accessdate 2009-09-06 Abrahamic religions Historically, the Bahá'í Faith arose in 19th century Persia, in the context of Shi'a Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which draws from Islam

) priest in Mulagumudu, India, for help with an orphanage he ran there. They sent several of their members to serve at this facility. Although they found, upon their arrival, that the priest had since died, they took on the care of the orphans he left behind. Not long after their arrival, and led by their Mother Superior, Mother Marie Louise De Meester, the Sisters went on to form an independent religious congregation called the Missionary Canonesses of St. Augustine


South Africa

be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which draws from Islam but also other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable. Noted for being dispersed worldwide ref name "


Germany

% of the Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. * '' Manichaeism '' which represented an entire independent religious heritage, but is now extinct, was founded by the Prophet Mani (216-276 CE). The original writings were written in Syriac Aramaic, in a unique Manichaean script. Although most of the literature scripture of the Manichaeans was believed lost, the discovery of an original series of documents have helped to shed new light on the subject. Now housed in Cologne Germany, a Manichaean religious work written in Greek, the Codex Manichaicus Coloniensis, contains mainly biographical information on the prophet and details on his claims and teachings. Before the discovery of these authentic Manichaean texts, scholars had to rely on anti-Manichaean polemical works, such as the Christian anti-Manichaean ''Acta Archelai'' (also written in Greek), which has Mani saying, for example, "The true God has nothing to do with the material world or cosmos", and, "It is the Prince of Darkness (Satan) who spoke with Moses, the Jews and their priests. Thus the Christians, the Jews, and the Pagans are involved in the same error when they worship this God. For he leads them astray in the lusts he taught them." Classical Texts:Acta Archelai Now, he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests he says is the archont of Darkness, and the Christians, Jews, and pagans (ethnic) are one and the same, as they revere the same god. For in his aspirations he seduces them, as he is not the god of truth. And so therefore all those who put their hope in the god who spoke with Moses and the prophets have (this in store for themselves, namely) to be bound with him, because they did not put their hope in the god of truth. For that one spoke with them (only) according to their own aspirations. www.fas.harvard.edu ~iranian Manicheism Manicheism_II_Texts.pdf Page 76 Likewise, Manichaeism, being another Gnostic sect, preached a similar doctrine of positioning God against matter. This dualistic teaching embodied an elaborate cosmological myth that included the defeat of a primal man by the powers of darkness that devoured and imprisoned the particles of light. The ''Acta Archelai'' further has Mani saying, "It is the Prince of Darkness who spoke with Moses, the Jews and their priests. Thus the Christians, the Jews, and the Pagans are involved in the same error when they worship this God. For he leads them astray in the lusts he taught them."Agricola''' (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a Germany German scholar and scientist. Known as "the father of mineralogy", he was born at Glauchau in Saxony. His real name was '''Georg Pawer''' Agricola Research Center Chemnitz: "Wer ist Georgius Agricola?" ; ''Agricola'' is the Latinised version of his name, ''Pawer'' (''Bauer'') meaning "farmer". He is best known for his book ''De Re Metallica''. Life Born at Motta di Livenza, province of Treviso, on February 13, 1480. He studied at Venice, where he became acquainted with Erasmus and Aldus Manutius, and at an early age was reputed one of the most learned men of the time. In 1508 he went to Paris on the invitation of Louis XII (Louis XII of France) as professor of ''belles lettres,'' and held for a time the position of Rector of the University of Paris. He was an early teacher of Greek at the University and edited texts by Isocrates and Plutarch printed by Gilles de Gourmont in 1509 1510. J. Paquier, ''Jérôme Aléandre'' (1900), p. 67. Entering the service of Eberhard (Erard de la Marck), prince-bishop of Liège, he was sent by that prelate on a mission to Rome, where Pope Leo X retained him, giving him (1519) the office of librarian of the Vatican. In the following year he went to Germany to be present as papal nuncio at the coronation of Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), and was also present at the diet of Worms, where he headed the opposition to Luther (Martin Luther), advocating the most extreme measures to repress the doctrines of the reformer. His conduct evoked the fiercest denunciations of Luther, but it also displeased more moderate men and especially Erasmus. The edict against the reformer, which was finally adopted by the emperor and the diet, was drawn up and proposed by Aleandro. The Danish (Denmark) and German (Germany) '''geographical mile''' (''geografisk mil'' and ''geographische Meile'' or ''geographische Landmeile'', respectively) is 4 minutes of arc, and was defined as approximately 7421.5 metres by the astronomer Ole Rømer of Denmark. Commons:Category:Germany Wikipedia:Germany Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany


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