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Socialist Republic of Slovenia

&f false Entry for Izola in the Lonely Planet Guide to Slovenia Then Istria became part of the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)), until Italian capitulation (Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces) in September 1943, whereupon control passed to Germany. Izola was liberated by a naval unit from Koper at the end of April 1945. After the end of World War II, Izola was part of Zone B of the provisionally independent Free Territory of Trieste; after the ''de facto'' dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954 it was incorporated into Slovenia (Socialist Republic of Slovenia), then a part of Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Izola Municipality site The newly defined Italo-Yugoslav border (Free Territory of Trieste) saw the migration of many people from one side to the other. In Izola's case, many Italian speakers chose to leave, and in their place Slovenian-speaking people from neighbouring villages settled in the town. In 1989, Slovenia (Socialist Republic of Slovenia) and Croatia (Socialist Republic of Croatia) were the first federal republics to cease observing the holiday. Other seceded republics followed suit as Yugoslavia dissolved (Breakup of Yugoslavia). Federal Republic of Yugoslavia kept the holiday until 2002. Gorizia and Gradisca thus ceased to exist as a unified historical region. Its Yugoslav portion became an integral part of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia: most of its territory was included in the Goriška region, except for the Kras plateau which was incorporated into the Littoral-Kras statistical region. A new urban center, called Nova Gorica ("New Gorizia") was built between the late 1940s and in the early 1950s. The Italian portion became part of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia autonomous region, mostly included in the Province of Gorizia. Parallel to the same process, Slovenia (Socialist Republic of Slovenia) witnessed a policy of gradual liberalization since 1984, not unlike the Soviet Perestroika. This provoked tensions between the League of Communists of Slovenia on one side, and the central Yugoslav Party and the Federal Army (Yugoslav People's Army) on the other side. In mid May 1988, the Peasant Union of Slovenia was organized as the first non-Communist political organization in the country. Later in the same month, the Yugoslav Army arrested four Slovenian journalists of the alternative magazine ''Mladina'', accusing them of revealing state secrets. The so-called Ljubljana trial triggered mass protests in Ljubljana and other Slovenian cities. The Committee for the Defence of Human Rights was established as the platform of all major non-Communist political movements. By early 1989, several anti-Communist political parties were already openly functioning, challenging the hegemony of the Slovenian Communists. Soon, the Slovenian Communists, pressured by their own civil society, entered in conflict with the Serbian Communist leadership. *Albanians are committing genocide against Serbs in Kosovo (Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo) (pgs. 41, 56 of memorandum) *Slovenia (Socialist Republic of Slovenia) and Croatia (Socialist Republic of Croatia) are taking control of the Serbian economy. Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) is taking industry out of Serbia (Socialist Republic of Serbia) (pg. 42) *There is need for constitutional changes of Yugoslavia (Constitution of Yugoslavia) because of its unfair mistreating and weakening of Serbia (pg. 46) Life He was born in Maribor, an industrial center in what was then the Yugoslav (Yugoslavia) Socialist Republic of Slovenia. His father, originally from the Prekmurje region, was a former partisan (Partisans (Yugoslavia)). Jančar studied law in his home town. While a student, he became chief editor of the student journal ''Katedra''; he soon came in conflict with the Communist (Communist Party of Slovenia) establishment because he published some articles critical of the ruling regime. He had to leave the journal. He soon found a job as an assistant at the Maribor daily newspaper ''Večer (Večer (Maribor))''. In 1974 he was arrested by Yugoslav (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) authorities for bringing to Yugoslavia a booklet entitled ''V Rogu ležimo pobiti'' (''We Lie Killed in the Rog Forest''), which he had bought in nearby Austria and lent to some friends. The booklet was a survivor's account of the Kočevski Rog massacres of the Slovene Home Guard war prisoners perpetrated by Josip Broz Tito's regime in May 1945. He was sentenced to a year's imprisonment for "spreading hostile propaganda" but was released after three months. Immediately after his release he was called up for military service in southern Serbia, where he was subjected to systematic harassment by his superiors due to his "criminal file".


Rijeka

F1 boss Bernie Ecclestone's Divorce Finalized Yahoo Sports, 11 March 2009 * WikiPedia:Rijeka Dmoz:Regional Europe Croatia Localities Rijeka Commons:Rijeka


Duchy of Warsaw

approximately 29,000 km² in size. The city of Kraków and some surrounding territory, previously part of the Duchy of Warsaw, were established as a semi-independent Free City of Kraków, under the "protection" of its three powerful neighbours. The city's territory measured some 1164 km², and had a population of about 88,000 people. The city was eventually annexed by Austria in 1846. Finally, the bulk of the former Duchy of Warsaw, measuring some 128,000 km in area, was re-established as what is commonly referred to as the "Congress Kingdom (Congress Poland)" of Poland, in personal union with the Russian Empire. De facto a Russian puppet state it maintained its separate status only until 1831, when it was effectively annexed to the Russian Empire. Legacy ) (20 October 1752 – 7 September 1837) was a Baltic-German Field Marshal who led the Russian army against the Duchy of Warsaw and later governed Paris during the city's brief occupation by the anti-French coalition. When Napoleon invaded Russia (Napoleon's Invasion of Russia), Osten-Sacken returned to military service at the head of a reserve corps, based in Volynia. He was given the task of defending the southern borders of the Empire against the possible invasion by Saxon (Kingdom of Saxony) and Austrian (Austrian Empire) armies. In the battle near Volkovysk he defeated a French (France) unit under General Renier. Following Renier's defeat, Osten-Sacken crossed the border and invaded the Duchy of Warsaw and joining his forces with Count Mikhail Miloradovich (Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich), took Warsaw. Later he successfully operated against Prince Józef Poniatowski. His brilliant conquest of Poland won him the Order of Alexander Nevsky. A resolution of the Duchy of Warsaw, dated March 12, 1808, allowed the creation of parochial schooling in Jednorożec, and, in 1809, the first school opened in the village in an old building. A newly built school was funded and established in 1817, and the teacher, John Krajewski, received 300 złoty a year, plus contributions. School attendance was low and often interrupted by the children having to remain at home to help with farm chores. In 1814 the Rostopchine family left Imperial Russia for exile, going first to the Duchy of Warsaw, then to the German Confederation and the Italian peninsula and finally in 1817 to France under the Bourbon Restoration (Bourbon Dynasty, Restored). In France, the father established a salon (salon (gathering)), and his wife and daughter converted to Roman Catholicism (Roman Catholic Church). During the Swedish invasion of Poland (see Deluge (Deluge (history))), Zwoleń was devastated and destroyed to such a degree, that the town never recovered. In late 18th century, during Partitions of Poland, Zwoleń was annexed by the Austrian Empire. Later on, it was part of Duchy of Warsaw, which in 1815 was a protectorate of the Russian Empire. After January Uprising, Russian authorities deprived Zwoleń of its town rights, as a punishment for residents' support of the rebels. The village of Zwoleń stagnated for years, and did not regain its town rights until 1925. In 1793, following the Second Partition of Poland, the town and region was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia as South Prussia. In July 1807, following the Treaty of Tilsit, the town was transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw and after June 1815, became part of the Russian Congress Poland to 1916. In 1466 the town passed to Poland as part of the province of Royal Prussia. It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) in 1772. Zempelburg became part of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1807-1815 during the Napoleonic Wars, after which it was restored to Prussia. In 1871 the town became part of the Prussian-led German Empire. Zempelburg was a center for the textile and shoemaking industries. After first Partition of Poland on 15 September 1772 Chełmża was taken over by Kingdom of Prussia.At that time it counted only 600 inhabitants. In 1807 till 1815 it became part of Duchy of Warsaw only to be taken over by Prussia again after 1815 and Congress of Vienna. The city population in 1831 counted 1.200 people and in 1871 3.000. It’s economical situation improved as it became an economic center for local villages benefited with good soil. Consequently, between 1784 and 1789 the castle was yet again rebuilt, this time by Stanisław Zawadzki, who converted it into military barracks. The outbuildings were enlarged substantially. Since that time the building housed the Lithuanian Foot Guard Regiment and the 10th Foot Regiment. During the Kościuszko's Uprising the castle was the main centre of conscription for the 20th Foot Regiment. After the Partitions of Poland, during the Prussian occupation of Warsaw, the building was abandoned. After the proclamation of the Duchy of Warsaw it was again restored to the army and was converted into a military hospital. However, the plans of converting it to the Central Military Hospital of the Polish Army were postponed by the Congress of Vienna which awarded the Congress Poland to Russia. On April 1, 1818 the hospital was officially opened. It had place for up to 1000 wounded soldiers. After the outbreak of the November Uprising the hospital was enlarged to 1250 beds and an additional annex with place for 600 was opened in the nearby Łazienki complex. In 1793 the town found itself in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) following the Partitions of Poland. In 1807 it passed to the short lived Duchy of Warsaw, and then in 1815 it became a part of the Congress Poland in the Russian Empire. In the course of the 19th century the town declined and in 1871 it lost its city charter. In 1918 it became a part of reconstituted, independent Poland (Second Polish Republic) and was again granted city rights in 1919. In 1931 it had 4,025 inhabitants. History * Around 1430 it was mentioned for the first time. Since then it shared the history of the whole region. After the Partitions of Poland, in 1795, it became part of Austria. In 1809 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, only to become part of the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland) in 1815. * Until 1831 it was a private village, a possession of Polish nobles (szlachta). Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). * 1775 - American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Lexington and Concord – British (Great Britain) General Thomas Gage attempts to confiscate American (United States) colonists' (13 colonies) firearms. Captain John Parker (John Parker (Captain)) orders his band of minutemen to not fire unless fired upon. Random shots rang out among the British soldiers. The minutemen promptly fired back. This was the "shot heard round the world." The British are driven back to Boston, Massachusetts, thus beginning the American Revolutionary War. * 1809 - The army of Austria attacks and is defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn (Battle of Raszyn (1809)), part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition. * 1943 - World War II: In Poland, German (Germany) troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In 1793, the Second Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) took place, whereby the city was taken over by Prussia. With the resurgence of Polish statehood and establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1806, the area was incorporated therein. In 1815, upon defeat of Napoleon town fell to the Russians and became part of the newly formed Congress Poland.


Free City of Danzig

31. August 1924" It had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into a nominally independent Free City of Danzig. Hitler sought to reverse these territorial losses, and on many occasions made an appeal to German nationalism, promising to "liberate" the German minority (German minority in Poland) still in the Corridor, as well as Danzig. Following several German-staged incidents (like the Gleiwitz incident

the Polish corridor. Germany's territorial losses following the Treaty of Versailles incited German revanchism and created problems such that the status of the independent Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk) and the Polish Corridor between East Prussia and the rest of Germany became an issue in German politics. Attending to the issue was part of Adolf Hitler's political platform. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Poland refused several German proposals for popular


Gdańsk

- und Berufszählung Vom 1. November 1923 in der Freien Stadt Danzig mit einem Anhang: Die Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. August 1924" It had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into a nominally independent Free City of Danzig. Hitler sought to reverse these territorial losses, and on many occasions made an appeal to German nationalism, promising to "liberate" the German minority (German minority in Poland) still in the Corridor, as well as Danzig.<


Kosovo

Party like all other Kosovo Albanian (Albanians) supports an Independent, free, and democratic Kosovo, and does not participate in any election or referendom organised by the Serbian government. The '''Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo''' (Turkish (Turkish language): ''Kosova Demokratik Türk Partisi'') is a conservative political party in Kosovo that represents the Turkish minority (Turks in Kosovo). It is led by Mahir Yağcılar, the Minister


Kingdom of Prussia

of Vienna in 1815 mostly restored earlier structures, although it also created the partially independent Free City of Kraków. As in 1794, an insurrection in 1846 (Kraków Uprising) failed; resulting in the city being annexed by Austria under the name the Grand Duchy of Krakow (Grand Duchy of Cracow) ( ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


Austrian Empire

Guide to Slovenia Then Istria became part of the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)), until Italian capitulation (Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces) in September 1943, whereupon control passed to Germany. Izola was liberated by a naval unit from Koper at the end of April 1945. After the end of World War II, Izola was part of Zone B of the provisionally independent Free Territory of Trieste; after the ''de facto'' dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954 it was incorporated into Slovenia (Socialist Republic of Slovenia), then a part of Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Izola Municipality site The newly defined Italo-Yugoslav border (Free Territory of Trieste) saw the migration of many people from one side to the other. In Izola's case, many Italian speakers chose to leave, and in their place Slovenian-speaking people from neighbouring villages settled in the town. The Germans had embarked on this course of participation in the Schleswig-Holstein War alone, without the European powers. The other European powers were united in opposing any dismemberment of Denmark, even Austria (Austrian Empire) refusing to assist in enforcing the German view. Swedish troops landed to assist the Danes; Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, speaking with authority as head of the senior Gottorp line, pointed out to King Frederick William IV of Prussia the risks of a collision. Great Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), though the Danes had rejected her mediation, threatened to send her fleet to assist in preserving the status quo. The fact that Prussia had entered the war on behalf of the revolutionary forces in Schleswig-Holstein, created a great number of ironies. The newly elected Frankfort Diet tended to support the incursion into the Schleswig-Holstein War while King Frederick William did not. Indeed, Friedrich William ordered Friedrich von Wrangel, commanding the army of the German Confederation, to withdraw his troops from the duchies; but the general refused, asserting that he was under the command of the Diet of the German Confederation and not of the King of Prussia but of the regent of Germany. Wrangel proposed that, at the very least, any treaty concluded should be presented for ratification to the Frankfurt Parliament. The Danes rejected this proposal and negotiations were broken off. Prussia was now confronted on the one side by the German nation urging her clamorously to action, on the other side by the European powers threatening dire consequences should she persist. After painful hesitation, Frederick William chose what seemed the lesser of two evils, and, on 26 August, Prussia signed a convention at Malmö which yielded to practically all the Danish demands. The Holstein estates appealed to the German diet, which hotly took up their cause, but it was soon clear that the central government had no means of enforcing its views. In the end the convention was ratified at Frankfurt. The convention was essentially nothing more than a truce establishing a temporary ''modus vivendi''. The main issues, left unsettled, continued to be hotly debated. *31 March: The Duke of Augustenborg resigned his claim in return for a money payment. Further adjustments followed. *8 May: another London Protocol (London_Protocol#1852) was signed. The international treaty that became known as the "London Protocol" was the revision of the earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The second, actual London Protocol was recognized by the five major European powers (the Austrian Empire, the Second French Republic, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), as well as the two major Baltic Sea powers of Denmark and Sweden. Denmark fought Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and Austria (Austrian Empire). Like the First Schleswig War (1848–51), it was fought for control of the duchies because of succession disputes concerning the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg when the Danish king died without an heir acceptable to the German Confederation. Decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution (History of Schleswig-Holstein#The November Constitution), which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol (London Protocol#1852). Prussian and Austrian (Austrian Empire) troops crossed into Schleswig on 1 February 1864, and war became inevitable. The Austrians attacked towards the refortified Dannevirke (Danevirke) frontally while the Prussian forces struck the Danish fortifications at Mysunde (Missunde) (on the Schlei coast of Schwansen east of Schleswig (Schleswig (city)) town), trying to bypass the Danevirke by crossing the frozen Schlei inlet, but in six hours could not take the Danish positions, and retreated. thumb Map of the territorial changes. (German) (File:Karte Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg.png) In the Treaty of Vienna (Treaty of Vienna (1864)), 30 October 1864, Denmark ceded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg (Duchy of Lauenburg) to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and Austria (Austrian Empire). Denmark was also forced to surrender the enclaves in western Schleswig that were legally part of Denmark proper and not part of Schleswig, but was allowed to keep the island of Ærø (which had been administered as part of Schleswig), the town of Ribe and its surrounding land, and eight parishes from Tyrstrup (Christiansfeld Municipality) Herred south of Kolding. As a result of the peace settlement, the land area of the Danish monarchy decreased by 40% and the total population reduced from 2.6 million to 1.6 million (about 38.5%). Historiecenter Dybbøl Banke The Danish frontier had retreated about 250&nbsp;km as measured from the furthest corner of the Duchy of Lauenburg to the new frontier on the Kongeå river. In the very turbulent years that followed, Budva saw a change of several of its supreme rulers – Austria, France and Russia. A union of Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor) (and Budva) with Montenegro took place for a brief period (1813–1814), but from 1814 until 1918 Budva remained under Austrian Empire. After WWI, in 1918 Serbian army entered Budva abandoned by Austrian forces and it came under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and was later annexed to the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) in 1941. Early years Zsigmondy was born in Vienna, Austrian Empire to Hungarian (Hungarians) parents Irma Szakmáry, a poet born in Martonvásár and Adolf Zsigmondy Sr., born in Pozsony, who had been a scientist and had invented surgical instruments in the field of dentistry. The Zsigmondy family, who was Lutheran, can trace back its origin to Johannes (hung. János) Sigmondi (1686–1746, Bártfa, Kingdom of Hungary) included many teachers, priests and Hungarian freedom-fighters. Richárd was raised by his mother after his father's early death in 1880, and received a comprehensive education. He enjoyed hobbies such as climbing and mountaineering with his siblings. His brother Karl Zsigmondy became a notable mathematician in Vienna. In high school he developed an interest in natural science, especially in chemistry and physics, and experimented in his home laboratory. result Austrian victory Treaty of Casalanza combatant1


Warsaw

movement "Solidarity (Solidarity (Polish trade union))" (Solidarność). Because his actively participation in this and several such organizations, Podrzycki was arrested twice by the secret police and condemned for anti-governmental activity. In 1993 Podrzycki, together with several of his nearest colleagues established and headed the independent '''Free Working Union''' "August - 80" (Wolny Zwiazek Zawodowy "Sierpien-80"). In 1993-1994 Podrzycki


Russian Empire

of Galicia and Lodomeria . In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) captured former Polish territories from Austria and made the town part of the Duchy of Warsaw. Following Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the Congress of Vienna in 1815 mostly restored earlier structures, although it also created the partially independent Free City of Kraków. ref name "Republic of Cracow (historical state, Poland) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia"


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