Places Known For

independent development


Marshall Space Flight Center

. As the Orbital Workshop matured into the Skylab, the ATM was added as an appendage, but the two activities were kept as independent development projects. Rein Ise was the ATM project manager at MSFC. The ATM included eight major instruments for observations of the Sun at wavelengths from extreme ultraviolet to infrared. The data was mainly collected on special photographic film; during the Skylab missions, the film had to be changed out by astronauts in spacewalks. Ise, Rein


Tonga

thumb Men and women sticks exchanged '''sōkē''' or '''eke''' is a Tongan group dance performed with sticks which the performers hit against each other on the beat of the drum. It has some common elements with, but is a complete independent development from the English Morris dance. As with most Tongan dances, the whole performance is to dazzle the spectators and to please the chiefs. There is no hidden purpose. Performance Early years Ngata is of Tongan ancestry, Lisiate Wolfgramm, "Gentle Giant", ''Planet-Tonga.com'', undated. but was born in Inglewood, California. He attended Highland High School (Highland High School (Salt Lake City, Utah)) in Salt Lake City, Utah and was a three-year starter on the defensive line. As a senior, he recorded over 100 tackles and led his team to the state quarterfinals, following a 12-2 record and a berth in the State Championship as a junior. Ngata was named the 2001 Utah Gatorade Player of the Year and a first-team ''USA Today'' All-USA (USA Today All-USA high school football team) selection. Commons:Category:Tonga WikiPedia:Tonga Dmoz:Regional Oceania Tonga


Laos

countries, including countries in which the United States has strong economic interests. This, Chomsky says, has prompted the United States to repeatedly intervene to quell "independent development, regardless of ideology" in regions of the world where it has little economic or safety interests. In one of his works, ''What Uncle Sam Really Wants'', Chomsky argues that this particular explanation accounts in part for the United States' interventions in Guatemala (Operation PBSUCCESS), Laos, Nicaragua (Contras), and Grenada (Invasion of Grenada), countries that pose no military threat to the US and have economic resources that are not important to the US establishment. Commons:Category:Laos


Afghanistan

as used vehicles to Pakistan, Afghanistan, United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia. The original Surf was little more than a Toyota Hilux pickup truck with a fiberglass shell over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a mid-size, off-road vehicle. Sheikh Ayed Al-Qarni, a Saudi Islamic scholar, has said that neither the Qur'an nor the sunnah prohibits women from driving and that it is better for a woman to drive herself than to be driven by a stranger without a legal escort. (He also stated, however, that he "personally will not allow his wife or daughters or sisters to drive." Somayya Jabarti & Maha Akeel. "Women Not Prohibited From Driving in Islam, Says Al-Qarni." ''Arab News'' (January 11, 2004). ) Women are forbidden to drive in Saudi Arabia per a 1990 ''fatwa'' (religious ruling); Amnesty International. "Saudi Arabia: Women." Amnesty.org. Saudi Arabia is currently the only Muslim country that bans women from driving. John L. Esposito(2002), p.99, What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, Oxford University Press Natana J. Delong-Bas(2004), p.123, ''Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad'', Oxford University Press When the Taliban ruled Afghanistan, they issued a 2001 decree that also banned women from driving. The Situation of Women in Afghanistan - United Nations Report John Esposito, professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, has argued that these restrictions originate from cultural customs and not Islam. An even older tradition links the Zoroastrians to India. Many Rajput rulers built temples to the sun god (Mithra (''Mihira'' in Persian). By tradition, only the Maga Bhojaka (Sakaldwipiya) priests (originally from Shaka-dvipa in present-day Afghanistan) were entitled to lead worship in these temples. The Maga (called "Magi" in the New Testament) were priests belonging to the Mazdayasni (Zoroastrian) tradition. Commons:Category:Afghanistan WikiPedia:Afghanistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Afghanistan


Pakistan

over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a mid-size, off-road vehicle. Employment patterns today Patterns of women's employment vary throughout the Muslim world: as of 2005, 16% of Pakistani women were "economically active" (either employed, or unemployed but available to furnish labor), whereas 52% of Indonesian women were. Women of Our World 2005 Women's right to become imams (Women as imams), however, is disputed by many. A fundamental role of an ''imam'' (religious leader) in a mosque is to lead the ''salah'' (congregational prayers). Generally, women are not allowed to lead mixed prayers, because certain positions of the prayer would likely prove distracting for her and those praying behind her. However, some argue that Muhammad gave permission to Ume Warqa to lead a mixed prayer at the mosque of Dar. Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, ''Religious leadership of women in Islam'', April 24, 2005, Daily Times, Pakistan Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al- ‘Arabi, n.d.) vol.5, 3:1375 In the past several decades, many countries in which Muslims are a majority, including Indonesia, Karon, Tony. "Megawati: The Princess Who Settled for the Presidency." ''Time (Time (magazine))'' (July 27, 2001). Pakistan, Ali A. Mazrui, Pretender to Universalism: Western Culture in a Globalizing Age, ''Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs'', Volume 21, Number 1, April 2001 Bangladesh, MacDonald, Elizabeth and Chana R. Schoenberger. "The 100 Most Powerful Women: Khaleda Zia." ''Forbes'' (Aug. 30, 2007). Turkey, "Tansu Çiller." About.com. and Kyrgyzstan have been led by women. Nearly one-third of the Parliament of Egypt also consists of women. Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan


Japan

zh:日本 Commons:Category:Japan Wikipedia:Japan Dmoz:Regional Asia Japan


New Zealand

Wikipedia:New Zealand Commons:Category:New Zealand Dmoz:Regional Oceania New Zealand


Russia

Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."


India

;, i.e. "vernacular", in contrast to ''samskrta (Sanskrit)'' "excellently made" Commons:Category:India Wikipedia:India Dmoz:Regional Asia India


Australia

. The original Surf was little more than a Toyota Hilux pickup truck with a fiberglass shell over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a mid-size, off-road vehicle. upright thumb Title page of 7th edition (Image:Dove Guide title page.jpg) '''Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers''' (known to ringers as "Dove's Guide" or simply "Dove") is the standard reference to the rings of bells hung for English-style full-circle bell ringing (change ringing). The vast majority of these "towers" are in England and Wales but the guide includes towers from the rest of the British Isles as well as a few from around the world (including the United States (USA), Australia, Canada, Africa and New Zealand). Toyline Beast Wars Neo's toy line contains exclusive figures available only in Japan, some of which later became available to other fans via the Hasbro online store or were available in later series, sometimes repainted and remolded. The ''Transformers: Universe'' release of Nemesis Prime was Hasbro's repaint of Big Convoy and was released in Australia as exclusive item, in addition to being a Target exclusive in the United States. Magmatron also ended up as a Target exclusive. thumb right The East Indiaman ''Warley'', painted in 1801 by Robert Salmon (File:East Indiaman Warley.jpg). The ''Warley'', commanded by Captain Henry Wilson, was one of the ships of Dance's fleet in 1804. The ''Earl Camden'' sailed from Canton (Guangzhou) with the rest of the fleet on 31 January 1804, bound for England. By virtue of his seniority Dance was appointed commodore of the fleet of 11 "country" ships, and 16 East Indiamen. Commons:Category:Australia Wikipedia:Australia Dmoz:Regional Oceania Australia


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