). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade, the failed 1157–1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar, and the 1164 invasion of Egypt (Crusader invasions of Egypt)), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading. In 1156 Thierry had his eldest son married to Elizabeth of Vermandois (Elizabeth de Vermandois (d. 1183)), daughter and heiress of Raoul I of Vermandois (Raoul I, Count of Vermandois). In 1156 he returned to the Holy Land, this time with his wife accompanying him. He participated in Baldwin III's siege of Shaizar, but the fortress remained in Muslim hands when a dispute arose between Thierry and Raynald of Châtillon over who would possess it should it be captured. He returned to Flanders 1159 without Sibylla, who remained behind to become a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus (Tomb of Lazarus (al-Eizariya)#Roman Catholic Church of St. Lazarus) in Bethany (Bethany (Israel)). Their son Philip (Philip of Flanders) had ruled the county in their absence, and he remained co-count after Thierry's return. '''Majd ad-Dīn Usāma ibn Murshid ibn ʿAlī ibn Munqidh al-Kināni''' ''Majd ad-Din'' is a honorific title (laqab) meaning "glory of the faith". His given name, ''Usama'', means "lion". Murshid was his father, Ali his grandfather, and Munqidh his great-grandfather. The Munqidh family belonged to the Kinana tribe (Banu Kinanah). Paul M. Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh: Warrior-Poet in the Age of Crusades'' (Oxford: Oneworld, 2005), p. 4. (also '''Usamah''', '''Ousama''', etc.; ) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188 According to Ibn Khallikan he was born on 27 Jumada al-Thani, 488 AH (Hijri year) and died 23 Ramadan (Ramadan (calendar month)) 584 AH. ''Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary'', trans. William MacGuckin, Baron de Slane, vol. 1 (Paris: 1842), p. 179. The Gregorian calendar dates are from Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', p. 4. ) was a medieval Muslim (Islamic Golden Age) poet, author, faris (furusiyya) (professional warrior), and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria. His life coincided with the rise of several medieval Muslim dynasties, as well as the arrival of the First Crusade and the establishment of the crusader states. The question of the status of Antioch and the adjacent Cilician cities troubled the Empire for many years afterwards. Although the Treaty of Devol never came into effect, it provided the legal basis for Byzantine negotiations with the crusaders for the next thirty years, and for imperial claims to Antioch during the reigns of John II (John II Komnenos) and Manuel I (Manuel I Komnenos). J.W. Birkenmeier, ''The Development of the Komnenian Army'', 46 * R.-J. Lilie, ''The Crusades and Byzantium'', 34 Therefore, John II attempted to impose his authority, traveling to Antioch himself in 1137 with his army and besieging the city. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium:The Decline and Fall'', 77 The citizens of Antioch tried to negotiate, but John demanded the unconditional surrender of the city. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium:The Decline and Fall'', 78 After asking the permission of the King of Jerusalem, Fulk (King Fulk), which he received, Raymond (Raymond of Antioch), the Prince of Antioch, agreed to surrender the city to John. The agreement, by which Raymond swore homage to John, was explicitly based on the Treaty of Devol, but went beyond it: Raymond, who was recognized as an imperial vassal for Antioch, promised the Emperor free entry to Antioch, and undertook to hand over the city in return for investiture with Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs and Hama as soon as these were conquered from the Muslims. Then, Raymond would rule the new conquests and Antioch would revert to direct imperial rule. A. Jotischky, ''Crusading and the Crusader States'', 77 * P. Magdalino, ''The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos'', 41 The campaign finally failed, however, partly because Raymond and Joscelin II, Count of Edessa, who had been obliged to join John as his vassals, did not pull their weight. When, on their return to Antioch, John insisted on taking possession of the city, the two princes organized a riot. The inhabitants of Antioch were hostile to the prospect of passing under Byzantine rule, which seemed to them the inevitable consequence (J. Richard, ''The Crusades, c.1071 - c.1291'', 151). John found himself besieged in the city, and was forced to leave in 1138, recalled to Constantinople. J. Richard, ''The Crusades, c.1071 - c.1291'', 151 He diplomatically accepted Raymond's and Joscelin's insistence that they had nothing to do with the rebellion. J.W. Birkenmeier, ''The Development of the Komnenian Army'', 48 * P. Magdalino, ''The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos'', 41 * A. Stone, John II Comnenus (A.D. 1118-1143) John repeated his operation in 1142, but he unexpectedly died, and the Byzantine army retired. thumb Antioch under Byzantine protection (during 1159–1180) (File:Principality of Antioch under byzantine protection.png) Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarrelled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Homs from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade. Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarreled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Homs from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade. After fighting between Antioch and Shaizar in 1108, the Frankish and Muslim overlords exchanged gifts, according to Usamah ibn Munqidh. Tancred received the gift of a horse from the ruling family of Shaizar. The Christian leader admired the handsome youth who delivered the animal, a Kurd named Hasanun. Tancred promised him that, if he ever captured the young man, he would free him. Unfortunately, the regent of Antioch had a cruel streak. When the lad fell into his hands a year later, Tancred broke his promise, imprisoning and torturing him, and putting out his right eye. Smail, p. 45 Biography Ioveta was the only one of Baldwin's daughters born after he became king in 1118. When Baldwin was taken captive by the Ortoqids near Edessa (County of Edessa) in 1123, Ioveta was one of the hostages given for his release. She was held at Shaizar until being ransomed to Baldwin in 1125 for eighty thousand dinars. Her ransom was gathered from the spoils taken after Baldwin's victory at the Battle of Azaz that year. *Rahbeh Castle near Mayadin, Deir ez-Zor *Shaizar Castle in Mahardeh, Hama *Shmemis Castle south-east of Hama *Larissa, Turkey, an ancient city in Turkey, in the immediate vicinity of Menemen district of İzmir * ''Larissa'', Hellenistic name of Shaizar, Syria (at the time settled by colonists from the Greek city) *Larissa, Texas, a community in eastern Texas, in northwestern Cherokee County (Cherokee County, Texas). While probably only a minor presence during the crusade itself, he participated in the Battle of Ramlah (Battle of Ramla (1105)) in 1105, and in 1109 he assisted in the siege of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon). There he was one of the envoys sent by Baldwin I of Jerusalem to negotiate between William-Jordan and Bertrand of Toulouse, both sons of Raymond IV of Toulouse who disputed the claim to Tripoli. On December 19, 1111 he was granted the city of Sidon, after it was captured by Baldwin I with the help of Sigurd I of Norway. He was already lord of Caesarea (Caesarea Palaestina), which had been captured in 1101 and given to him at an unknown date. Soon after this he married Emelota or Emma, the niece of Patriarch (Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) Arnulf of Chocques, and was also granted Jericho and its revenue, which was formerly church property. He also took part in the sieges of Shaizar, which was not captured, and Tyre (Lebanon), which was. At the siege of Tyre he supervised the construction of the siege engines. In 1120 he was present at the Council of Nablus, convened by Baldwin II (Baldwin II of Jerusalem), where the laws of the kingdom were first written down. When Baldwin II was captured in 1123 by the Ortoqids, Eustace was elected constable of Jerusalem (Officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem) and regent of the kingdom. As regent Eustace defeated an Egyptian invasion at the Battle of Yibneh on May 29, 1123. Eustace died soon after on June 15, 1123, and was replaced as Constable and Regent by William I of Bures. He was buried in Jerusalem at the Abbey of St. Maria Latina. Background After the capture of Antioch (Siege of Antioch) (June 1098) and the destruction of Ma'arrat al-Numan (January 13, 1099), the Syrian emirs were terrified of the advancing crusaders and quickly handed over their cities to the Franks. On January 14, Sultan ibn Munqidh, emir of Shaizar, dispatched an embassy to Raymond IV of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the crusade, to offer provisions and food for men and horses, as well as guides to Jerusalem. In February, the emir of Homs, Janah ad-Dawla, who had fought bravely at the siege of Antioch, offered horses to Raymond. The ''qadi'' of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon), Jalal al-Mulk, from the Banu Ammar, sent rich gifts and invited the Franks to send an embassy to his city. The ambassadors marvelled at the splendors of the city, and an alliance was concluded. The crusades moved on to Arqa, which they besieged from February 14 to May 13, before continuing south to Jerusalem; they did not attack Tripoli or any other possessions of the Banu Ammar.
in the RAN. Following the refit, ''Vampire'' operated in Australian waters, including participation in the training exercise Tuckerbox in August, then returned to the Far East in September. Bastock, ''Australia's Ships of War'', p. 322 On 1 December 1961, a chief petty officer died aboard from illness. Cassells, ''The Destroyers'', p. 152 The destroyer was in Hong Kong for Christmas, then in January 1962, visited Nha Trang and Saigon in Vietnam with Dmoz:Regional Asia Vietnam Provinces Khanh Hoa Nha Trang Commons:Nha Trang
performed radio intercepts, growing from platoon to company and, in 1964, to 1st Radio Battalion. Sub-units of the battalion were deployed to Vietnam (Vietnam War) from 1967 to 1975, including participation in evacuation efforts during the Fall of Saigon. In the early 1980s, 2nd Radio Battalion was part of the multinational peacekeeping force (Multinational Force in Lebanon) in Beirut, Lebanon. More recently, Radio Battalions served in Operation Desert Storm (Gulf War), Operation
took second and third places overall in 1963 and 1964 respectively. In total, he won seven Tour stages. While Musa had been orphaned at an early age, there are hints of his probable activity in the 820s, probably including participation in the third Battle of Roncevaux. Still, his first explicit mention is in the 840s, when he launched a series of revolts, in collaboration with his maternal half-brother, the Pamplona chieftain Íñigo Arista. These were put down by Abd ar-Rahman II, with Musa's own son Lubb going over to the emir. Musa repeatedly submitted, only to rise again. By the end of this period of repeated rebellion he controlled a region along the Ebro from Borja (Borja, Zaragoza) to Logroño, including Tudela (Tudela, Navarre), Tarazona, Arnedo and Calahorra. The 851 2 deaths of Íñigo Arista and Abd er-Rahman II, as well as a victory over Christian forces at Albelda (Battle of Albelda (851)), gave Musa unprecedented status. The changed position was recognized by the new emir, Muhammad I of Córdoba, who named Musa the Wali (Wāli) of Zaragoza and governor of the Upper March. Over the next decade he would expand the family's lands to include Zaragoza, Najera, Viguera and Calatayud, while also having governmental control over Tudela, Huesca and Toledo (Toledo, Spain), leading him to be referred by a Christian chronicler as "The Third King of Spain". This status came to an end when in 859, Ordoño I of Asturias and García Íñiguez of Pamplona joined forces to deal Musa a crushing defeat at Albelda (Battle of Albelda (859)), which passed into Christian legend as the Battle of Clavijo. Emir Muhammad leaped on Musa's weakness, stripping him of his titles and restoring direct Cordoban control over the region. Musa died in 862 of wounds received in a petty squabble with a son-in-law, and the family disappeared from the political scene for a decade. Cañada Juste, "Los Banu Qasi", 12-41 Life She was possibly born about 543 in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), the Visigothic capital, the daughter of the Visigoth king Athanagild and Goiswintha, his queen. She was the younger of his two daughters. She was only eleven years old when her father was elevated to the kingship (554). She was educated in Toledo as an Arian Christian (arianism). North America The first city in North America to establish a sister city relationship was Toledo, Ohio, United States with Toledo, Spain in 1931. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada was also a notable city to enter into an intercontinental twinning arrangement when, in 1944, it twinned with the Ukrainian (Ukraine) city of Odessa, which at the time was part of the Soviet Union. This was based on aiding the allied port city during the Second World War. Alfau wrote two novels in English (English language): ''Locos: A Comedy of Gestures'' and ''Chromos.'' ''Locos'' — a metafictive (metafiction) collection of related short stories set in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) and Madrid, involving several characters that defy the wishes of the author, write their own stories, and even assume each others' roles — was published by Farrar and Rinehart in 1936. The novel, for which Alfau was paid $250, received some critical acclaim, but little popular attention. The novel was republished in 1987 after Steven Moore (Steven Moore (US author)), then an editor for the small publisher Dalkey Archive Press found the book at a barn sale in Massachusetts, read it, and contacted Alfau after finding his telephone number in the Manhattan phone book. The novel's second incarnation was modestly successful, but Alfau refused payment, instructing the publisher to use the earnings from ''Locos'' to fund some other unpublished work. When Steven Moore asked if he had written any other books, Alfau produced the manuscript for ''Chromos'', which had been resting in a drawer since 1948. ''Chromos'', a comic story of Spanish immigrants to the United States contending with their two cultures, went on to be nominated for the National Book Award in 1990. Early life The son of a doctor, he enrolled at a young age in the Infantry Academy of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), where Francisco Franco was a fellow cadet. The two men received their commissions concurrently and served together in Africa, where Yagüe was wounded on several occasions and received several decorations. Sources are contradictory concerning Vincent's achievement in converting a synagogue in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Spain, into the Church of Santa María la Blanca; one source says he preached to the mobs whose riots led to the appropriation of the synagogue and its transformation into a church in 1391; ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.
), and its geographic boundaries were realigned to coincide with those of Federal Emergency Management Agency Region IX. The 63d maintained command and control of 14,000 soldiers and 140 units in the states of California, Arizona and Nevada, and assumed additional responsibility to support the major functional reserve commands within its area. The 63rd RRC supported both foreign and domestic active Army missions, including participation in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) operations
performances of the piece around New Years because of the popularity of the music with the public. In the 1960s, performances of the symphony at New Years became more widespread, including participation by local choirs and orchestras, and established the tradition which continues to this day. Brasor, Philip, "Japan makes Beethoven's Ninth No. 1 for the holidays", ''Japan Times'', 24 December 2010, p. 20, retrieved on 24
from platoon to company and, in 1964, to 1st Radio Battalion. Sub-units of the battalion were deployed to Vietnam (Vietnam War) from 1967 to 1975, including participation in evacuation efforts during the Fall of Saigon. In the early 1980s, 2nd Radio Battalion was part of the multinational peacekeeping force (Multinational Force in Lebanon) in Beirut, Lebanon. More recently, Radio Battalions served in Operation Desert Storm (Gulf War), Somalia (Operation United Shield), Kosovo
of Lorraine Thierry II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders (daughter of Robert I of Flanders (Robert I, Count of Flanders)). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade, the failed 1157–1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar, and the 1164 invasion of Egypt (Crusader invasions of Egypt)), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading. *Syria: Hafez al-Assad (1971–2000), succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad (2000–). Bashar's elder brother, Basil al-Assad, had been designated for the presidency but died in 1994, six years prior to his father's death. In all but 15 countries, husbands are not required to authorize or be notified of an induced abortion. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
and domestic active Army missions, including participation in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) operations in Bosnia and Kosovo. Since 2001, thousands of soldiers from the 63d RRC have served in Afghanistan and.Iraq. The first operational Saxons were deployed in Germany in 1983, to equip mechanised infantry battalions. the saxon is now withdrawn from service in HM Armed Forces, but 147 are kept in storage. Modern equipment
of Vietnam with the 2nd Battalion 1st Marines. As a First Lieutenant (First Lieutenant#United States) in Vietnam, Kelly led troops in battle for most of his 12 months in country, including participation in Operation Harvest Moon. Upon returning to the U.S., Raymond Kelly joined the reserves and retired after 30 years of service with the rank of Colonel (Colonel (United States)) from the Marine Corps Reserve (United States Marine Corps Reserve)s. ref name "NYPD"