Places Known For

including modern


Ardabil

Sufi (Sufism) Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan Province in northern Iran. Most of what we know about him comes from the Safvat as-safa, a hagiography written by one of his followers. Origins The Talishis generally identify themselves with the ancient Cadusians (Cadusii), who inhabited the area to the southwest of Caspian Sea, bounded on the north by Kura River, including modern provinces of Ardabil and Zanjan (Zanjan Province ). The name ''Talishi'' may be etymologically related to Cadusi, which has influenced the name of the Caspian and Caucasus. wikipedia:Ardabil


Tatarstan

. Hermitage website - The Hermitage-Kazan Exhibition Center, Tatarstan The '''Tatar language''' (татар теле, татарча, ''tatar tele'', ''tatarça''), or more specifically '''Kazan Tatar''', is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars of historical Kazan Khanate, including modern Tatarstan and Bashkiria. It should not be confused with the Crimean Tatar language, to which it is remotely related. year 2001 although it is still a low prestige language. Higher education in Tatar can only be found in Tatarstan, and is restricted to the humanities. In other regions Tatar is primarily a spoken language and the number of speakers as well as their proficiency tends to decrease. Tatar is popular as a written language only in Tatar-speaking areas where schools with Tatar language lessons are situated. On the other hand, Tatar is the only language in use in rural districts of Tatarstan (administrative divisions of the Republic of Tatarstan). In 1939, in Tatarstan (a republic of Russia where Tatar is most commonly used) and all other parts of the Soviet Union a Cyrillic script was developed and is still used to write Tatar. It is also used in Kazakhstan. thumb Muslim men in Jeddah (File:Eidgah jeddah.JPG), Saudi Arabia In Chechnya, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Ingushetia, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan in Russia, Muslims are in the majority. ::'''Caucasus''': Adygea (Republic of Adygea), Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Dagestan, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachay–Cherkessia, North Ossetia–Alania ::'''Northwestern Asia''': Arkhangelsk Oblast including Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Novaya Zemlya, Astrakhan Oblast, Bashkortostan, Belgorod Oblast, Bryansk Oblast, Chuvashia (Chuvashia Republic), Lipetsk Oblast, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kaluga Oblast, Novgorod Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Kirov Oblast, Komi Republic, Kursk Oblast, Mordovia, Murmansk Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Penza Oblast, Perm Krai, Pskov Oblast, Rostov Oblast, Ryazan Oblast, Saint Petersburg, Samara Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Tatarstan, Tula Oblast, Udmurtia, Volgograd Oblast, Vologda Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, ::'''Siberia''': Altai Krai, Buryatia (Republic of Buryatia), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Chita Oblast, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, parts of Kurgan Oblast, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tomsk Oblast, Tuva, Tyumen Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Yamal-Nenets, ;Persia (Persian Empire) (17th century) : Generally two pairs of slim, blue tile clad towers flanking the mosque entrance, terminating in covered balconies. ;Tatar (Tatarstan) (18th century): Tatar mosque:A sole minaret is used, placed at the centre of a gabled roof. ;Morocco: Typically a single square minaret. Notable exceptions are the octagonal minaret located in Chefchaouen and the round minaret located in Moulay Idriss. Introduced range From 1928–1958, 10,000 raccoon dogs of the ''ussuriensis'' subspecies were introduced in 76 districts, territories and republics of the Soviet Union in an attempt to improve their fur quality. Primor'e (Primorsky Krai) was the first region to be colonised, with individuals being transplanted on islands in the Japanese sea. By 1934, raccoon dogs were introduced into Altai (Altai Krai), the northern Caucasus, Armenia, Kirgizia (Kyrgyzstan), Tatarstan, Kalinin (Tver Oblast), Penza (Penza Oblast) and Orenburg (Orenburg Oblast) regions. In the following year, they were further introduced into Leningradsky (Leningradsky District, Krasnodar Krai), Murmansk (Murmansk Oblast), Novosibirsk (Novosibirsk Oblast) and Bashkortostan. Raccoon dogs in Irkutsk (Irkutsk Oblast), Novosibirsk, Trans-Baikaliya (Trans-Baikal Krai) and Altai did not fare well, due to harsh winters and scarce food. Raccoon dogs also fared badly in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus, Middle Asia and Moldavia (Moldova). However, successful introductions occurred in European Russia (particularly in the Pribaltika (Baltic States), Kalinin (Tver Oblast), Novgorod (Novgorod Oblast), Pskov (Pskov Oblast) and Smolensk (Smolensk Oblast) regions), in central Russia (Moscow (Moscow Oblast), Yaroslavl (Yaroslavl Oblast), Vologda (Vologda Oblast), Gorkiy (Nizhny Novgorod Oblast), Vladimir (Vladimir Oblast), Ryazan (Ryazan Oblast) Oblasts, etc.) as well as in the black soil (Chernozem) belt (Voronezh (Voronezh Oblast), Tambov (Tambov Oblast) and Kursk (Kursk Oblast)), the lower Volga Region and the level parts of the northern Caucasus and Dagestan. In Ukraine, the greatest numbers of raccoon dogs were established in Poltava (Poltava Oblast), Kherson (Kherson Oblast) and Lugansk (Luhansk Oblast). Tatar Tatar (Tatarstan) folklore includes Yuxa, a hundred-year-old snake that can transform itself into a beautiful young woman, and seeks to marry men in order to have children. C Republic of Tatarstan, reputedly the largest mosque in Europe. - valign top Akhatov Gabdulkhay Khuramovich (Gabdulkhay Akhatov) (1927–1986) Scientist, professor of philology (1970), turkologist, public figure, founder of modern Tatar dialectology and creator of the Kazan 'school of phraseology, the author of fundamental scientific works and textbooks (Tatarstan, Russia, USSR) - * Unified State Exam ( commons:category:Tatarstan Wikipedia:Tatarstan


Medes

of central Asia. Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through Media (Medes), Parthia, Aria (Aria (satrapy)) (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


Tripoli

WikiPedia:Tripoli Commons:Category:Tripoli


Gdańsk

British sales of large quantities of armaments (including modern tanks) to fill urgent Soviet orders, by the head of the British military mission to Warsaw, General Sir Adrian Carton De Wiart and a few politicians led


Hesse

to its strategic importance at the mouth of the York River. Image:Duitslandchurchill.png Partition plan from Winston Churchill: Wikipedia:Hesse Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany States Hesse Commons:Hessen


Tajikistan

as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through Media (Medes), Parthia, Aria (Aria (satrapy)) (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. WikiPedia:Tajikistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Tajikistan Commons:Category:Tajikistan


Brunei

The daerah of Brunei-Maura includes Brunei's capital city, Bandar Seri Begawan, whose suburbs dominate fifteen of the eighteen mukims in this daerah. Over 90% of Brunei's total population lives in 15 of the 38 mukims: class "wikitable sortable" - ! Rank ! Mukim ! Population ! Large Towns ! Daerah - 1 Sengkurong (Sengkurong, Brunei-Muara) 62,400 Jerudong and Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara - 2 Gadong B (Gadong B, Brunei-Muara) 59,610 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara - 3 Berakas A (Berakas A, Brunei-Muara) 57,500 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara - 4 Kuala Belait (Kuala Belait, Belait) 35,500 Belait (Kuala Belait) town Belait - 5 Seria (Seria, Belait) 32,900 Seria Town (Seria) Belait - 6 Berakas B (Berakas B, Brunei-Muara) 23,400 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara - 7 Sungai Liang (Liang, Belait) 18,100 small kampongs (Kampung#Southeast Asia) (villages) Belait - 8 Pengkalan Batu (Pengkalan Batu, Brunei-Muara) approx. 15,000 small kampongs Brunei-Muara - 9 Kilanas (Kilanas, Brunei-Muara) approx. 14,000 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara - 10 Kota Batu (Kota Batu, Brunei-Muara) 12,600 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara - 11 Pekan Tutong (Mukim Pekan Tutong) 12,100 Tutong Town (Pekan Tutong) Tutong - 12 Mentiri (Mentiri, Brunei-Muara) 10,872 small kampongs Brunei-Muara


Uzbekistan

(Rhodopechys mongolicus) Birdlife International (accessed 23 May 2008) It is a vagrant in Bahrain. Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as what are now Uzbekistan, the northern Indian subcontinent (including modern-day Pakistan), "Menander (Menander I) became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole


Belarus

(including modern Belarus and Ukraine) to Poland and Lithuania from 1342 to 1369. Muslim and non-Muslim princes in the Chagatai Khanate warred with each other from 1331–1343, and the Chagatai Khanate disintegrated when non-Genghisid warlords set up their own puppet khans in Transoxiana and Moghulistan. Janibeg Khan (r. 1342–1357) briefly reasserted Jochid dominance over the Chaghataids to restore their former glory. Demanding submission from an offshoot of the Ilkhanate in Azerbaijan, he boasted that "today three uluses are under my control". However, rival families of the Jochids began fighting for the throne of the Golden Horde after the assassination of his successor Berdibek Khan in 1359. The last Yuan ruler Toghan Temur (r. 1333–70) was powerless to regulate those troubles because the empire had nearly reached its end. His court's unbacked currency had entered a hyperinflationary spiral and the Han-Chinese people revolted (Red Turban Rebellion) due to the Yuan's harsh restrictions. In the 1350s King Gongmin of Goryeo successfully pushed Mongolian garrisons back and exterminated the family of Toghan Temur Khan's empress while Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen managed to eliminate the Mongol influence in Tibet. Prawdin. p. 379. *Figures for Belarus and the Ukraine include about 2 million civilian dead that are also listed in the total war dead of Poland. - 3 Romania Belarus, Latvia, Spain - After the collapse of Eastern Military High Command (Evolution of Pakistan Eastern Command plan) and the disintegration (Bangladesh Liberation War) of Pakistan as a result of 1971 Winter war (Indo-Pakistani war of 1971), Bhutto (Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) of Pakistan launched and embarked the scientific research on nuclear weapons. This programme was delegated to Munir Ahmad Khan, Abdul Qadeer Khan, and Salam (Abdus Salam) who later go on to win the Nobel Prize (Nobel Prize in Physics). India's first atomic-test explosion was in 1974 with ''Smiling Buddha'', which it described as a "peaceful nuclear explosion". The Indian test caused Pakistan to spurred its programme, and with Dr. A. Q. Khan, the ISI (ISI (Pakistan)) conduct successful espionage operations in the Netherlands, while also developing the programme ingeniously on the other side. India tested fission and perhaps fusion devices in 1998 (See ''Shakti'' (Operation Shakti)), and Pakistan successfully tested fission devices that same year (See ''Chagai-I''), raising concerns that they would use nuclear weapons on each other. All of the former Soviet bloc countries with nuclear weapons (Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) returned their warheads to Russia by 1996. Examples Example of areas of the world with continental climate are the Midwestern United States, northeastern parts of the US, southern Canada, inland and northeastern China, Korea, northern Japan, most of Russia and Bosnia (Bosnia (region)), parts of Norway, Sweden, inner parts of Spain and Turkey, eastern Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, some parts of Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland. A continental climate can also be found in many valleys around mountains in the North Temperate Zone; such as the Alps (in France, Italy, Switzerland and Austria), the Pyrenees (in Spain, Andorra and France) or the Himalayas (in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Burma and Bhutan). "'''My Belarusy'''" ( Commons:Category:Belarus Wikipedia:Belarus Dmoz:Regional Europe Belarus


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