, was the earliest form of the sport. Pu Songling, a well-known writer of the Qing Dynasty, is one of the most famous people from Zibo. As the birthplace of Qi Culture and because of the abundant natural resources, it is an excellent tourist city in China. Manufacturing holds an important place of the city's economy and Zibo is particularly strong in ceramics manufacturing. Other industries include the petrochemical industry, pharmaceuticals, metallurgy, building materials, machinery and textile. High and new-technology industries, such as new materials, fine chemicals, electronics and information, and biological medicines, are developing rapidly. According to 2007 2008 Global City Competitiveness Report released by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Zibo was among the top 20 cities in the world who enjoy the fastest economic growth between 2001 and 2005. "15 out of top 20 cities which enjoy the fastest economic growth are in China", , Sohu news, Guangzhou Daily Aug.12,08. According to Oriental Outlook Magazine Issue No.1, 2009 , Zibo ranks No.1 on the list of cities with reasonable real estate prices in China, also No.2 on the list of cities with good public security. 2008 Top Happiest Cities in China, Guangzhou Daily, Retrieved on Apr.16,09. In 2009, the city was awarded as among "Best 10 Harmonious Cities that enjoy Sustainable Development in China". 2009 Best 10 Harmonious Cities that enjoy Sustainable Development in China, www.sdfdc.com, Retrieved on Sep.29,09. Administrative divisions The prefecture-level city of Zibo administers 8 county-level divisions (Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#County level), including 5 districts (District of China) and 3 counties (County (People's Republic of China)). *Zhangdian District (张店区), location of the municipal government *Zichuan District (淄川区) *Boshan District (博山区) *Linzi District (临淄区) *Zhoucun District (周村区) *Huantai County (桓台县) *Gaoqing County (高青县) *Yiyuan County (沂源县) Geography and climate Zibo is in the center of Shandong Province, neighboring Mt. Tai in the south and backing the Yellow River in the north. It is also bordered by hot coastal tourist cities, Qingdao, Yantai, and Weihai in the east, and the capital city of the province, Jinan in the west. Zibo is located in the transition zone between mountainous area in central Shangdong and the North China Plain. Its southern area is covered with mid-sized mountains, while the center is hilly. The city's northern territory descends into plains. The ratio among mountains, hill and plain is 42%, 29.9% and 28.1%. Zibo Background Information, Zibo Background Information. With the Yihe River originating itself in the southern mountain area, and Yellow River flowing across the northern area, the city has comparatively abundant water resources. The workable reserve of ground water is 1.24 tons day. Climate Zibo is located in a warm, temperate zone, and bears a semi-humid and semi-dry continental climate. Zibo Travel Guide, the "travelchinaguide"website. Like other major cities in North China, Zibo has four distinct seasons. January and July are respectively the coldest and hottest month during a year. Zibo enjoy 180 to 220 frost-free days and average annual Hours of Sunshine is 2542.6 to 2832.6 hours. Annual average precipitation of Zibo is 25.2 inches (640.5 mm). City Weather Details_Zibo, China Meteorological Administration. Demographics As of 2006, there were 4,181,260 people living in Zibo, of which 2,102,819 were male and 2,078,441 were female. The sex ratio is 101.17. Death rate of 2006 is 5.92%, while the birth rate was a little higher, at 8.81‰. The natural growth rate of population that year iwas 2.90%. The area had a population density of 704.15 per square kilometer. Wikipedia:Zibo
an important place for marketing and refining tropical fruits. Several medical institutions provide public-health services in Córdoba, including the ISSSTE (Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers), the IMSS (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social), and the SCSP. There is also a local Cruz Roja (Red Cross) hospital, and several private hospitals. The city has a large number of entertainment centers, including billiard halls, ballrooms and discothèques. Cordoba has three
are proved to scatter the prefecture and 460 mines are available for exploitation. Among its most important minerals, are gold, silver, lead, zinc, molybdenum, fluorite, pearlstone, pyrophyllite, dolianite, kaoline and mineral water, whose reserves claim an important place in Zhejiang, even in China. In the recent years, Lishui prefecture has seen a rapid development in industry. An industry structure that carries the features of mountainous area is burgeoning. Its main industries are wood
of the Isfahan (Eşfahān Province) region held an important place in retail trade, owners of cafes and hotels and as craftsmen. ''Ibid'', p.690 For several centuries ''Arabistan'', as with many other Iranian provinces prior to the era of the Pahlavi dynasty, had been a semi-autonomous part of Persia under the control of an Imperial Governor-Generalate (Governor General) appointed by the Shah. The Zagros mountains separated the province from the central Iranian plateau
9780864427090 The Bolan Pass is an important pass on the Baluch frontier, connecting Jacobabad and Sibi with Quetta, which has always occupied an important place in the history of British campaigns in Afghanistan. In March 2002, A-10s assigned to the 23d Fighter Group arrived in Jacobabad, Pakistan, and later became the first USAF fixed-winged aircraft to enter Afghanistan to fight the war on terrorism. Language The language of the Bugti people is known as '''Bugti Balochi''' which is widely spoken in Dera Bugti, Sui (Sui (Balochistan)), Kahan, Kohlu, Jacobabad, Sibi, Pir Koh and many other places in Balochistan (Baluchistan (Pakistan)). One of the several Persian words left in Bugti Balochi is ''Sheh'' which means "thing or things". Their language was influenced by Sindhi (Sindhi language) and a bit by Punjabi (Punjabi language) because they live near the border of Sindh and Punjab (Punjab (Pakistan)). An arabic word is Qadah , which means a bowl. - style "background-color:#DDDDDD" Jacobabad style "background-color:#DDDDDD" Jacobabad Airbase - '''Gabol''' (Balochi (Balochi language): گبول, ''literally '' aggressor (Aggression) or Warrior) is a Baloch (Baloch people) tribe settled in the Balochistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)), Sindh and Punjab (Punjab (Pakistan)) provinces of Pakistan. Gabols are of Rind (Rind (tribe)) (Arab) origin and are mostly settled in Tikko Baran (Baran, Pakistan) surrounding the Kirthar Mountains Range, Karachi, Ghotki, Alipur (Alipur Tehsil), Sibi, and Jacobabad. This tribe is also considered to be present in Iran and Syria''. The exact population of this tribe is unknown, but estimated by some to be over 300,000. Gabols residing in Sindh are bilingual in both Balochi (Balochi language) and Sindhi (Sindhi language). Members of the Gabol tribe living in Balochistan ( Jhatt Patt District Jaffarabad and Lehri ) speak Balochi (Balochi language), while tribe members speak Balochi and Siraiki (Siraiki language) in Punjab (Punjab region). Gabol is the major Baloch tribe found in Karachi; some people of this tribe migrated to Tehran, Iran. Gabols are still living there, and speak the Balochi language to this day alongside the national language Persian (Persian language). When the British Raj government moved the Domkis in Sindh, the Gabols also migrated. The Domkis used to loot the those travelling all around Balochistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)), Sindh, along with the Jakhrani. In 1845, The Governor of Sindh General Sir Charles James Napier (Charles James Napier) sent his army to shift them in Sindh near Cantonment area so that they could hold peace in the area. Gabol ''Baoch Tribes of Baluchistan'' along with Domkies shifted to Sindh with Bijjar Khan as Tribal Leader and Jhakrani along with Darya Khan as Tribal Leader. In Sindh they were shifted in Dera Jani a few miles away from Jacobabad where they are living in Domki. ;Abro The Abro are a branch of the Samma (Samma (tribe)) Rajputs, and are Chandravanshi. Found in Shikarpur (Shikarpur District), Jacobabad and Larkana districts and Balochistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)). '''Sibi Railway Station''' is a junction railway station. The railway track was lined in 1890s during the British era to link Sibi with rest of the country. The routes are Sibi from linked with Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Quetta, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad (Hyderabad, Sindh), Rohri, Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Kot Adu, Gujrat, Jacobabad, Gujranwala, Khanewal, Nawabshah, Attock, Jhelum, and Nowshera (Nowshera, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa). '''Sibi Railway Station''' is junction railway station. The railway track was lined in 1890s during the British era to link Sibi with rest of the country. The routes are Sibi from linked with Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Quetta, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad (Hyderabad, Sindh), Rohri, Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Kot Adu, Gujrat, Jacobabad, Gujranwala, Khanewal, Nawabshah, Attock, Jhelum, and Nowshera (Nowshera, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa). It has a discharge capacity of 1.2 million cubic feet per second (34,000 m³ s). It is a gate-controlled weir type barrage with a navigation lock. The barrage has 64 bays, each 60 feet (18 m) wide. The maximum flood level height of Guddu Barrage is 26 feet (8 m). It controls irrigation supplies to 2.9 million acres (12,000 km²) of agricultural land in the Jacobabad, Larkana and Sukkur districts of Sindh province and the Naseerabad district (Naseerabad District) of Balochistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)) province. It feeds Ghotki Feeder, Begari Feeder, Desert and Pat Feeder canals. '''Kach Gandava''', or '''Kachi''' is a low-lying flat region in Balochistan (Balochistan, Pakistan), Pakistan separating the Bugti hills from those of Kalat (Kalat District). Until the end of the 15th century the district had been a dependency of Sindh http: visitorsheaven.com Sibi.php Around 1500 it was taken by Shah Beg of the Arghun Dynasty from Samma Dynasty of Sultan Of Sindh http: asswa.webs.com makhdoombilawalsamo.htm http: www.travel-culture.com pakistan sindh.shtml http: www.docstoc.com docs 6456412 Sindh and so came under the control of Kandahar.Soon the territory was conquered by the Kalhoras Amirs of Sindh http: www.pakistanpaedia.com oth sibi sibi.html http: www.dawn.com weekly dmag archive 070506 dmag25.htm , they were displaced by the Nadir Shah of Persia and made it the part of Kalat Khanate in 1740. Sibi District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 22, p. 338. http: panhwar.com Article26.htm . Kachhi was notified as a district on February 1965. At that time Naseerabad, Jhal Magsi and Jafarabad districts were included, these were separated in 1987. It is driven, like a wedge, into the frontier mountain system and extends for 150 miles from Jacobabad to Sibi, with nearly as great a breadth at its base on the Sindh frontier. The soil is fertile wherever it can be irrigated by the floods brought down from the surrounding hills; but much of the central portion is sandy waste. It is traversed by the North-Western railway. The climate is unhealthy in summer, when pestilential hot winds are sometimes destructive to life. History '''Multan International Airport''' traces its origins to the British Empire, when the Royal Air Force used the open space to fly in and out of the Multan region during 1919. The area was used for aircraft that were able to land on gravel and grass surfaces, however, there was very little development to the area. In 1934, Imperial Airways started to use the airfield for civil aircraft flights since Multan was considered a strategic position within the Punjab province of India. It was not until 1938 that Imperial Airways started to operate a regular flight out of Multan. The flight would originate at Lahore, then fly into Multan, where it would continue its journey to Jacobabad and then Karachi. The tribe is concentrated in Districts of Jacobabad, Ranipur and Thatta. The chief of the tribe, Sardar Zulfiqar Khan Sarki resides in Jacobabad and hence it is the strong hold of Sarkis from all over the province. The legal system and law enforcement agencies in contrast to cities like Karachi are unable to exercise dominion on their populace in Jacobabad. The locals share a tough and a primitive way of life unchanged for centuries with their neighboring province Baluchistan (Balochistan (Pakistan)). The result is a very monotonous and discomforting impact on the youth, where each day brings in a negative affluence. The only measure to affix this barbarianism is to confront the inhabitants with education and twenty first century industrialization. This fact was realized by the Sardar Zulfiqar,Imdad khan and Dr. Sohrab whereby construction of schools and colleges started at a substantial level. These schools and colleges were majorly constructed on lands donated by the Sarki family. birth_place Woolavington, Somerset, England death_place Jacobabad, modern Pakistan placeofburial Jacobabad, modern Pakistan J Jacobabad - Jadoon - Jafar-e-Tayyar - Jaffarabad District - Jahanabad, Pakistan - Jahangir - Jahangiri - Jahanian - Jaish-e-Mohammed - Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji - Jamaat-e-Islami - Jamaati - Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen - Jamali - Jamali Colony - Jamhoori Wattan Party - Jammu and Kashmir - Jamrud - Jamshed (Jamshed (disambiguation)) - Jamshed (neighborhood) - Jamshed Quarters - Jamshed Town - Jamshoro - Janjhi - Jasarat - Jatoi (Jatoi (disambiguation)) - Javed Ahmed Ghamidi - Jehangir Karamat - Jehangir Kothari Parade - JF-17 Thunder - Jhal Magsi District - Jhelum - Jhelum (City) - Jhelum River - Jihad - Jinnah International Airport - Jiwani - Jiwani Airport - Joyo (Joyo (tribe)) - Joyo (tribe) - Jundallah - Junejo - Jut Line - - Jacobabad 79000 Jacobabad Sindh - - Jacobabad 79000 Jacobabad Sindh - - 722 Jacobabad, Ghari Khairo, Khairo (Khairo, Sindh), Thull Jacobabad (Jacobabad District) -
Palestine Charge; Deny Obstructing U.N. Unit - Violence Flares as Big Evacuation Convoy Starts ''New York Times''. 1948-04-14. The New York Times Company. Palmach units of the Haganah raided and blew up most of Lajjun on the night of April 15–16. Morris, 2004, p.232. On April 17, it was occupied by the Haganah. According to the newspaper, Lajjun was the "most important place taken by the Jews, whose offensive has carried them through ten villages south and east of Mishmar Ha'emek." The report added that women and children had been removed from the village and that 27 buildings in the village were blown up by the Haganah. However, al-Qawuqji states that attacks resumed on May 6, when ALA positions in the area of Lajjun were attacked by Haganah forces. The ALA's Yarmouk Battalion and other ALA units drove back their forces, but two days later, the ALA commander reported that the Haganah was "trying to cut off the Lajjun area from Tulkarm in preparation of seizing Lajjun and Jenin..." Schmidt, Dana Adams. Jews press Arabs in Pitched Battle in North Palestine; Seize 10 Villages and 7 Guns in Mishmar Haemek Area - Repel Counter-Attacks UN Session Opens Today, Special Assembly to Gather at Flushing Meadow in Gloom - Zionist Rejects Truce Pitched Battle Rages in Palestine Jew Press Arabs in North Palestine ''New York Times''. 1948-04-16. The New York Times Company. On May 30, 1948, in the first stage of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Lajjun was captured by Israel's Golani Brigade in Operation Gideon. The capture was particularly important for the Israelis because of its strategic location at the entrance of the Wadi Ara, which thus, brought their forces closer to Jenin. Tal, 2004, p.232. During the second truce between Israel and the Arab coalition, in early September, a United Nations official fixed the permanent truce line in the area of Lajjun, according to press reports. A 500-yard strip was established on both sides of the line in which Arabs and Jews were allowed to harvest their crops. Lajjun was used as transit place by the Israel Defense Forces to transfer 1,400 Arab women, children and elderly from Ijzim, who then were sent on foot to Jenin. Morris, 2004, p.439. Walid Khalidi describes the remains of Lajjun: Only the white stone mosque, one village mill, the village health center, and a few partially destroyed houses remain on the site. The mosque has been converted into a carpentry workshop and one of the houses has been made into a chicken coop. The health center and grain mill are deserted, and the school is gone. The cemetery remains, but it is in a neglected state; the tomb of Yusuf al-Hamdan, a prominent nationalist who fell in the 1936 revolt, is clearly visible. The surrounding lands are planted with almond trees, wheat, and barley; they also contain animal sheds, a fodder plant, and a pump installed on the spring of 'Ayn al-Hajja. The site is tightly fenced in and entry is blocked. Khalidi, p. 336-337 Post-1948 Kibbutz Megiddo (Megiddo, Israel) was built on some of Lajjun's village lands. A few of the buildings from Lajjun still stand within the kibbutz grounds, including the mosque known as the "White" which was built in 1943. Today the building is a carpentry shop. Benvenisti, 2000, p. 319. Andrew Petersen, inspecting the place in 1993, noted that the principal extant buildings at the site are the ''khan'' and a bridge. The bridge, which crosses a major tributary of the Kishon River, is approximately Category:Arab villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War Category:District of Jenin Category:History of Palestine Ottoman era During the rule of the Ottoman Empire in Palestine (1517-1918), Jenin, Lajjun and the Carmel area, were for part of the 17th century ruled by Bedouin sheikhs, in this case the Turabay family. Chatty, 2006, p. 868. In the mid-18th century, Jenin was designated the administrative capital of a district that included Lajjun, Ajlun and Jabal Nablus. Doumani, 1995, p. 39. There are indications that the area comprising Jenin and Nablus remained functionally autonomous under Ottoman rule and that the empire struggled to collect taxes there. During the Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt which extended into Syria and Palestine in 1799, a local official from Jenin wrote a poem enumerating and calling upon local Arab leaders to resist Bonaparte, without mentioning the Sultan or the need to protect the Ottoman empire. Quataert, 2005, p. 107. In the late 19th century, some members of the Jarrar family, who formed part of the ''mallakin'' (elite land-owning families) in Jenin, cooperated with merchants in Haifa to set up an export enterprise there. Tawfiq Jarrar was accorded the unique title, "son of the great" (''salil al-akabir'') in Haifa, in recognition of his family's status and his entrepreneurial efforts. Yazbak, 1998, p. 150. During the Ottoman era, Jenin was plagued by local warfare between members of the same clan. The Archeology of Warfare: Local Chiefdoms and Settlement Systems in the Jenin Region during the Ottoman Period Nablus area Yusuf Said Abu Durra, a Qassamite leader in the Jenin area, was born in Silat al-Harithiya and before becoming a rebel worked as a Gazoz vendor. Horne 2003, p. 224; 226; 228; 239–240. He was said to be a narrow-minded man who thrived on extortion and cruelty and thus became greatly feared. Yusuf Hamdan was Durra's more respected lieutenant and later a leader of his own unit; he was killed by an army patrol in 1939 and buried in Lajjun. Durra himself was apprehended by the Arab Legion in Transjordan on 25 July 1939 and subsequently hanged. thumb 250px Mosque built on Crusader ruins (File:Qalansuwa-531.jpg) From the ninth century and until the Crusader times, Qalansawe was a stop on the Cairo-Damascus road, between Lajjun and Ramla. Petersen, 2001, citing among others Hartmann, 1910, 675, 676 History Megiddo was a site of great importance in the ancient world. It guarded the western branch of a narrow pass and trade route (Via Maris) connecting Egypt and Assyria. Because of its strategic location, Megiddo was the site of several historical battles. The site was inhabited from approximately 7000 BC to 586 BC (the same time as the destruction of the First Israelite Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians, and subsequent fall of Israelite rule and exile). Since this time it has remained uninhabited, preserving ruins pre-dating 586 BC without settlements ever disturbing them. Instead, the town of Lajjun (not to be confused with the el-Lajjun archaeological site in Jordan) was built up near to the site, but without inhabiting or disturbing its remains. The Arab tribes that settled Jund Filastin were the Lakhm, Kindah, Qais, Amilah, Judham (Banu Judham) and the Kinanah (Banu Kinanah); at the time of the Arab conquest, the region had been inhabited mainly by Aramaic-speaking Monophysite Christian peasants. The population of the region did not become predominantly Muslim and Arab in identity until several centuries after the conquest. At its greatest extent, Jund Filastin extended from Rafah in the south to Lajjun in the north, and from the Mediterranean coast well to the east of the southern part of the Jordan River. The mountains of Edom, and the town of Zoar (Zoara) at the southeastern end of the Dead Sea were included in the district. However, the Galilee was excluded, being part of Jund al-Urdunn in the north.
town is approximately 1800 meters (slightly over a mile) above sea level, and enjoys a semi-dry weather. Located near the heart of the Altos region, San Jose is in close distance from the tequila region of Los Altos; of which the county of Arandas (Arandas, Jalisco) is the most important. Moreover, the town is merely a 20 minutes drive from San Juan de los Lagos; a city famous for its venerated Virgin of San Juan. Another important place near San Jose is the town of Santa Anna; home
in 2010. It is the namesake of the municipality even though the seat is in Märsta. Sigtuna is, despite its small population, for historical reasons often still referred to as a ''town'' (Stad (Sweden)). Statistics Sweden, however, only counts localities (Urban areas of Sweden) with more than 10,000 inhabitants as cities. Although less significant today, Sigtuna has an important place in Sweden's early history. It is the oldest town in Sweden, having been
:''For the village in Azerbaijan, see Rüstəm Əliyev.'' Wikipedia:Rustavi Commons:Category:Rustavi
#Champagne (Champagne (province)) (Troyes) #Aunis (La Rochelle) #Saintonge (Saintes (Saintes, Charente-Maritime)) Before 1654, trading companies and patent holders concerned with fishing recruited men in France to come to Acadia to work at the commercial outposts. The original Acadian population was a small number of indentured servants and soldiers brought by the fur-trading companies. Gradually, fishermen began settling in the area as well, rather than return to France with the seasonal fishing fleet. Moogk (2000), p. 7. The majority of the recruiting took place at La Rochelle. Between 1653 and 1654, 104 men were recruited at La Rochelle. Of these, 31% were builders, 15% were soldiers and sailors, 8% were food preparers, 6.7% were farm workers, and an additional 6.7% worked in the clothing trades. Moogk (2000), p. 92. Fifty-five percent of Acadia's first families came from the Centre-Ouest region of France, primarily from Poitou, Aunis, Angoumois, and Saintonge. Over 85% of these (47% of the total), were former residents of the La Chaussée area of Poitou. Brasseaux (1987), p. 8. Many of the families who arrived in 1632 with Razilly shared some blood ties; those not related by blood shared cultural ties with the others. The number of original immigrants was very small, and only about 100 surnames existed within the Acadian community. The West of France comprises the Pays de Nantes, the provinces of Vendée, Anjou and Maine, and the Poitou-Charentes region. Traditions of ballad-singing, dance-songs and fiddle-playing have survived, predominantly in Poitou and the Vendée. Jérôme Bujeaud collected extensively in the area, and his 2-volume work "Chants et chansons populaires des provinces de l'ouest: Poitou, Saintonge, Aunis et Angoumois" (Niort, 1866) remains the principal scholarly collection of music and songs. In recent decades John Wright and Claude Ribouillault (amongst others) have done much to collect, analyse and promote the surviving traditions. Terms By virtue of this treaty Edward III obtained, besides Guyenne and Gascony, Poitou, Saintonge and Aunis, Agenais, Périgord, Limousin (Limousin (province)), Quercy, Bigorre, the countship of Gauré, Angoumois, Rouergue, Montreuil-sur-Mer, Ponthieu, Calais, Sangatte, Ham (Ham, France) and the countship of Guînes. The king of England was to hold these free and clear, without doing homage (homage (medieval)) for them. Furthermore the treaty established that title to all the islands that the King of England now holds (Channel Islands) would no longer be under the Suzerainty of the King of France. The Poitevin-Saintongese language is spoken under its varieties Poitevin or Saintongese 18 in the administrative region Poitou-Charentes, the département of the Vendée, in the north of Gironde département (Gabaye Country of Blayese and north Libournese), in the south of Loire-Atlantique département (Retz Country), in few municipalities of the Indre département(around Le Blanc, Bélâbre, Argenton-sur-Creuse), in the far west of the Dordogne département around La Roche-Chalais 19 , and on the limit of the Lot-et-Garonne département next to the Saintongese enclave of Monségur (Monségur, Gironde), in Gironde, as well as in Le Verdon's (Le Verdon-sur-Mer) tip 20 ; all in all, in the old provinces of Poitou, Aunis, Angoumois and Saintonge, in France. 21 The Poitevin-Saintongese language has had an influence in Quebec French, Acadian (Acadian language) and Cajun (Cajun language). Between 1627 and 1663, a few thousand colonists landed in New France, either in Acadia or Canada. The provinces that contributed the most to these migrations were those in the northern and western regions of France. The migrants came from Normandy, Aunis, Perche, Brittany, Paris and Île-de-France (Île-de-France (province)), Poitou, Maine (Maine (province of France)), Saintonge, and Anjou, most of those being regions where French was seldom spoken at the time (see article Languages of France). According to Philippe Barbaud (:fr:Philippe Barbaud) (1984 , the first colonists were therefore mostly non-francophone except for the immigrants from the Paris area, who most likely spoke a popular form of French; and the following ''dialect clash'' (choc des patois (:fr:choc des patois)) brought about the linguistic unification of Quebec. Among the speakers of Norman (Norman language), Picard (Picard language), Aunis, Poitevin (Poitevin (language)), Saintongeais and Breton (Breton language), many might have understood French as a second language. Gradually, a linguistic transfer towards French occurred, leading to the linguistic unification of all the ethnic groups coming from France. Between 1627 and 1663, a few thousand colonists landed in New France, either in Acadia or Canada. The provinces that contributed the most to these migrations were those in the northern and western regions of France. The migrants came from Normandy, Aunis, Perche, Brittany, Paris and Île-de-France (Île-de-France (province)), Poitou, Maine (Maine (province of France)), Saintonge, and Anjou, most of those being regions where French was seldom spoken at the time (see article Languages of France). According to Philippe Barbaud (:fr:Philippe Barbaud) (1984 , the first colonists were therefore mostly non-francophone except for the immigrants from the Paris area, who most likely spoke a popular form of French; and the following ''dialect clash'' (choc des patois (:fr:choc des patois)) brought about the linguistic unification of Quebec. Among the speakers of Norman (Norman language), Picard (Picard language), Aunis, Poitevin (Poitevin (language)), Saintongeais and Breton (Breton language), many might have understood French as a second language. Gradually, a linguistic transfer towards French occurred, leading to the linguistic unification of all the ethnic groups coming from France. thumb Coat of arms of Philip III, a Quartering (heraldry) quartering (File:Arms of the Monarchs Navarre (1328-1425) with the Royal Crest.svg) of those of Évreux and Navarre By the Treaty of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon of 14 March 1336 he received the counties of Angoulème and Mortain in the peerage of France, and the castles of Benon in Aunis and Fontenay-l'Abattu in Poitou. In 1339, he was at the side of the kings of France, Bohemia (John (John of Bohemia)), and Scotland (Kingdom of Scotland) (David II (David II of Scotland)), relieving the cities of Cambrai and Tournai, besieged by the English. This was the opening stages of the Hundred Years' War. ----- 31. Généralité of La Rochelle (1694) Aunis and Saintonge ----- The title was created in 1270 by Louis IX of France, during the Eighth Crusade. At the time it was equivalent to the office of Constable of France. The Admiral was responsible for defending the coasts of Picardy, Normandy, Aunis, and Saintonge. In times of war, it was his responsibility to assemble French merchant ships into a navy. He had to arm, equip, and supply the ships for the course of the war, and give letters of marque to corsairs (Privateer). In peacetime, he was responsible for the maintenance of the royal fleet (when one existed). He was also responsible for maritime commerce and the merchant fleet.