Places Known For

important period

Vũng Tàu

pirates built a base here and subsequently became a danger to traders in Gia Định city, the king sent his army to crack down on the pirates. The pirates were ousted and the troops were given the land as a reward. 10 February 1859 marked the first use of cannons by Nguyễn's army, when they fired at French battleships from the fortress of Phước Thắng, located 100m from Vũng Tàu's Front Beach. This marked an important period in Vietnam's war against French invaders in South Vietnam (then called


and established a new dynasty. It was reported that in the earliest times, the selection of a new king was conducted through the cast of a spear. The name of the candidate was called, the spear was thrown, if it remained up-right, the nomination was confirmed. Another account reported the use of wrestling contest whereby the winner automatically became the new king. The era of Korau (1445–1495), also known as Muhammad Korau, is regarded as an important period in the history of Katsina for several reasons. First, he was the first Muslim king. Secondly, he was the first to rule from the Birnin Katsina. Thirdly, it was during his time that the celebrated Islamic scholar Muhammad Abdulkarim Al-maghili visited Katsina where he was reported to have taken the noble profession of teaching and prompted the building of Gobarau mosque to serve as a centre for spiritual and intellectual activities. This was apparently done in order to raise the standard of learning in Katsina and impart a new socio-political culture, which would help in creating an Islamic State with well-defined institutions. The tradition of Islamic reform which was started in the reign of Korau was carried further during the reign of Sarkin Katsina Maje, who was noted for his desire to implement Islamic practices among his people. The outcome was that those among his subjects who were nominal Muslims were made to observe the obligatory prayers, and bachelors were forced to get married in order to live a decent life. Another achievement of Maje was the construction additional mosques in the kingdom. This led to the expansion of knowledge and the growth of Islamic institutions. By the end of the 16 th century, Katsina began to produce indigenous scholars of international repute. These included Muhammed B. Masani al Barwani al Kashnawi who was originally from Borno, and Muhammad al-Kashinawi popularly called Ibn Sabbag (Dan Marina). There was also Muhammad al-Fulani al Kashinawi who became famous in the secret sciences (alu’um al siriya), mathematics and astronomy. Muhammad al-Kashinawi was educated in Katsina. Later, he traveled through Egypt to perform the Holy Pilgrimage. On his return, he stayed and taught in Cairo where he died as a guest of al-Jabarti. Among his works is ‘al-Durr al-Manzum wa Khulasat al Sirr al Maktum fi Ilmi al-talasim wal Nujum’ which he compiled in Cairo in 1734 AD. Towards the end of the 18 th century, Katsina came into conflict with the powerful Kingdom of Gobir. The hostilities started in 1788 when the Gobir army conquered Maradi and advanced to Birnin Katsina. Sarkin Katsina Agwaragi (1778-1799) came out with an army and after unsuccessful attempt to reach a peaceful settlement, a battle line was drawn. The Gobir army was surrounded and destroyed with many of their warriors killed. The Katsina-Gobir war continued in the reign of Sarkin Gobir Yakubu (1788–1795). One of the reasons for the continuation of the war was the killing of a Katsina blacksmith by Sarkin Gobir Yakubu, and the attack on the town of Ruma. In the bloody battle which ensued Sarkin Gobir Yakubu was killed, his head and sword were taken to Katsina. The defeat brought an end to Gobir’s attacks on Katsina. Prior to 19 th Century, Katsina kingdom covered a very large area. It bordered Kano to the south-east, Zazzau to the south, Zamfara to the west, Daura to the east, Damagaram to the north-east and Birnin Gwari to the south west. The principal towns were ‘Yandoto, Gozaki, Maska, Tasawa, Gazawa, Ingawa, Matazu, Ruma, Kwatarkwashi, Birnin Bakane, Karofi, Maradi, Gwiwa, Kanen Bakashe, e.t.c. The town of ‘Yandoto was located in the western part of Katsina. In the olden days, that part of Katsina was known as ‘Katsina Laka’. ‘Yandoto occupies a special position in the history of Katsina. First, it was the home of Korau, the founder of Korau dynasty. Secondly, it was the home of numerous Islamic scholars. This made it an important centre of Islamic scholarship. Among the famous scholars of ‘Yandoto was Alhaji Mustapha, Malam Abdulrahman and Malam Buhari Na ‘Yandoto who served as one of the Advisers to Sarkin Katsina. The town of Kwatarkwashi was situated in the same geographical region with ‘Yandoto. It was founded during the time of Kumayau. In the pre-Islamic period, Kwatarkwashi was a major centre for the worship of ‘Magiro’ which is an integral part of Hausa traditional religion. Maska is situated in the south western part of Katsina. The area around Maska is blessed with iron ore which is the major raw material for the production of farming tools and weapons. It was also a centre for the production of cotton and indigo. The town became famous in the production of a kind of a fabric popularly called ‘Dan Maska’. Gozaki is located east of Maska. The town was among the largest and best fortified towns in southern Katsina. Like Maska, Gozaki was also an important centre for cotton production. The town of Katsina, popularly called Birnin Katsina is believed to have come into existence towards the end of the 15 th century. From the time of Muhammadu Korau, the town has remained the capital of the Kingdom. In ancient times, a city wall was built around the town to provide security. Similarly, gates were constructed at different locations for easy movement of people. Some of these gates are still major gateways to the city. During the Habe dynasty, a new political structure developed around Katsina kingship. The components of this structure included, kingmakers, palace chiefs, occupational chiefs, town chiefs, war chiefs, e.t.c. At the initial stage, the kingmakers were ‘Yandaka, Durbi, Samri and Gazobi. However, in the course of time, Samri and Gazobi were dropped. The duty of the king makers was to select a new king when the incumbent died or was deposed. The royal regalia consist of a short sword known as Gajere (the short one) which tradition says was the sword which Korau used to slay Sanau. The other two items are the iron pot which is said to belong to Korau, and a large sword known as Bebe (the deaf one), which was captured on the battle field after the great victory against Sarkin Gobir Yakubu in 1795. The other item is the bachelor drum which is beaten by the Galadiman Katsina three times during the coronation of a new king. The palace chiefs were selected mostly from among the royal slaves and the palace guards. Their duty was to help in the day-to-day running of the palace. Among the earliest in this category included Ajiya, Baraya, Turaki and Jakadiya. The first two were in-charge of royal finances and stores, while the other three were responsible for the royal chambers. The slogan of Sarkin Katsina is linked to Korau. The Emir is described as ‘the powerful one’, ‘the son of Korau’, ‘the heir of the powerful one’, ‘the owner of the iron pot’, ‘the wizard of Samri, who slaughtered his host’ and ‘guest of Sanau’. The link of the slogan with Korau was probably because Korau is regarded as the architect of the new political order, out of which the kingdom grew and became a model among Hausa States. It is noteworthy that up to today; this is the official slogan for the Emir of Katsina. The war chiefs were headed by Kauran Katsina. They were responsible for leading the various sections of the army into battle and held command over garrison towns. The Ubandawakin Katsina, Sarkin Karma,Sarkin Baka and Magayaki were responsible for Military organization. Apart from his role as the Commander in-chief of the army, the Kauran Katsina was responsible for the defense of the capital. Other war chiefs included the Marusan Katsina who was the commander of the eastern frontier while the Gatarin Katsina was in-charge of the north western frontier. The occupational chiefs were responsible for the various trades. Their main duties included the allocation of land and other facilities, maintenance of standards and the collection of taxes, In the late 18 th century, the most outstanding occupations were blacksmithing, cloth weaving and dyeing, leather tanning, wood carving, farming, grain selling , salt trading, building e.t.c. The town chiefs were responsible for the day-to-day running of their respective areas on behalf of Sarkin Katsina. These chiefs could be categorized into three (3) groups. The first group comprised of the heads of the large and established towns like Maska, Gozaki, Kogo, ‘Yandoto, Karofi, ‘Yandaka e.t.c. The chiefs of these towns enjoyed autonomy in running the affairs of their areas. This was because their dynasties and the communities over which they ruled had maintained considerable cohesion for long periods, in some cases going back to the period before the formation of the kingdom. As a result of this, they enjoyed such freedom that the Government officials responsible for supervising them acted more as representatives of Sarkin Katsina rather than supervising Officials. The second group consisted of towns which had a very large immigrant groups. They too enjoyed some form of autonomy. The town chiefs that enjoyed this privilege included the Dambo of Ingawa, the BarebarinKatsina, SarkinSullubawa, Tambari of Illela and Tasar of Tazarawa. The third group consisted of towns whose chiefs enjoyed less autonomy; hence, the central Government exercised much closer control over them. In a town established through the initiative of the Government, the chief was selected from among the royal slaves. However, in towns where there was conflict among the people, the Government made its own choice. But in well-established towns, the views of old people were taken into consideration before the selection of a new chief. The source of finance for the Government was mainly through taxation which was levied on farmers. Other forms of taxes included; Jangali i.e. cattle tax and occupational tax levied on artisans. There was also customs duty collected on highways from caravans coming or passing through the kingdom. This tax was collected by an official of Sarkin Katsina known as ‘Sarkin Tafarki’. The succession to the throne of Katsina was limited to royal princes. During the Habe rule, immediately a successor was chosen, the rites of installation began with the slaughter of a bull, whose blood was used to anoint the new king, and whose hide was used as a burial shroud for the dead one. The selected prince stepped over the corpse of his predecessor, and he was lectured on the heritage and ways of his ancestors. After this, he was dressed in a leather apron and a thick woven cloth, and taken to the house of the senior princes. After seven days, the rite of installation was concluded. This marks the formal accession to the throne, and the new king stayed in the home of Magajiya (Queen Mother) to receive homage and pledges of loyalty from his subjects. Next, the new king traveled out of the capital to a tree shrine where festivities and sacrifices were made. The last part of the rites was the presentation of the sword and pot of Korau, as well as a horse to the new king. During the middle of the 18 th century, a dynastic rivalry broke out between the various ruling Habe and other interest groups. This rivalry is said to have started during the reign of Bawa Dangiwa. Some traditions reported that as a result of this disorder, a civil war broke out in which hundreds of people were killed. Another problem which affected the polity was the conflict between Islam and tradition. For instance, during the reign of Gozo, he was criticized for his policy of supporting the Shariah while at the same time patronizing the worship of sprits. This rendered him vulnerable to his opponents and led to his assassination in the year 1801.-- Climate According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Katsina has a Semi-arid climate, abbreviated "Bsh" on climate maps. Climate Summary for Katsina


of formed, then already traditional type of urban residential houses and closed urban blocks, but they build the first modern multi-storey residential buildings for collective housing, and modern public institutions necessary for the then social life. In the fastest and most important period of the development of Cetinje, since the seventies of the nineteenth century until the First World War, which was then the smallest European old capital, was created and developed city on the principles the European metropolises of that time in whose architectural activity of the city was engaged many foreign architects, engineers, builders and craftsmen. The development of Cetinje in this period was followed by many important historical and social events. So the second half of the nineteenth century in the development of Cetinje marked period of state power and its pursuit of the European culture and international recognition. Recognition of Montenegro as an independent state, at the Berlin Congress in 1878., on the basis of which greatly expanded, he began a period of rapid creation of a national, economic, social, cultural, societal and spatial superstructure which caused increasing of economic power and the reorganization and improvement of the state apparatus and the authorities. During this period, Cetinje, as the old royal capital, gains in an even greater national and international significance and experiencing its rapid socio - economic, institutional, and urban development. Without taking into consideration possibility and efforts which Cetinje is realized as spatially small and young city, it occupies an important place in terms of conceptual, social and urban transformation of other cities in Montenegro, particularly since the second half of the nineteenth century until the First World War. On the basis of that and the facts about today's relatively preserved old urban heritage, is justified the fact which Cetinje ranks among the cities with significant architectural heritage. Population Cetinje is the administrative centre of Cetinje municipality, which has a population of 18,482. According to the census of population, households and apartments in 2011, in the territory of The Old Royal Capital Cetinje live 16,757 inhabitants, or 2.7% of the population of Montenegro. In the town of Cetinje live 13.991 inhabitants. According to the number of inhabitants, Cetinje is one of the medium units of local government in Montenegro. Population of Cetinje (town): * 1948 - 9,038 * 1953 - 9,102 * 1961 - 9,359 * 1971 - 11,876 * 1981 - 14,088 * 1991 - 15,946 * 2003 - 15,137 * 2011 - 13,991 Main sights thumb Former Russian embassy in Cetinje (File:Russian embassy in Cetinje.jpg) thumb The Blue Palace, where the President of Montenegro resides. (File:Niebieski Pałac w Cetinje.jpg) Cetinje has numerous points of interest, among which are Cetinje Monastery, Vlaška church (built in 1450, with its fence made out of barrels of captured enemy rifles), Biljarda, numerous museums, Zetski dom royal theatre and historic foreign embassies. Many of the old embassies and other administrative buildings are now schools of various kinds, and the town has many young people. In the near of Cetinje is the ''Lipska pecina'', one of the biggest caves in the former Yugoslavia. It starts in the village Lipa and end in the mountains directly over the Adriatic Sea. The cave is planned to be restored and opened for public in 2014. Eventually the cave will be open as one of the biggest tourist attractions in Cetinje and Montenegro, similar to Postojnska Jama in Slovenia. The most impressive and very mystic destination of Cetinje, of the indescribable natural beauty, not only of Cetinje but also of Montenegro in general, is by all means the mausoleum of Petar II PetroviĆ NjegoŠ on the mountain LovĆen. Up to the mausoleum you can come by car from Cetinje, which is 13 kilometers away, Apart from the beauty and the natural surrounding of beech, oak and linden tree forests, there is a unique freshness of Lovćen national park, The mausoleum is situated in the Jezerski vrh (Jezerski peak), in the height of 1 660 meters, and it officially represents the highest mausoleum in the world. To the foot In the past few years there has been a plan of enlisting the old historic core of the city of Cetinje as a UNESCO world heritage site. With this, Cetinje hopes to rebuild and restore the old historic core and the façades of its buildings. Cetinje is becoming more and more popular with tourists so the locals started painting their houses in vivid colors, the local government started quite a number of projects to restore the buildings, the markets and façades of the city of Cetinje. Although Podgorica is the capital of Montenegro, the President of Montenegro has his official residence in Cetinje, in the former heir's palace, called the Blue Palace owing to the colour of its walls. Infrastructure and economy projects Public works After the decades of stagnation, the new city government begin a lot of projects with intention to revitalise the infrastructure, business and to gain a higher promotion of Cetinje in cultural, touristic and other parts. Some of that projects were reconstruction of Cetinje Historical Core (Main Street - Njegoševa, Main Town Square, Students' Square), "Beautiful Cetinje" (first energy-efficiency project in Montenegro), reconstruction of the City Market, bus station, first Montenergin hospital building, construction of new main road at the entrance to the town, the largest fine arts university complex in the region etc. During the past period, Cetinje became first Montenegrin city which is covered by the free wi-fi signal. In effort to stimulate business, city government promoted their package "InveCT" ''('''Inve'''st in '''C'''e'''t'''inje)''. As the city government says, during the first year of 'InveCT' campaign (2013), there was a 105 new employment in private sector and almost 100 in public sector, so the liberal fiscal and economic measures gave the result. Promotion To gain a greater promotion of Cetinje like cultural and artist capital of Montenegro but the whole region too, during the 2012 and 2013, the city government organized events in which participated global famous artist like Pierce Brosnan, Marina Abramović, Gerard Depardieu, Nicholas Lyndhurst, Rem Koolhaas etc., which were guests of Cetinje during that period. The most significant project for future is cable-car from Kotor to Cetinje. As the mayor of Cetinje Aleksandar Bogdanović (Aleksandar Bogdanović, politician) says, project will start during the 2014, and it will be the longest tourist cable-car in the world. Culture thumb Ministry of culture (File:AX Cetinje President Palace Entrance 20060818a.jpg) thumb right “Zetski Dom” Theatre (File:AX Cetinje Zetski Dom-20060818.jpg) thumb Biljarda - Museum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš (File:Biljarda spolja.jpg) Cetinje has been the cultural and educational centre of Montenegro for five centuries. There are five republic institutions: Đurđe Crnojević Central National Library, the National Museum of Montenegro, the Archives of Montenegro, the Republic Institute for Preserving Cultural Heritage and the Zetski Dom Montenegrin Royal National Theatre. All these institutions keep, process, and provide public access to enormous literary treasure, and protect both mobile and immobile cultural monuments throughout Montenegro. The oldest - and for a long time the most important - cultural institution in the town is the monastery of Cetinje (Cetinje Monastery). Printing houses in Cetinje Cetinje has a rich publishing and printing tradition. The Printing House of Crnojevići (1492–1496) and the books published there are of great importance for Montenegrin culture and history as well as for the culture of other Orthodox Balkan peoples. Its greatest contribution refers to spreading Cyrillic type. Thus, it represents an important link in a chain of world culture. There were a number of printing houses that continued this great printing tradition. These are: Njegoš Printing House, which operated between 1833 and 1839 and the State Printing House which was founded in 1858. It was renamed in 1952. Since then it has been known as Obod. Since their foundation to the present day, Cetinje printing houses have published over 3,000 books, a major contribution to the Montenegrin cultural heritage. The first Montenegrin literary and scientific annual, ''Grlica'' (Turtledove), was published in 1835, while the first Montenegrin newspaper, ‘The Montenegrin’, was established in 1871. Since then, sixty different newspapers and over thirty magazines have been published. In 1914, as a town of fewer than 6,000 inhabitants, Cetinje supported six different daily newspapers. Libraries The oldest libraries of Montenegro, where the oldest books and documentation of great value are preserved, are located at Cetinje. This makes Cetinje internationally recognized as well. The oldest library among these is the Library of Cetinje Monastery, which was founded by the end of the 15th century at the time when the Printing House of Crnojevići started operating. Today, seventy-five old manuscripts written in Cyrillic, then four incunabula, and many old liturgical books are kept there. The first public reading room in Montenegro known as The Reading Room of Cetinje was founded in 1896. Since its founding it has been the cultural centre of Montenegro. The fruitful activity of this reading room was continued by the Town Library and the Njegoš (Petar Petrovic Njegos) reading room, which offers over 63,000 books and volumes of periodicals. The school libraries of Cetinje also have a long tradition. The library of the oldest school at Cetinje today known as Njegoš Elementary School (Petar Petrovic Njegos) dates back to 1834, the library of the clerical college and the Carica Marija Girls’ Institute dates back to 1869, and the library of the Gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)) to 1880. Museums Museums in Cetinje include: * Museum of the Cetinje Monastery * State Museum * "Petar Petrovic Njegoš" Museum * Ethnographic Museum * Electric Industry Museum * History Museum * Art Museum All these except the Museum of the Cetinje Monastery and Electric Industry Museum are integrated in one institution called the National Museum of Montenegro. Numerous museums and the huge fund of museum items that are kept there established Cetinje's reputation as a museum town. Cetinje has always been a cultural centre. Every second year the international art exhibition called ''Cetinje Biennial'' is held there. Its founder is Prince Nikola Petrović (Nikola, Prince of Montenegro), great-grandson to King Nikola I. Religion Cetinje is also the seat of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral of the Serb Orthodox Church, and Montenegrin Orthodox Church. Seat of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is situated in Cetinje Monastery. Seat of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church is situated in the Chapel in Gruda quarter. Festivals Today, Cetinje is home of one of the most popular cultural events in Montenegro - 'Summer at the Old Royal Capital'. It is the artist festival with almost 100 events, which held yearly, from June to September. During that period, visitors can attend the gigs of regional artist stars at the most significant city locations, but in the villages too. During the 'Summer at the Old Royal Capital', there are festivals like 'Royal Fest' (hard rock, alternative), 'Cetinje Jazz Fest', 'Espressivo' (classical music), 'Cucka jeka' (Kobilji Do), 'Riječka noć' (Rijeka Crnojevića), 'Njeguško ljeto' (Lovćen and Njeguši), 'Folklor' etc. During the 2013, events during the 'Summer at the Old Royal Capital' attended almost 50,000 visitors. There are more festivals and events during the whole year, like 'Christmas Concerts' (7 8 January), Independence Day event (21 May), 'MIT Fest' (alternative theatre festival) etc. Sports thumb HC Lovćen - HC Partizan, 2013 (File:Lovcenpartizan.jpg) The most popular sports in Cetinje are football (football (soccer)), handball (team handball) and basketball. Football Football in Cetinje has a very long tradition associated with FK Lovćen Cetinje, oldest football club in Montenegro. FK Lovćen was founded in 20 June 1913. It is one of most successful football clubs in Montenegro. The best results in the past were achieved before WW2, when they won few Montenegrin Championships, and in 1956 in qualifications for the first national league. In 1947, Lovćen was juvenile club champion. FK Lovćen now competes in the Montenegrin First League. During the season 2013 14, Lovćen played their greatest season in the First League, winning the second place. On the May 21st 2014, Lovćen won the Montenegrin Cup, which was the first national trophy in the club's history. Another club from Cetinje is FK Cetinje, formed in 1975. Their greatest result was promotion to the Second Montenegrin League, during the summer 2013. Handball Formed at 1949, Handball club “Lovćen” (RK Lovćen) is among oldest handball clubs in Montenegro. During the decades, especially from 80's until today, Lovćen became most successful Montenegrin men's handball club, but the most trophied team from Old Royal Capital Cetinje. There is huge number of great Montenegrin, Yugoslav and European players which produced handball school of Lovćen. From the 1988 until today, Lovćen played 23 seasons in the First Handball League of SFR Yugoslavia, FR Yugoslavia and Montenegro. Five times, club from Cetinje won the champions' title - in the seasons ''1999 00, 2000 01, 2006 07, 2011 12'' and ''2012 13''. Most trophies in the club history, Lovćen won in the national Cup. Club from Cetinje holds 2 winner titles in the Cup of FR Yugoslavia and five in the Montenegrin Cup (Montenegrin Men's Handball Cup). Lovćen hold Cup trophies from the seasons ''2001 02, 2002 03, 2008 09, 2009 10, 2010 11, 2011 12, 2012 13''. Lovćen is member of Regional SEHA League (SEHA League) since its inception. Today, Lovćen is the only SEHA League member from Montenegro. In their first SEHA League season, Lovćen made surprising result, with final placement on 6th position. Year after that, Lovćen finished season on the same table position. In the season 2013 14, because of new SEHA League criteria, SRC Lovćen hall was reconstructed, with changing capacity from 1,500 to 2,020. Handball club Lovćen is permanent member of European handball competitions since 1997. The greatest result Lovćen made during the EHF Champions League 2000 01 (2000–01 EHF Champions League) when they participated in the quarterfinals against THW Kiel. Until today, Lovćen played 65 games in European Competitions. "B" team of Lovćen is HC Cepelin-Lovćen, which in past competed in First league. Today, Cepelin-Lovćen is playing in Second league. Basketball Basketball club “Lovćen” is one of the oldest sport clubs in Cetinje. It was founded in 1947. The best results were achieved in 1997 98 season, when it was scored at the 6th place of the National basketball league. This provided participation at international competition “Radivoje Korac Cup.” Today, it competes in the first A league of Montenegro. Second club is BC Cetinje, formed in 1997. Other sports During the past, in Cetinje existed Volleyball club "Lovćen". It competed in Republic League and was among best Montenegrin clubs in that sport. VC "Lovćen" is not active anymore. Today, there are dozens of active clubs. Table-tennis club "Lovćen" is among two most successful table tennis clubs in Montenegro during last four decades. Other clubs are Racing team "Lovćen", Judo club "Crnogorac", Karate club "Lovćen", Boxing club "Lovćen", Women basketball club "Lovćen" and others. Venues Cetinje has a number of sporting venues. The main sporting venues on Cetinje are: *Stadion Obilića poljana, with capacity of 2,000 seats. *Sports Center Cetinje, a multi functional indoor sport facility. It has a capacity of 2,020 seats. *New small football field of FK Lovćen, with capacity of 1,000 seats with lights for night games. Transport Cetinje is connected to Podgorica and Budva through three-lane motorways. Both towns are about commons:Category:Cetinje


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and architecture consistently attempted to represent Japanese rule as progressive, beneficent, and modern. Behind the development of Changchun, in addition to the railway trade driven, it suggested an important period of the Northeast modern architectural culture reflecting the urban design endeavours and revealing Japanese ambition of invading and occupying China. Japanese architecture and culture had been widely applied to Manchukuo to highlight the special status of the Japanese puppet. Once again, the urban planning will and should stem from a culture, be it aggressive or creative. Changchun’s planning and construction process can serve as a good example. Changchun expanded rapidly as the junction between of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway and the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway, while remaining the break of gauge point between the Russian and standard gauges into the 1930s, commons:长春市


the Filipino crew he escaped while the ship was moored in the harbor of Amoy (Xiamen), hiding in a nearby village. The details of the next few years of his life are unclear; there is a major gap in his autobiography in this period, and few other sources that describe his activities. After staying in Sionching village for perhaps two years, he moved to Shanghai in about 1929. In 1931 he began working for the Comintern again. Abidin Kusno argues that this stay in Shanghai was an important

period in shaping Tan Malaka's later actions during the Indonesian revolution of the late 1940s; the port city was nominally under Chinese sovereignty but was dominated first by European nations with trading concessions in the city, and then by Japan after its September 1932 invasion. The oppression of the Chinese he saw under both of these powers, Kusno argues, contributed to his uncompromising position against collaboration with the Japanese or negotiation with the Dutch in the 1940s


at the University of Dhaka constituted the most important period of his life. During his teaching and research career there, he explored the origins of the Bengali language. In 1925, he was able to show that Bengali originated from Gaudi or Magadhan Prakrit (or derivative of Sanskrit). St. Martin's Island has become a popular tourist spot. Currently, five shipping liners run daily trips to the island, including Shahid Sher Niabat, L T Kutubdia, Eagle, Keary Cruise & Dine and Keary-Sindbad


and John McVie were named to the Hall, as were Christine McVie, Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks. Welch, who anchored the band for several years and three albums, was not. "My era was the bridge era," Welch told the Cleveland newspaper the ''Plain Dealer'' in 1998, after he was snubbed by the Hall of Fame. "It was a transition. But it was an important period in the history of the band. Mick Fleetwood dedicated a whole chapter of his biography to my era of the band and credited me with 'saving Fleetwood Mac.' Now they want to write me out of the history of the group. It hurts." Hot adult contemporary stations are usually branded as "Mix," even though a Cleveland radio station (WMVX (WHLK)) branded as "Mix" carried an AC format instead. As of January 3, 2011, that station is now known as 106.5 The Lake (format similar to Jack FM. Some Hot AC stations lean modern rock while others lean toward adult rock. Other Hot AC stations have other brandings such as "Wild 105.7 and 96.7" on WWVA-FM. '''Frederick Irving Herzberg''' (April 18, 1923 – January 19, 2000) born in Massachusetts was an American psychologist who became one of the most influential names in business management. He is most famous for introducing job enrichment and the Motivator-Hygiene theory. His 1968 publication "One More Time, How Do You Motivate Employees?" had sold 1.2 million reprints by 1987 and was the most requested article from the ''Harvard Business Review''. Herzberg, F.I. 1987, 'One more time: How do you motivate employees?', ''Harvard Business Review'', Sep Oct87, Vol. 65 Issue 5, p109-120 (''note: the reference to sales numbers is in the abstract written by the editors.'') Herzberg attended City College of New York, but left part way through his studies to enlist in the army. As a patrol sergeant, he was a firsthand witness of the Dachau concentration camp. Herzberg believed that this experience, as well as the talks he had with other Germans living in the area, was what triggered his interest in motivation. He graduated from City College in 1946 and moved to the University of Pittsburgh to undertake post-graduate workplace while teaching as a professor of psychology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and later moved to the University of Utah where he held the position of professor of management in the college of business. Feder, B.J. 2000, "F.I. Herzberg, 76, Professor And Management Consultant", ''New York Times'', Feb 1, 2000, pg. C26. Available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2003). October 28, 2006 . Franchise history The city of Cleveland was granted one of the original 8 franchises of the WNBA. The Cleveland Rockers got their nickname from Cleveland's Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 1997, they started with such players like Isabelle Fijalkowski and former Harlem Globetrotters member Lynette Woodard, who had been the first female player in Globetrotter history. Arthur turned down the role of the lady missionary in ''Lost Horizon (Lost Horizon (1973 film))'' (1973), the unsuccessful musical remake of the 1937 Frank Capra film of the same name. Then, in 1975, the Broadway play ''First Monday in October'', about the first female Supreme Court justice, was written especially with Arthur in mind, but once again she succumbed to extreme stage fright and quit the production shortly into its out-of-town run in Cleveland. The play went on with Jane Alexander playing the role intended for Arthur. "First Monday in October." '''' Retrieved: January 5, 2012. * Deadpool appears as a playable fighter in ''Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds'', voiced again by Nolan North. His abilities include use of his guns, swords, and teleporter, which will malfunction if used excessively. He performs his own anomalous version of the Shoryuken, and again breaks the fourth wall, with a special move in which he beats his opponent with his health bar (Health (gaming)) and his hyper combo bar. WikiPedia:Cleveland Dmoz:Regional North America United States Ohio Localities C Cleveland commons:Cleveland


. After staying in Sionching village for perhaps two years, he moved to Shanghai in about 1929. In 1931 he began working for the Comintern again. Abidin Kusno argues that this stay in Shanghai was an important period in shaping Tan Malaka's later actions during the Indonesian revolution of the late 1940s; the port city was nominally under Chinese sovereignty but was dominated first by European nations with trading concessions in the city, and then by Japan after its September 1932

Portland, Oregon

of the ''Journal of Music Theory'' during an important period in its development, from volume 4 2 (1960) through 11 1 (1967). His involvement with the journal, including many biographical details, is addressed in David Carson Berry, "''Journal of Music Theory'' under Allen Forte's Editorship," ''Journal of Music Theory'' 50 1 (2006): 7-23. Haughey designed his first website in 1995. From 1997 to 2000, Haughey was a webmaster and programmer for Social Sciences Computing at University

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