Idrija, Slovenia Cerkno is a small but important local cultural center in the ''Goriška'' Region near Idrija. The town and its surroundings were the birthplace of many prominent Slovenes including Archbishop of Gorizia (Archbishop of Gorizia (Görz)) Frančišek Borgia Sedej (1854–1931); writer France Bevk (1890–1970); photographer Rafael Podobnik; historians Milica Kacin-Wohinz and Boris Mlakar; and politicians Marjan Podobnik and Janez Podobnik
kilometres east of Ashburn, leading south through Whitby (Whitby, Ontario) to Highway 401 (Ontario Highway 401) (17 kilometres) and north to the Trans-Canada Highway (35 kilometres). Myrtle Road is an important local east-west corridor, which has created safety concerns for walkers around the hamlet's main intersection at Ashburn Road. Town of Whitby, Official Plan Review: Participant Feedback
;. Unazik was inhabited until the mid-20th century prior to it being evacuated due to erosion by the sea, and the buildings were pulled down in 1958–1960. Prior to the evacuation, Unazik was a large village, even by modern-day Chukotkan standards, with a population of around five hundred and a reputation as an important local trading and whaling center. In 1927, the population was 254, had increased to 296 in 1943, mainly due to the abandonment of the neighboring village of '''Tyfliak''', further north up the coast, though had fallen by 1950 to only 206. Chaplino was the largest settlement in the area and was a focal point for trade with America in the pre-Soviet era, when it was known as Indian Point. - style "text-align:left;" Whale Bone Alley Situated on the northern shore of Yttygran Island (from the Chukchi word ''etgyran'', meaning "midway dwellings"), the Whale Bone Alley consists of a large number of carefully arranged whale skulls, whale bones and stones, along with a considerable number of meat storage pits. It is thought that the Whale Bone Alley was used as a central shrine by a number of different villages dotted along the eastern Chukotkan coast. S. I. Arutyunov, I. I. Krupnik, and M. A. Chelnov. ''Whale Alley: the Antiquities of the Senyavin Strait Islands''. Moscow: Nauka. It is also thought that the site was used for initiation rituals and for sporting contests, although the local Yupik have a simpler explanation that the island was a collective center for the flensing, butchery, and storage of whale meat—an idea supported by the etymology of the Yupik name for Yttygran: Sikliuk, from ''siklyugak'', meaning "meat pit" in Yupik. There used to be a village nearby the main monumental location called '''Sikliuk''' (also known as '''Siqluk''' and '''Sekliuk'''). In 1927, this village had a population of forty-five. It was abolished in 1950. The site is monumental by Chukotkan standards when compared with other early settlements such as Uelen, Ekven, Sireniki, and Kivak, and consists of several lines of whale skulls and jaw bones along the shoreline, several large pits behind them, and a number of meat pits surrounding a central sanctuary and stone path around one third of the way along the site traveling from south to north. The site extends some
; The rebels center was a town of Otynia. With the help of the oncoming Cossack forces, Vysochan managed to overtake the important local fortress of Pniv (today – a village of Nadvirna Raion) and eventually managed to take under its control most of cities and villages in the region providing great support for the advancing Cossack forces of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi. Soon however with advancing Polish troops, Vysochan was forced to retreat to the eastern Podillya where he continued to fight under commands of Ivan Bohun and Ivan Sirko. In the 17th century the city's outskirts saw another peasant rebellion led by Oleksa Dovbush. The rebels were known as opryshky. Partition of Poland - Jews history As a result of the first of Partitions of Poland (Treaty of St-Petersburg dated 5 July 1772), Kołomyja Atlas des peuples d'Europe centrale, André et Jean Sellier, 1991, p.88 was attributed to the Habsburg Monarchy. More details about the history of Galicia can be read in article Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. However, as it provided very little profit, Kołomyja was sold to the castellan of Bełz, Ewaryst Kuropatnicki, who became the town's owner. The magnate financed a new Our Lady's Church, but he lacked finance for speeding-up the city's growth. thumb left 150px Austrian stamp cancelled in 1871 (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (File:Kolomyja 1871 Kolomyia.jpg)) The prosperity returned to the town in mid-19th century, when it was linked to the world through the Lemberg-Czernowitz railroad. By 1882 the city had almost 24.000 inhabitants, including roughly 12,000 Jews, 6,000 Ruthenians, and 4,000 Poles. Until the end of that century, the commerce attracted even more inhabitants from all-over the Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)). Moreover, a new Jesuit Catholic church was built in Kolomyja, as it was called by German authorities, along with a Lutheran church built in 1874. By 1901 the number of inhabitants grew to 34,188, approximately half of them Jews. 20th century In 1900 the Jewish population was 16,568, again nearly 50% of the town’s population. The Jewish community had a Great Synagogue, and about 30 other synagogues. In 1910 Jews were prohibited from selling alcoholic beverages. In 1911 they were prohibited from salt and wine occupations. After the outbreak of the Great War (World War I), the town saw fierce battles between the forces of the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary. Jews were abused for supposedly supporting the Austrians, and many Jewish homes were ransacked and destroyed.
Ladoga Ladoga and Onega (Lake Onega) was sparsely populated and never organized politically. thumb 12th-century Novgorod icon called ''Angel with Golden Locks'' (File:goldenlocks.jpg) thumb left Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod Cathedral of St. Sophia (File:Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod.jpg), a symbol of the city, the main cathedral of Novgorod republic One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the ''posadnik'', or mayor, an official elected by the public assembly (called the Veche (Novgorod veche)) from among the city's boyarstvo, or aristocracy. The tysyatsky, or "thousandman", originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the Veche. Another important local official was the Archbishop of Novgorod who shared power with the boyars. Michael C. Paul, "Secular Power and the Archbishops of Novgorod Before the Muscovite Conquest". ''Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History'' 8, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 231-270. Archbishops were elected by the Veche or by the drawing of lots, and after their election, were sent to the metropolitan (Metropolitan bishop) for consecration. Michael C. Paul, "Episcopal Election in Novgorod, Russia 1156-1478". ''Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture'' 72, No. 2 (June 2003): 251-275. While a basic outline of the various officials and the Veche can be drawn up, the city-state's exact political constitution remains unknown. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city together, although where one official's power ended and another's began is uncertain. The prince, although his power was reduced from around the middle of the 12th century, was represented by his ''namestnik'', or lieutenant, and still played important roles as a military commander, legislator and jurist. The exact composition of the Veche, too, is uncertain, with some historians, such as Vasily Klyuchevsky, claiming it was democratic in nature, while later scholars, such as Marxists (Marxist historiography) Valentin Ianin and Aleksandr Khoroshev, see it as a "sham democracy" controlled by the ruling elite. In the 13th century, Novgorod, while not a member of the Hanseatic League, was the easternmost kontor, or entrepot, of the league, being the source of enormous quantities of luxury (sable, ermine, fox, marmot) and non-luxury furs (squirrel pelts). Janet Martin, ''Treasure of the Land of Darkness: the Fur Trade and its Significance for Medieval Russia''. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Throughout the Middle Ages, the city thrived culturally. A large number of birch bark letters (birch bark document) have been unearthed in excavations, perhaps suggesting widespread literacy, although this is uncertain (some scholars 0.86 - 50px (File:1000 Sergy Rad.jpg) Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader 50px (File:1000 Filaret.jpg) Filaret (Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)), Patriarch of Moscow 50px (File:1000 Marfa.jpg) Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) 50px (File:1000 Pushkin.jpg) Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer -
) (born November 11, 1947 in Jinhua, Zhejiang) is a Chinese (People's Republic of China) painter (Painting). During Jin Dynasty Fu Liang became known for his literary abilities in his youth, and he served as the assistant to the general Huan Qian (桓謙), a cousin of the warlord Huan Xuan. After Huan Xuan usurped the throne in 403, Huan Xuan heard of his abilities and made him a court secretary, intending for him to reorganize the imperial archives, but before the project could get underway, Huan Xuan was overthrown by the coalition of forces led by Liu Yu. He then served as an assistant to Liu Yu's confederate Meng Chang (孟昶). He became briefly in charge of editing imperial edicts, but soon left his post as his mother died and he underwent the mandatory three-year mourning period. He resumed those responsibilities once the mourning period was over, and for a while, Liu Yu wanted to make him the governor of the rich Dongyang Commandery (東陽, roughly modern Jinhua, Zhejiang), but Fu declined, preferring to remain close to Liu Yu. Subsequently, in 415, when Liu Yu attacked the general Sima Xiuzhi (司馬休之), whom he suspected of opposing him, Fu became one of his assistants, and from that point on he directly served on Liu Yu's staff.
) (December 15, 1719 – April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.
of Statistics . Economy Cremisan Cellars, located in the Cremisan monastery, is an important local winemaker. The winery has operated since the establishment of the monastery in the 19th century. Modern equipment was introduced in 1997.
designer, is a native of Bacup. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Larks of Dean were an unusual group of working class musicians whose music-making at the Baptist Chapel in Goodshaw Fold became an important local feature. There is also a brass band tradition as well as an amateur theatre scene. There was once over 40 bands in and around Rossendale, including the Irwell Springs Band whose fame was at a peak at the turn of the 19th century. There are currently the Haslingden and Helmshore Band, Goodshaw Band, Stacksteads Band, Water Band, 2nd Rossendale Scout Group Band, Whitworth Vale & Healey Band, Whitworth Youth Band Rossendale Encore Concert Band and the Whitworth Veterans' Band. Rossendale is home to a unique dancing troup, the Britannia Coco-nut Dancers, formed in the mid-19th century, and who traditionally dance along the local roads every Easter. right thumb 250px Haslingden Halo (File:Halo in Haslingden, Rossendale, England.jpg) There has been a long tradition of dialect poetry and writing in Rossendale. A Bacup Miscellany : Prose and Verse by Local Writers Past and Present. Ed. Harry Craven. ISBN 978-0-9502527-0-4 Local poets have included Andrew Houston (''The Rossendale Bard''), Walter Hargreaves (''Shepster'') and Clifford Heyworth (''Bill o' Bows''). Waugh's Well, above Edenfield and Cowpe, marks the spot where Edwin Waugh wrote many of his poems, and is a favourite spot for walkers - a popular activity in Rossendale that does not appear to be in decline. The Halo is an artwork in the form of an 18m-diameter steel lattice structure supported on a tripod overlooking Haslingden in Rossendale, positioned to be clearly visible from the M66 and A56 approach to Lancashire. It is lit after dark using low-energy LEDs powered by an adjacent wind turbine. It is the fourth Panopticon in Lancashire (Panopticons). It, and the adjacent landscaped area at Top o'Slate, was opened to the public in September 2007, and was designed by John Kennedy of LandLab and engineered by Booth King Partnership. Sports and entertainment right thumb Lee Quarry (File:Lee quarry.jpg) now contains a purpose-built mountain bike trail. Other locations were Selkirk (Selkirk, Scottish Borders), a town in the Scottish Borders, BBC Press Office (30 April 2004). "BBC ONE explores love across the social divide in an adaptation of Elizabeth Gaskell's North and South". Press release (News release). Retrieved on 26 April 2008. Burnley in Lancashire, and the Bluebell Railway in Sussex, where the final and the beginning scenes were shot. Additional railway sequences were filmed in Yorkshire, using carriages provided by the Vintage Carriages Trust '''Andrew Houston''' (Born March 23, 1846 – ?? ) was born in Doonbreeda, Nephin, County Mayo; later moving to Rossendale, credited as the Rossendale Bard. A case is currently being tried in England over the alleged assault of a 'Goth' (w:Goth subculture) couple, resulting in the death of the female victim. A fifteen-year-old youth, who was one of a gang of five, is charged with having kicked and stamped the 20-year-old woman to death in Stubby Lee Park, Bacup (w:Bacup), Rossendale (w:Rossendale) in Lancashire (w:Lancashire) on the 11 August 2007.
as many rural people moved into the area as a consequesnce of the Zapatista rebellion. This has added languages such as Tzotzil (Tzotzil language), Tzeltal (Tzeltal language), Zapotec (Zapotec languages) and Ch'ol (Ch'ol language) to the native Zoque (Zoque languages). Culture and gastronomy thumb left Pepita con tasajo (File:PepitacnTasajoCorzo.jpg) thumb right Serving pozol (File:CloseServingPozol.jpg) The two most important local celebrations are the Feria de Saint Mark and the Feria Chiapas. The Feria de San Marcos (Saint Mark's Fair) occurs each April in the center of the city, honoring the patron saint of Mark the Evangelist. It includes offerings, fireworks in frames called "castillos" (castles) and pilgrimages for four days starting on the 25th. The Feria Chiapas includes bullfights, horse racing, cockfights (cockfighting) and exhibitions of the many products of the state, including crafts, manufactured goods and agricultural products. It is held on the next to last Sunday of November through the first Sunday of December. Reflecting the area's Zoque heritage is the Zoque Carnival and a ritual called the "lowering of the virgins" which occurs in Copoya. Other important celebrations in the municipality include the San Roque, San Jacinto, San Pascualito, San Francisco, Santo Domingo and the Virgin of Guadalupe. Much of the cuisine of the municipality reflects that of the rest of the state and includes pictes (a sweet corn tamale), la chispota (beef with chickpeas and cabbage), niguijuti (pork with mole sauce (mole (sauce))), sopa de pan (bread with broth and vegetables), cochito (pork in adobo sauce), chanfaina (lamb innards with rice), a legume called patashete, and traditional Chiapas tamales made with chipilín. Local drinks include pozol, taxcalate, agua de chía tashiagual and pinole. Some local specialties include carnes parrilladas (grilled meat platter), carne molida tartars (spicy ground meat "cooked" with lime juice with onions, tomatoes and cilantro). Category:Capitals of states of Mexico Category:Populated places established in the 1480s Category:1486 establishments Category:1486 in Mexico * (Category:Populated places in Chiapas) Category:Municipalities of Chiapas