of Jimma Historically, the Afaan Oromo speaking people used the indigenous ''Gadaa'' system of governance. Many Oromo communities – most notably Gibe Kingdoms, around Jimma – gradually adopted monarchy and other forms of governance in the later centuries of the 2nd millennium. Such changes occurred due to the growing influence of Islam from the east and Orthodox Christianity from the north as well as power struggles between opposing Oromo communities. File:Yasu V.jpg thumb right
the Jakarta government. They were joined by many civilian politicians from the Masyumi Party, such as Sjafruddin Prawiranegara who were opposed to growing influence of communists. Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received monetary, weaponry, and manpower aid from the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) until Allen Lawrence Pope, an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid on government-held Ambon (Ambon, Maluku) on April 1958. On April 1958, central government
to resist the Khitans' pressure and counterbalance the growing influence of the Yang clan in Chang'an affairs. Accordingly An Lushan's power strengthened with associated pressure on the Khitan. The turning point came when An became worried about the post of Xuanzong-Li Linfu (An Lushan add "get their favor", but at the cost of relations with other officials). Noticing that the heart of the empire was without defenses An considered to plan a rebellion. He selected a dozen able generals and some 8,000 soldiers from amongst the surrendered Khitan, Xi, and Tongluo (同羅) tribesmen organizing them into an elite corps known as the ''Yeluohe'' (曵落河, "the brave"). ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 216 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷216) When Li Linfu died and Yang Guozhong, a Yang clan member, replaced him as high chancellor An Lushan rose in rebellion with his armies and attacked the central power with Khitan, Xi and Turkish supporters. 2nd half of the Tang dynasty (763–907) ;Middle of Tang's dynasty The Khitan were concentrating themselves on their own development and were relatively peaceful. ;Uighurs domination and Khitans state When the Turks where overthrown by the Uighurs in 745 the war-loving power of the Turks was replaced by the commerce-loving Uighurs. The control that the Uighurs had on the Khitans were of a different kind. Uighurs were focusing on economic exchanges, were the protectors of the diplomatic stability and left large political and internal freedom to their vassals. The Khitans used this to keep a peaceful environment helping to strengthen all their demographic, economic and structural force. For their demographic the main point was the choice to avoid foreign conflicts. The new "Steppe Lords" were relatively peaceful while the Tang dynasty was later greatly weakened by the An-Shi rebellion of 755–763 providing a new intra-China situation with a weak center and with provincial generals pacification and strengthening of their respective provinces. In this context the Khitans and their close-relatives the Xi (Kumo Xi) had opposite strategies. Kumo Xi kept a relatively aggressive foreign policy slowly exhausting their forces. The Khitans chose to stay as a calm self-defensive power enjoying most of the Manchurian plain and working to improve their daily situation. While previous centuries had seen successive Turko-Chinese provocations or recall to obeisance, and the following wars had prevented Khitan gaining any notable expansion, the 8th-century situation eventually allowed one. This demographic growth would strongly support the other qualitative changes. Pre-Dynastic Khitan's allegiances and reasons * pre-388 : Kumo Xi – submitted to the Turks. Part of the Kumo Xi-Khitan tribal complex Xu Elina-Qian, p.264 * 388-?: Later (Later Yan) (383–409) & Northern Yan (409–436) – a result of the 388 Kumo Xi defeat facing the Northern Wei * 479-?: Northern Wei – to avoid a Rouran-Goguryean (Goguryeo) invasion * 560's(?)-?: some tribes submitted to Goguryeo to avoid Northern Qi and Eastern Turk threats ; * 648–696: Xu Elina-Qian, p.247 Tang Dynasty– because of recent Tang expansion and following the Turkish collapse. * 696–697 : independent (Li-Sun Rebellion) and in war on all sides, encouraged by Tujue and cause by Chinese official mistreatment a famine. * 697-72X : Tang Dynasty+ Tujue, since the 697 defeat. * 730–734: Turks – Ketuyu Rebellion caused by Tang interventionism and Tang's Chancellors mistreatment. * 734-? : Tang Dynasty – because of recent defeat. * ''To complete'' Liao Dynasty, The Golden Age (907–1125) thumb Khitan Empire (907-1125) (File:Khitans.png) thumb left 300px Khitan Empire in 1025, along with its neighbors (File:East-Hem 1025ad.jpg) thumb Liao Dynasty Liao (Image:LiaoMask10-12thcentury.jpg) funerary mask, 10th–12th centuries Category:History of Mongolia Category:1211 disestablishments Category:States and territories established in 388 Category:Khitans * (Category:Khitan history) The 3rd century AD saw both the fragmentation of the Xianbei Empire in 235 and the branching out of the various Xianbei tribes later to establish significant empires of their own. The most prominent branches are the Murong, Tuoba, Khitan (Khitan people), Shiwei and Rouran. These tribes spoke Mongolic (or Para-Mongolic) languages. The Murong tribe were descendants of the tribal division ruled by Murong, the Xianbei chief of the central section under Tanshihuai. Murong Mohuba actively supported Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign in 238, leading an auxiliary Murong force. Mohuba was succeeded in 246 by his son Muyan (木延) who also aided the Cao Wei campaign against the Goguryeo that same year. The Former Yan (337-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (384-409) dynasties as well as the Tuyuhun Kingdom (285-670) were all later founded by the Murong. The Tuoba (Tabgach) tribe started their rise with Tuoba Liwei (219-277) who was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the Yaonian Khaganate (List of the Khitan rulers) (730-906), the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and the Kara-Khitan Khanate (1124–1218). The Shiwei tribe, like the Tuoba, were originally located to the north of the Murong and Khitan. While the Tuoba migrated south and established the State of Dai (310-376) and Northern Wei dynasty (386-534) the Shiwei remained in the north but eventually paid tribute to the Northern Wei (for example the Wuluohu sub-tribe started paying tribute in 444). Known also as the Tatars the Shiwei would later establish the Khamag Mongol Khanate (Khamag Mongol) (1125–1206), the Mongol Empire (1206–1368), the Northern Yuan Dynasty (1368–1635) and the Zungar Empire (1640–1756). The Rouran tribe remained in Outer Mongolia after the fragmentation of the Xianbei Empire. Yujiuliu Muguliu (reigned early 4th century) was the first ancestor of the Rouran khagans. Yujiuliu Shelun was the first major steppe leader to use the title “Khagan” in 402. The Rouran (also called Jujuan, Juanjuan and Nirun) are sometimes equated with the Avars (Eurasian Avars). The Avar khagan Bayan I has both a Mongol name (meaning 'rich') and title. The Göktürks relentlessly pursued the Rouran (whose subjects they formerly were) west all the way to Crimea in the 550's-570's. - 1125 Song Dynasty forces ally with rebel Jurchens (Jurchen people) to topple the Khitan (History of the Khitans) Liao Dynasty. - Etymology In his fantasy setting of the Hyborian Age, Howard created imaginary kingdoms to which he gave names from a variety of mythological and historical sources. Khitai (History of the Khitans) is his version of China, lying far to the East (Eastern world), Corinthia is his name for a Hellenistic civilization, a name derived from the city of Corinth and reminiscent of the imperial fiefdom of Carinthia (Carinthia (duchy)) in the Middle Ages. Howard imagines the Hyborian Picts to occupy a large area to the northwest. The probable intended correspondences are listed below; notice that the correspondences are sometimes very generalized, and are portrayed by ''ahistorical'' stereotypes. Most of these correspondences are drawn from "Hyborian Names", an appendix to ''Conan the Swordsman'' by L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter. De Camp, L. Sprague (L. Sprague de Camp), Carter, Lin (Lin Carter), and Nyberg, Björn (Björn Nyberg) (1978). "Hyborian Names". Appendix to ''Conan the Swordsman''. Toronto: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-20582-X.
name "nbabio" Evans faced almost no opposition in his next four campaigns, reflecting the growing influence of Moline (Moline, Illinois) and Rock Island in what had once been a very rural district. In 1994, however, Evans only won by nine points over an unknown Republican who spent almost no money. This emboldened the Republicans for 1996, when Evans faced Mark Baker, an anchor at WGEM-TV in Quincy (Quincy, Illinois) (the third-largest city in the district). Even though
which alarmed Argentine authorities because of Chile's growing influence in the zone. The now defeated Mapuches in Chile had strong ties (araucanization) to the nomadic tribes in the east side of the Andes, with whom they share the same language (Araucanization). '''Puerto Toro''', founded 1892 by Governor of Punta Arenas Señoret See § 166 b) in Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration is a hamlet (Hamlet (place)) on the eastern coast of Navarino Island, Chile. thumb left 250px Puerto Toro in Navarino Island. (Image:Chile.estrechodemagallanes.png) Cape Adriasola '''Cape Adriasola''' ( Commons:Category:Punta Arenas Wikipedia:Punta Arenas
, which feared the growing influence of the peasant emperor, organised a coup and Ivailo had to flee to his enemy the Tatar Nogai Khan, who later killed him. Васил Н. Златарски, ''История на българската държава през срeднитe вeкове. Том III. Второ българско царство. България при Асeневци (1187—1280), стр. 554 In 1300 the new Khan of the Golden Horde Toqta ceded Bessarabia to Emperor Theodore Svetoslav (Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria). Y. Andreev, M. Lalkov, ''Българските ханове и царе'', p. 247 thumb left 170px Mileševa monastery (File:Milesevo zapadna strana.jpg) was built by King Vladislav between 1234 and 1236. After the defeat of the army the Emperor Theodore Komnenos Doukas of Epirus (Despotate of Epirus) in Battle of Klokotnitsa in Bulgaria (Second Bulgarian Empire) on 1230 by the Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, a Serbian king Radoslav (Stefan Radoslav of Serbia) loses the support of the serbian nobility, which he turns to his younger brother Vladislav. In 1234th Radoslav was stripped off and on the throne was brought Vladislav. As Radoslav had the support of Epirus, Vladislav turns for support to Bulgaria, which at that time becomes the most powerful country in the Balkans. King Vladislav is married Beloslava (Beloslava of Bulgaria), a daughter of Emperor Ivan Asen II. Earlier Epirus influence in Serbia is now replaced with the Bulgarian. Archbishop Sava (Saint Sava) was not satisfied with the replaced of government and he travel to the east, where visiting the Holy Land (Jerusalem in Christianity) (Kingdom of Jerusalem). From that traveling Sava did not return, and died on 1236 in Tărnovo (Veliko Tarnovo). King Vladislav, finding himself in the uneasy position due to the death of his uncle archbishop Sava (Saint Sava), goes to father-in-law, Ivan Asen II, to ask him for uncle body. Negotiations were not easy, but in the end he allowed the body to return to Serbia. In 1237 king Vladislav transferred the body of Saint Sava from Tărnovo (Veliko Tarnovo), to the monastery of Mileševa in Serbia. After the defeat of the army the Emperor Theodore Komnenos Doukas of Epirus (Despotate of Epirus) in Battle of Klokotnitsa in Bulgaria (Second Bulgarian Empire) on 1230 by the Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, a Serbian king Radoslav (Stefan Radoslav of Serbia) loses the support of the serbian nobility, which he turns to his younger brother Vladislav. In 1234th Radoslav was stripped off and on the throne was brought Vladislav. As Radoslav had the support of Epirus, Vladislav turns for support to Bulgaria, which at that time becomes the most powerful country in the Balkans. King Vladislav is married Beloslava (Beloslava of Bulgaria), a daughter of Emperor Ivan Asen II. Earlier Epirus influence in Serbia is now replaced with the Bulgarian. Archbishop Sava (Saint Sava) was not satisfied with the replaced of government and he travel to the east, where visiting the Holy Land (Jerusalem in Christianity) (Kingdom of Jerusalem). From that traveling Sava did not return, and died on 1236 in Tărnovo (Veliko Tarnovo). King Vladislav, finding himself in the uneasy position due to the death of his uncle archbishop Sava (Saint Sava), goes to father-in-law, Ivan Asen II, to ask him for uncle body. Negotiations were not easy, but in the end he allowed the body to return to Serbia. In 1237 king Vladislav transferred the body of Saint Sava from Tărnovo (Veliko Tarnovo), to the monastery of Mileševa in Serbia. Under the direct command of Major-General Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov, on the night of 27 28 June 1877 (N.S. (New Style)) the Russians constructed a pontoon bridge across the Danube at Svishtov. After a short battle in which the Russians suffered 812 killed and wounded, ''Bayonets before Bullets: The Imperial Russian Army, 1861–1914'', Bruce Menning, Indiana University Press, 2000, p. 57 the Russian secured the opposing bank and drove off the Ottoman infantry brigade defending Svishtov. At this point the Russian force was divided into three parts: the Eastern Detachment under the command of Tsarevich Alexander Alexandrovich, the future Tsar Alexander III of Russia, assigned to capture the fortress of Ruschuk and cover the army's eastern flank; the Western Detachment, to capture the fortress of Nikopol, Bulgaria and cover the army's western flank; and the Advance Detachment under Count Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko, which was assigned to quickly move via Veliko Tarnovo and penetrate the Balkan Mountains, the most significant barrier between the Danube and Constantinople. right thumb 270px Holy Forty Martyrs Church, Veliko Tarnovo Forty Martyrs Church (Image:Forty Martyrs Church Svik.jpg), Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. As the Latin Emperor Baldwin I began to subdue rebel cities and besieged Adrianople, in the words of the Crusader chronicler Villehardouin (Geoffrey of Villehardouin), "''Johannizza, King of Wallachia, was coming to succour Adrianople with a very great host; for he brought with him Wallachians and Bulgarians, and full fourteen thousand Comans who had never been baptised''" (Villehardouin, 92). On 14 April 1205, Kaloyan's Cumans managed to draw the pursuing heavy cavalry of the Latin Empire into an ambush in the marshes north of Adrianople and Kaloyan inflicted a crushing defeat on the Crusader army. Emperor Baldwin I was captured and Count Louis I of Blois was killed. (''Baldwin was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tărnovo (Veliko Tarnovo) until he died or was executed later in 1205''.) During the course of 1205, Kaloyan defeated the Latins at Serres (battle of Serres (1205)) and captured Philippopolis (Plovdiv), overrunning much of the territory of the Latin Empire in Thrace and Macedonia (Macedonia (region)). * , ''Balduinova kula'') is a defensive tower located in the Bulgarian town of Veliko Tarnovo, in the southeast of the Tsarevets Fortress. terminus_b Varna (not constructed from Yablanitsa to Shumen, certain objects are under construction) cities Sofia, next to Botevgrad; Shumen, next to Varna (future: Pleven, Lovech, Veliko Tarnovo and Targovishte) established
, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group#Shining Brass Shining Brass ) DATE OF BIRTH 28 May 1919 PLACE OF BIRTH Viipuri (Vyborg), Finland DATE OF DEATH 18 October 1965 - Vyborg Выборг Leningrad Oblast - Growing influence In 1434 he became member of the Privy Council of Sweden and in October of the same year he assumed one of its most senior offices, Lord High Constable of Sweden, or ''Riksmarsk''. Due to the growing dissatisfaction over King
, escalating Taliban insurgency which is alleged to be supported and guided by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) spy network, and the Afghanistan–India relations growing influence of its rival India in Afghanistan
of Islamic jihad to counter the growing influence of its rival India in Afghanistan (Afghanistan–India relations) and the Afghan claim regarding the disputed (controversy) Durand Line border. Pakistan a twin brother, talks to go on: Karzai. Pajhwok Afghan News. Sujoy Dhar. October 5, 2011. The overwhelming majority of the victims in the attacks are ordinary Afghan civilians. ref name
Máximo'' ( In 1957 the remains were by Albert-Félix de Lapparent and Georges Zbyszewski named as a new species of ''Brachiosaurus'': ''Brachiosaurus atalaiensis''. A.F. de Lapparent & G. Zbyszewski, 1957, "Les dinosauriens du Portugal", ''Mémoires des Services Géologiques du Portugal, nouvelle série'' '''2''': 1-63 The specific name (specific name (zoology)) referred to the site, Atalaia (Atalaia (Lourinhã)). It was in 2003 by Octávio Mateus and Miguel Telles Antunes renamed a separate genus: ''Lusotitan''. The type species is ''Lusotitan atalaiensis''. The generic name is derived from ''Luso'', the Latin name for an inhabitant of Lusitania, and Greek Titan (Titan (mythology)), a mythological giant. Roman times The Romans (Ancient Rome) likely came to the Trabancos region in the 2nd century, during the campaigns of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (152 BC), but the area was peripheral to the regions of principal occupation, as well as to the creation of early towns and more importantly, trade routes: most travel routes were in the east of this region, which followed the river Eresma from the town of Coca (''Cauca'', in Roman times) and Matapozuelos village (''Nivaria'' in Roman times), up to Simancas (''Septimanca''); and at the west, for the "Vía de la Plata (Roman road#Spain)" ("silver road"), the most important Roman route in Lusitania Province. Nevertheless, it is known that in the Vallisoletan area, there was several villages that probably are of pre-Roman origin. In fact, the etymology of the word 'Trabancos' suggests a name originating before the Roman occupation. In 1909, Thomas Jeffery died and the leadership of the company passed to his son Charles, who, in 1914, renamed the car the Jeffery in honor of his late father. While successful, Charles Jeffery decided to leave auto making in 1915, following a harrowing ordeal in the sinking of the Lusitania. Jeffery’s wife had purchased a high-quality life preserver prior to her husband’s trip, and it saved his life. However the event also caused Jeffery to re-evaluate his life and priorities, and automaking wasn’t one of them; he sold the Jeffery concern to Charles Nash (Charles W. Nash), who renamed the concern the Nash Motors Company (Nash Motors). World War I Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War (World War I)--although it was usually referred to as ''civilian defense.'' This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes (fixed-wing aircraft), resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense.
'''Gruffudd ap Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd''' was the grandson of Owain Gwynedd a famous king of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) and ruler of most of Wales in the 12th century. The longer patronymic form of his name is usually used to distinguish him from the earlier and better-known Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd.