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fortress Mitau. According to the Congress of Vienna, put into action after the fall of Napoleon in 1815, parts of the former Prussian Partition of Poland was returned to Prussia. From them the Grand Duchy of Posen was to be created, that was to be a nominally autonomous province under Hohenzollern rule with the rights of "free development of Polish nation, culture and language", and was outside the German Confederation. Originally the Duchy

Duchy of Warsaw

) with an international guarantee of self-administration and free development of the Polish nation. Modern history In 1793, the Kingdom of Prussia annexed the town in the Second Partition of Poland and administered it in the Province of South Prussia. During the Napoleonic Wars, Piotrków became part of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–15) and was a district seat in the Kalisz Department. After the defeat of Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) in 1815, Piotrków became part Congress Poland, a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The town was made the seat of an oblast. After the Partitions of Poland, Wągrowiec in 1793 was annexed by Kingdom of Prussia and was confiscated from the Cistercians in 1797. Initially a part of the newly created province of South Prussia, it was in 1807 transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw, a state allied to the Napoleonic France (Napoleon Bonaparte). After the Partitions of Poland, the town became part of Austria in 1795, then part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1809, finally part of the Congress Poland under Russian rule in 1815. It became part of Poland again after the country regained its independence in 1918. Brodnica was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772, during the First Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland), but in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars, Brodnica became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. Between 1815–1920 Brodnica was again under a Prussian administration as part of the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871. In 1809 the city was damaged during fighting between the forces of Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoleonic Wars. After 1815 it found itself in the Russian Empire (Congress Poland). At this point it had just 2640 inhabitants. '''19th Century''' In 1807 Suwałki became part of the newly formed Duchy of Warsaw and one of the centres of the department of Łomża. After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I) and the Congress of Vienna, the area was incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland). The status of a ''powiat'' capital was briefly withdrawn, but it was reintroduced on January 16, 1816, when the Augustów Voivodeship was created and its government was gradually moved to Suwałki. Soon afterwards the older town hall was demolished and replaced with a new one, and General Józef Zajączek financed the paving of most of the town's streets. The cemetery was moved to the outskirts from the town centre, and that area became a town park. Also, the Russian authorities built the Warsaw – Saint Petersburg Railway, which added to the town's prosperity. In 1795 Prussia annexed Augustów. In 1807 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, followed by incorporation into the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland) in 1815. It was made a county seat in 1842. The first railway connection reached Augustów in 1899. 1809-1918 In the period 1795-1809 Chrzanów was a part of Austrian Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria). In 1809, as a result of the war between Austria (Austrian Empire) and the Duchy of Warsaw, West Galicia with Chrzanów was annexed to the Duchy of Warsaw. During this period ownership of the town also changed. From 1804 to 1822 Chrzanów was owned by Duke Albert Casimir of Saxe-Cieszyn (Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen), son of the late King of Poland, Augustus III (Augustus III of Poland) of Saxony. Following the fall of Napoleon (Napoleon I of France), a treaty among Austria, Prussia and Russia is concluded during the Congress of Vienna resulting in creation of the Free City of Kraków on 3 May 1815. Chrzanów and the surrounding areas are annexed to the newly created state. In 1838 Chrzanów had 4078 residents: 2009 of the Roman-Catholic and 2069 of the Jewish faith. The period of the Free City of Cracow was a time of prosperity and rapid development for Chrzanów and its residents. In this period ownership of the town changed again. The former owner, Duke Albert Casimir of Saxe-Cieszyn, bequeathed the town to Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (1822), who in turn sold it to the Cracovian Senator and MP from Chrzanów Jan Mieroszewski. In 1856 Mieroszewski decided to sell his Chrzanów estate to a group of Wrocław entrepreneurs, one of whom, Emanuel Loewenfeld, soon became the sole owner. Flag and coat of arms The ancient coat of arms of Chrzanów, the St Nicholas, was created perhaps in the 14th century simultaneously with granting the Magdeburg Rights to Chrzanów. The oldest preserved seals of the town of Chrzanów are charged with an effigy of St Nicholas, the patron-saint of the local church, who holds a crosier in his right hand and a book in his left and wears bishop’s vestments and a bishop’s mitre on his head. Next to St Nicholas the Półkozic crest is seen which was the arms of the Ligęza Family, the former owners of Chrzanów. This coat of arms had been used by the town until c. 1809, when the authorities of the Duchy of Warsaw to which Chrzanów belonged to then, annulled all municipal coats-of-arms. Following the fall of the Duchy of Warsaw (1815) the arms of the Duchy was adopted as the arms of Chrzanów. It is unclear why the ancient and traditional arms were not restored. The arms of the Duchy of Warsaw, adopted after 1815 as the arms of Chrzanów, were a shield divided in half and placed under a royal crown. In the right field of the shield were the arms of Saxony (black and golden stripes divided by a green crown-shaped half-wreath). In the left field were the coat of arms of Poland. After the defeat of Prussia in the Napoleonic (Napoleonic Wars) War of the Fourth Coalition, Nakło became part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) in 1815, it was restored to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen. History of Międzyrzec Podlaski The first official mention of Międzyrzec Podlaski as a city dates back to 1434, or (alternatively) 1455 and 1477 according to different historical sources. ) (20 October 1752 – 7 September 1837) was a Baltic-German Field Marshal who led the Russian army against the Duchy of Warsaw and later governed Paris during the city's brief occupation by the anti-French coalition. When Napoleon invaded Russia (Napoleon's Invasion of Russia), Osten-Sacken returned to military service at the head of a reserve corps, based in Volynia. He was given the task of defending the southern borders of the Empire against the possible invasion by Saxon (Kingdom of Saxony) and Austrian (Austrian Empire) armies. In the battle near Volkovysk he defeated a French (France) unit under General Renier. Following Renier's defeat, Osten-Sacken crossed the border and invaded the Duchy of Warsaw and joining his forces with Count Mikhail Miloradovich (Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich), took Warsaw. Later he successfully operated against Prince Józef Poniatowski. His brilliant conquest of Poland won him the Order of Alexander Nevsky. A resolution of the Duchy of Warsaw, dated March 12, 1808, allowed the creation of parochial schooling in Jednorożec, and, in 1809, the first school opened in the village in an old building. A newly built school was funded and established in 1817, and the teacher, John Krajewski, received 300 złoty a year, plus contributions. School attendance was low and often interrupted by the children having to remain at home to help with farm chores. In 1814 the Rostopchine family left Imperial Russia for exile, going first to the Duchy of Warsaw, then to the German Confederation and the Italian peninsula and finally in 1817 to France under the Bourbon Restoration (Bourbon Dynasty, Restored). In France, the father established a salon (salon (gathering)), and his wife and daughter converted to Roman Catholicism (Roman Catholic Church). During the Swedish invasion of Poland (see Deluge (Deluge (history))), Zwoleń was devastated and destroyed to such a degree, that the town never recovered. In late 18th century, during Partitions of Poland, Zwoleń was annexed by the Austrian Empire. Later on, it was part of Duchy of Warsaw, which in 1815 was a protectorate of the Russian Empire. After January Uprising, Russian authorities deprived Zwoleń of its town rights, as a punishment for residents' support of the rebels. The village of Zwoleń stagnated for years, and did not regain its town rights until 1925. In 1793, following the Second Partition of Poland, the town and region was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia as South Prussia. In July 1807, following the Treaty of Tilsit, the town was transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw and after June 1815, became part of the Russian Congress Poland to 1916. In 1466 the town passed to Poland as part of the province of Royal Prussia. It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) in 1772. Zempelburg became part of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1807-1815 during the Napoleonic Wars, after which it was restored to Prussia. In 1871 the town became part of the Prussian-led German Empire. Zempelburg was a center for the textile and shoemaking industries. After first Partition of Poland on 15 September 1772 Chełmża was taken over by Kingdom of Prussia.At that time it counted only 600 inhabitants. In 1807 till 1815 it became part of Duchy of Warsaw only to be taken over by Prussia again after 1815 and Congress of Vienna. The city population in 1831 counted 1.200 people and in 1871 3.000. It’s economical situation improved as it became an economic center for local villages benefited with good soil. Consequently, between 1784 and 1789 the castle was yet again rebuilt, this time by Stanisław Zawadzki, who converted it into military barracks. The outbuildings were enlarged substantially. Since that time the building housed the Lithuanian Foot Guard Regiment and the 10th Foot Regiment. During the Kościuszko's Uprising the castle was the main centre of conscription for the 20th Foot Regiment. After the Partitions of Poland, during the Prussian occupation of Warsaw, the building was abandoned. After the proclamation of the Duchy of Warsaw it was again restored to the army and was converted into a military hospital. However, the plans of converting it to the Central Military Hospital of the Polish Army were postponed by the Congress of Vienna which awarded the Congress Poland to Russia. On April 1, 1818 the hospital was officially opened. It had place for up to 1000 wounded soldiers. After the outbreak of the November Uprising the hospital was enlarged to 1250 beds and an additional annex with place for 600 was opened in the nearby Łazienki complex. In 1793 the town found itself in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) following the Partitions of Poland. In 1807 it passed to the short lived Duchy of Warsaw, and then in 1815 it became a part of the Congress Poland in the Russian Empire. In the course of the 19th century the town declined and in 1871 it lost its city charter. In 1918 it became a part of reconstituted, independent Poland (Second Polish Republic) and was again granted city rights in 1919. In 1931 it had 4,025 inhabitants. History * Around 1430 it was mentioned for the first time. Since then it shared the history of the whole region. After the Partitions of Poland, in 1795, it became part of Austria. In 1809 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, only to become part of the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland) in 1815. * Until 1831 it was a private village, a possession of Polish nobles (szlachta). Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). * 1775 - American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Lexington and Concord – British (Great Britain) General Thomas Gage attempts to confiscate American (United States) colonists' (13 colonies) firearms. Captain John Parker (John Parker (Captain)) orders his band of minutemen to not fire unless fired upon. Random shots rang out among the British soldiers. The minutemen promptly fired back. This was the "shot heard round the world." The British are driven back to Boston, Massachusetts, thus beginning the American Revolutionary War. * 1809 - The army of Austria attacks and is defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn (Battle of Raszyn (1809)), part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition. * 1943 - World War II: In Poland, German (Germany) troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In 1793, the Second Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) took place, whereby the city was taken over by Prussia. With the resurgence of Polish statehood and establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1806, the area was incorporated therein. In 1815, upon defeat of Napoleon town fell to the Russians and became part of the newly formed Congress Poland.


Biadula and Maksim Haretski, wrote for a Belarusian language paper called ''Nasha Niva'', published in Vilnius. After (Eastern) Belarus was incorporated into the Soviet Union, the government took control of Belarusian culture, and until 1939 free development of literature occurred only in the territories incorporated into Poland (Western Belarus). Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus


jstor 20628625 The free development of literature occurred only in Polish-held territory until Soviet occupation in 1939. Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus and would not return until the 1960s. The last major revival of Belarusian literature occurred in the 1960s with novels published by Vasil Bykaŭ and Uladzimir Karatkievich. File:Wincenty Dunin-Marcinkiewicz


and until 1939 free development of literature occurred only in the territories incorporated into Poland (Western Belarus). Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus, not to return until the 1960s. In post-war literature, the central topic was World War II (known in Belarus as the Great Patriotic War) (World War II), that had particularly left particularly deep wounds in Belarus ( Vasil

Russian Empire

Commissars Bolshevik government on 15 November 1917, immediately after the October Revolution, which recognized equality and sovereignty of all the peoples of Russia; their right for free self-determination, up to and including secession and creation of an independent state; freedom of religion; and free development of national minorities and ethnic groups on the territory of Russia. ''Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia'', 15


for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions." Texas was annexed shortly thereafter, but O'Sullivan's first usage of the phrase "Manifest Destiny" attracted little attention. - ''Boxing Legends of the Ring'' ''Chavez II'' MX (Mexico) Sculptured Software •Electro Brain •American Softworks (ASC Games) Chavez II <

Soviet Union

self-determination, up to and including secession and creation of an independent state; freedom of religion; and free development of national minorities and ethnic groups on the territory of Russia. ''Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia'', 15 November 1917, ''Big Soviet Encyclopedia'', on-line edition. Retrieved 15 November 2008. At the height of tight Cuban-Soviet (Soviet Union) relations, the town housed Russia


Kingdom British efforts in colonial Kenya. From 4 June 1912 to 12 May 1913 the line was renamed ''Nordbahn'' (Northern Railway) for a short period. '''Sankt Georgen im Schwarzwald''' is a town in Southwestern Baden-Württemberg, Germany and belongs to Schwarzwald-Baar County (Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis). It was with Moses Hayyim Luzzatto (1707–1746) that Hebrew poetry shook off the medieval fetters which hindered its free development. His allegorical drama "La

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