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County of Foix

), called Phoebus, the Latin version of Apollo, on account of his beauty, was the most famous member of the House of Foix-Béarn. Like his father he assisted France in her struggle against England, being entrusted with the defence of the frontiers of Gascony. When the French king, John II (John II of France), favored the count of Armagnac, Gaston left his service and went to fight against the pagans of Prussia. Returning to France around 1357, he delivered some noble ladies from the attacks of the adherents of the Jacquerie at Meaux, and was soon at war with the count of Armagnac. frame left Gaston Phoebus, from an early 15th-century copy of his ''Livre de chasse'', made in Paris and kept at the Bibliothèque nationale de France National Library of France. (Image:Gaston Phoebus.jpg) During this struggle he also attacked the count of Poitiers, the royal representative in Languedoc, but owing to the intervention of Pope Innocent VI he made peace with the count in 1360. Gaston, however, continued to fight against the count of Armagnac, who, in 1362, was defeated and compelled to pay a ransom. This war lasted until 1377. Early in 1380, the count was appointed governor of Languedoc, but when Charles VI (Charles VI of France) succeeded Charles V (Charles V of France) as king later in the same year, this appointment was cancelled. Refusing, however, to heed the royal command, and supported by the communes of Languedoc, Gaston fought for about two years against John, duke of Berry (Berry (province)), who had been chosen as his successor. When he was bested in the combat, he abandoned the struggle and retired to his estates, remaining neutral and independent. He then resided in Orthez, the capital of Béarn. In 1348 Gaston married Agnes, daughter of Philip, Count of Evreux (d. 1343), by his wife Jeanne II, queen of Navarre. By Agnes, whom he divorced in 1373, he had an only son, Gaston, who is said to have been incited by his uncle, Charles II of Navarre, to poison his father, and who met his death in 1381. It is probable that he was killed by his father; this is the account presented by Froissart. Gaston was very fond of hunting, but was not without a taste for art and literature. Several beautiful manuscripts are in existence which were executed by his orders, and he himself wrote a treatise on hunting, the ''Livre de chasse'',known in English as ''The Hunting Book''. Froissart, who gives a graphic description of his court and his manner of life at Orthez in Béarn, speaks enthusiastically of Gaston, saying: "I never saw one like him of personage, nor of so fair form, nor so well made, and again, in everything he was so perfect that he cannot be praised too much". Left without legitimate sons, Gaston de Foix was easily persuaded to bequeath his lands to King Charles VI, who thus obtained Foix and Béarn when the count died at Orthez in 1391. Almost immediately after Gaston's death Charles granted the county of Foix to Matthew, Viscount of Castelbon , a descendant of Count Gaston I of Foix. When Matthew died without issue in 1398, his lands were seized by Archambault, Count of Grailly and Captal de Buch, the husband of Matthew's sister Isabella (d. 1426), who was confirmed as legitimate count of Foix in 1401. House of Foix-Grailly 80px right (Image:Armoiries Navarre Foix.png)Archambault's eldest son, John (''ca.'' 1382–1436), who succeeded to his father's lands and titles in 1412, had married Jeanne in 1402, daughter of Charles III (Charles III of Navarre), king of Navarre. Having served the king of France in Guyenne and the king of Aragon in Sardinia, John became the royal representative in Languedoc, when the old quarrel between Foix and Armagnac broke out again. During the struggle between the Burgundian party and the Armagnacs, he intrigued with both, and consequently was distrusted by the ''Dauphin (Dauphin of France)'', afterwards King Charles VII (Charles VII of France). Deserting the French cause, he then allied himself with Henry V of England. When Charles VII became king in 1423, he returned to his former allegiance and became the king's representative in Languedoc and Guyenne. He then assisted in suppressing the marauding bands which were devastating France, fought for Aragon against Castile (Crown of Castile), and aided his brother, the cardinal of Foix, to crush an insurgency in Aragon. Peter, cardinal of Foix (Pierre de Foix, le vieux) (1386–1464), was the fifth son of Archambault of Grailly, and was made archbishop of Arles in 1450. He took a prominent part in the struggle between the rival popes (Antipope), and founded and endowed the Collège de Foix at Toulouse. The next count was John's son, Gaston IV of Foix, who married Leonora (Eleanor of Navarre) (died 1479), a daughter of John, king of Aragon and Navarre (John II of Aragon). In 1447 he bought the viscounty of Narbonne (Viscount of Narbonne), and having assisted King Charles VII in Guyenne, he was made a peer of France (Peerage of France) in 1458. In 1455 his father-in-law designated him as his successor in Navarre, and Louis XI of France gave him the counties of Roussillon and Cerdagne (French Cerdagne), and made him his representative in Languedoc and Guyenne; but these marks of favor did not prevent him from joining a league against Louis in 1471. His eldest son, Gaston (Gaston, Prince of Viana), the husband of Madeleine (Magdalena of Valois), a daughter of Charles VII of France, died in 1470, and when Gaston IV died two years later, his lands descended to his grandson, Francis Phoebus (died 1483). Francis Phoebus became king of Navarre in 1479 and was succeeded by his sister Catherine (Catherine I of Navarre) (died 1517), the wife of Jean d'Albret (John III of Navarre) (d. 1516). A younger son of Count Gaston IV was John (John of Foix, Viscount of Narbonne) (died 1500), who received the viscounty of Narbonne from his father and married Marie, a sister of the French king Louis XII (Louis XII of France). He was on good terms both with Louis XI and Louis XII, and on the death of his nephew Francis Phoebus in 1483, claimed the kingdom of Navarre against Jean d'Albret and his wife, Catherine de Foix. The ensuing struggle lasted until 1497 when John renounced his claim. He left a son, Gaston de Foix (Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours) (1489–1512), a distinguished French general, and a daughter, Germaine de Foix, who became the second wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon. In 1507, Gaston exchanged his viscounty of Narbonne with King Louis XII of France for the duchy of Nemours, and as duke of Nemours (Duc de Nemours) he took command of the French troops in Italy. After delivering Bologna and taking Brescia, Gaston encountered the troops of the Holy League (Catholic League (Italian)) at Ravenna in April 1512 and routed the enemy, but was killed during the pursuit. There were also younger branches of the house of Foix-Grailly: the viscounts of Lautrec (descended from Pierre de Foix, younger son of Jean III); the Counts of Candale and Benauges (descended from Gaston de Foix, a younger son of Archemboult and his son John de Foix, 1st Earl of Kendal); the Counts of Gurson and Fleix and Viscounts of Meille (Jean de Foix, Comte de Meille, Gurson et Fleix, was a younger son of Jean de Foix, Earl of Kendal), and the Counts of Caraman, or Carmain, descended from Isabeau de Foix, Dame de Navailles (only child of Archambaud de Foix-Grailly, Baron de Navailles) and her husband Jean, Vicomte de Carmain, whose descendants adopted the name and arms of Foix of Albret and the House of Bourbon Image:Armoiries Navarre-Albret.png 75px right 75px right (Image:Coat of arms of France and Navarre (1589-1789).svg)When Catherine, wife of Jean d'Albret, succeeded her brother Francis Phoebus, the House of Foix-Grailly was merged into that of Albret, and later into that of Bourbon (House of Bourbon) with Henry III of Navarre, son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret. Henry III of Navarre became King Henry IV of France in 1589. In 1607, he united to the French crown his personal fiefs that were under French sovereignty (i.e. County of Foix, Bigorre, Quatre-Vallées, and Nébouzan, but not Béarn and Lower Navarre, which were sovereign countries outside of the kingdom of France), and so the county of Foix became part of the royal domain (Crown lands of France). See also * Foix * Castle of Foix (Château de Foix) * Counts of Foix References * The wording of a ''paréage'', an exercise in defining reciprocity without sacrificing suzerainty, was the special domain of ministerial lawyers, being produced in the universities from the late eleventh century.


Kirov, Kirov Oblast

Airport – Kirov (Kirov, Kirov Oblast), Russia * '''USMM''' (NYM) – Nadym Airport – Nadym, Russia birth_date 7 January 26 December 1851 1850 birth_place Vyatka (Kirov, Kirov Oblast), Russia death_date Tchaikovsky was born in Vyatka (Kirov, Kirov Oblast), and while studying in St. Petersburg joined a radical student group which would later be known as the Circle of Tchaikovsky after its most famous

member. The group advocated revolutionary socialist ideals which formed the basis of the Narodnik movement. Tchaikovsky disagreed with the circle over the implementation of ideas and in the 1870s moved to the United States to set up a socialist utopian commune in Kansas. The commune did not succeed and he moved to London to raise money and publish revolutionary literature. DATE OF BIRTH 26 December 1851 PLACE OF BIRTH Vyatka (Kirov, Kirov Oblast), Russia


Ostrogothic Kingdom

Ostrogoth and Byzantine dominations, before the Lombard (Lombards) conquest in 569. Tuscany was made a Duchy, its seat in Lucca. After the destruction of the Lombard kingdom by Charlemagne, it became a county first, and then a march. In the 11th century the marquisate went to the Attoni family from Canossa, who also held Modena, Reggio Emilia and Mantua. Matilda of Canossa was their most famous member. File:Vucedol culture map.png thumb 200px Map of Indo


Confederate Ireland

Loughcrew became the seat of a branch of the Norman-Irish (Hiberno-Norman) Plunkett family, whose most famous member became the martyred St Oliver Plunkett. The family church stands in the grounds of Loughcrew Gardens. With its barren isolated location Sliabh na Caillí became a critical meeting point throughout the Penal Laws (Penal Laws (Ireland)) for Roman Catholics. Even though the woods are now gone an excellent example of a Mass Rock (Penal Laws (Ireland)#Stuart and Cromwellian rule) can still be seen on the top of Sliabh na Caillí today. The Plunketts were involved in running the Irish Confederacy (Confederate Ireland) of the 1640s and were dispossessed in the Cromwellian Settlement of 1652. Their estate at Loughcrew was assigned by Sir William Petty to the Naper Family c.1655 (1655 in Ireland). The Napers are descended from Sir Robert Napier (Robert Napier (judge)) who was Chief Baron of the Exchequer of Ireland (List of Chief Barons of the Irish Exchequer) in 1593. http: www.turtlebunbury.com published published_interiors ireland pub_int_loughc.htm territory result founding of the Irish Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland) and beginning of the Confederate War (Irish Confederate Wars#The Confederates' war - 1642-48) combatant1 Irish Catholics The Irish rebellion broke out in October 1641 (1641 in Ireland) and was followed by several months of violent chaos before the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland) in the summer of 1642 (1642 in Ireland). The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, free from the control of the English administration and loosely aligned with the Royalist (Cavalier) side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The subsequent war (Irish Confederate Wars) continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists, and re-conquered (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) the country. Civil war and Confederation ''See also: Confederate Ireland and Irish Confederate Wars'' The war in England gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), which would run the Irish war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by landed magnates such as Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish, who controlled more than two thirds of the country, and the British-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork (Cork (city)) in Munster. The following period is known as Confederate Ireland. The Confederation eventually sided with the Royalists (Cavalier) in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) by regiments of the English Parliament's New Model Army from 1649 (1649 in Ireland) through to 1653 and land ownership in Ireland passed largely to Protestant settlers. Canny 562-566 The war in England gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), which would run the Irish war effort. This was instigated by the Catholic clergy and by landed magnates such as Viscount Gormanstown and Lord Mountgarret. By the summer of 1642, the rebellion proper was over and was superseded by a conventional war between the Irish, who controlled more than two thirds of the country, and the British-controlled enclaves in Ulster, Dublin and around Cork (Cork (city)) in Munster. The following period is known as Confederate Ireland. The Confederation eventually sided with the Royalists (Cavalier) in return for the promise of self-government and full rights for Catholics after the war. They were finally defeated (Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) by regiments of the English Parliament's New Model Army from 1649 (1649 in Ireland) through to 1653 and land ownership in Ireland passed largely to Protestant settlers. Canny 562-566 Having old English ancestry, Keating's political view was that Ireland's nobility and natural leadership derived from the surviving Gaelic clan chiefs and Old English landed families who had remained Roman Catholic. He also accepted the Stuart dynasty as legitimate because of its part-Gaelic ancestry. This had a continuing influence on the politics of the Confederate (Confederate Ireland) and Jacobite (Jacobitism) supporters in Ireland until Papal recognition of the Stuarts ended in 1766. Keating continued to have an influence on Irish genealogical writers such as O'Hart (John O'Hart) into the 1800s. English Parliamentarian (Roundhead) New Model Army, Protestant colonists (Plantations of Ireland) Irish Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), English Royalists (Cavalier) - place Ireland casus Alliance between Irish Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalists to restore Charles II (Charles II of England) -threat to English Commonwealth regime. Also retribution for the Irish Rebellion of 1641. result English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland, defeat of Royalist alliance and crushing of Irish Catholic power result English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland, defeat of Royalist alliance and crushing of Irish Catholic power combatant1 Irish Catholic Confederation (Confederate Ireland), English Royalists (Cavalier) combatant2 English Parliamentarian (Roundhead) New Model Army, Protestant colonists (Plantations of Ireland) Since the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Ireland had been mainly under the control of the Irish Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland), who in 1649, signed an alliance with the English Royalist (Cavalier) party, which had been defeated in the English Civil War. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country - bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. He passed a series of Penal laws against Roman Catholics (the vast majority of the population) and confiscated large amounts of their land. The English Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, had several reasons for sending an army to Ireland in 1649. * An alliance was signed in 1649 between the Irish Confederate Catholics (Confederate Ireland) and Charles II (Charles II of England) (the exiled son of the executed Charles I (Charles I of England)) and the English Royalists. This allowed for Royalist troops to be sent to Ireland and put the Irish Confederate Catholic troops under the command of Royalist officers led by James Butler, Earl of Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde). Their aim was to invade England and restore the monarchy there. This was a threat which the new English Commonwealth could not afford to ignore. * Even if the Confederates had not allied themselves with the Royalists, it is likely that the English Parliament would have eventually tried to reconquer Ireland. They had sent Parliamentary forces to Ireland throughout the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (most of them under Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) in 1647). They viewed Ireland as part of the territory governed by right by the Kingdom of England and only temporarily out of its control since the Irish Rebellion of 1641. By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)). A combined Royalist (Cavalier) and Confederate (Confederate Ireland) force under the Marquess of Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, in order to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians (Parliament of England) of a port in which they could land. Jones however launched a surprise attack (battle of Rathmines) on the Royalists while they were deploying on August 2, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners. McKeiver, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, page.59 By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)). A combined Royalist (Cavalier) and Confederate (Confederate Ireland) force under the Marquess of Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, in order to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians (Parliament of England) of a port in which they could land. Jones however launched a surprise attack (battle of Rathmines) on the Royalists while they were deploying on August 2, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners. McKeiver, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, page.59 right thumb Henry Ireton. Cromwell passed the command of Parliamentarian forces in Ireland to Ireton in 1650. He died of disease at the siege of Limerick in 1651 (File:Henry Ireton.jpg) The following spring, Cromwell mopped up the remaining walled towns in Ireland’s south east – notably the Confederate (Confederate Ireland) Capital of Kilkenny, which surrendered on terms. The New Model Army met its only serious reverse in Ireland at the siege of Clonmel, where its attacks on the towns walls were repulsed at a cost of up to 2,000 men. The town nevertheless surrendered the following day. Cromwell's behaviour at Kilkenny and Clonmel may be contrasted with his conduct at Drogheda and Wexford. Ormonde’s Royalists still held most of Munster, but were outflanked by a mutiny of their own garrison in Cork (Cork (city)). The British (United Kingdom) Protestant troops there had been fighting for the Parliament up to 1648 and resented fighting with the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). Their mutiny handed Cork and most of Munster to Cromwell (Oliver Cromwell) and they defeated the local Irish garrison at the battle of Macroom. The Irish and Royalist forces retreated behind the Shannon (River Shannon) river into Connaught (Connacht) or (in the case of the remaining Munster forces) into the fastness of Kerry (County Kerry). The Parliamentarians crossed the Shannon (River Shannon) into the western province of Connaught (Connacht) in October 1650. An Irish army under Clanricarde (Ulick Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde) had attempted to stop them but this was surprised and routed at the battle of Meelick Island. Ormonde (James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde) was discredited by the constant stream of defeats for the Irish and Royalist forces and no longer had the confidence of the men he commanded, particularly the Irish Confederates (Confederate Ireland). He fled for France in December 1650 and was replaced by an Irish nobleman Ulick Burke of Clanricarde as commander. The Irish and Royalist forces were penned into the area west of the river Shannon and placed their last hope on defending the strongly walled cities of Limerick and Galway on Ireland's west coast. These cities had built extensive modern defences and could not be taken by a straightforward assault like Drogheda or Wexford. Ireton besieged Limerick while Charles Coote surrounded Galway, but they were unable to take the strongly fortified cities and instead blockaded them until a combination of hunger and disease forced them to surrender. An Irish force from Kerry attempted to relieve Limerick from the south but this was intercepted and routed at the battle of Knocknaclashy. Limerick fell in 1651 and Galway the following year. Disease however killed indiscriminately and Ireton along with thousands of Parliamentarian troops, died of plague (pandemic) outside Limerick in 1651. Micheal O Siochru, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and Conquest of Ireland, p.187 Anyone implicated in the rebellion of 1641 (Irish Rebellion of 1641) was executed. Those who participated in Confederate Ireland had all their land confiscated and thousands were transported to the West Indies as indentured labourers. Those Catholic landowners who had not taken part in the wars still had their land confiscated, although they were entitled to claim land in Connaught (Connacht) as compensation. In addition, no Catholics were allowed to live in towns. Irish soldiers who had fought in the Confederate and Royalist (Cavalier) armies left the country in large numbers to find service in the armies of France and Spain - William Petty estimated their number at 54,000 men. The practice of Catholicism was banned and bounties were offered for the capture of priests, who were executed when found. The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The town was held by Irish Confederate Catholic (Confederate Ireland) and English Royalist troops under general Thomas Preston (Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara). It was besieged by English Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell, Michael Jones (Michael Jones (soldier)) and Henry Ireton. The English Parliamentarians were commanded by Charles Coote, an English settler who had commanded Parliamentarian forces in the northwest of Ireland throughout the Irish Confederate Wars. Galway was garrisoned by Irish Confederate (Confederate Ireland) soldiers under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, many of whom had reached the city after an unsuccessful defence of Waterford.


Equatorial Guinea

with me.’’ In 2011 the English mercenary Simon Mann, jailed in Equatorial Guinea for his part in leading the failed 2004 coup d'état attempt (2004 Equatorial Guinea coup d'état attempt) told ''The Daily Telegraph'' that his forthcoming book ''Cry Havoc'' would reveal “the financial involvement of a controversial and internationally famous member of the British House of Lords in the plot, backed up by banking records”. He claimed that documents from the bank accounts in Guernsey of two companies Mann used as vehicles for organising the coup, showed a 'J H Archer' paying $135,000 into one of the firms. Commons:Category:Equatorial Guinea WikiPedia:Equatorial Guinea Dmoz:Regional Africa Equatorial Guinea


Chernivtsi

In 1775, Empress Maria Theresa of the Habsburg Empire took advantage of the situation and occupied the northern extremity of Moldavia, called Bucovina, marching the Austrian armies through Cernăuţi (Chernivtsi) and Suceava, considered the holy city of Moldavia, as it preserved the tombs of Stephen the Great and other Moldavian rulers. The occupation was acknowledged with a treaty between the Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Empire, despite the protests of Grigore Ghica, the Hospodar of Moldavia. Grigore Ghica was assassinated in 1777, at Iaşi, by Austrian paid Turkish troops. After the war ended, he returned to his native Bukovina and he was one of the members of the National Assembly of Bukovina in Cernăuţi (Chernivtsi), which voted for the union with Romania (Union Day (Romania)) on November 28, 1918. Nistor was also one of the fifteen Bukovinans who presented the Union Act to Romania's King (King of Romania) Ferdinand I (Ferdinand I of Romania). Neagoe, p.XVI *Slovakia - Prešov, Košice, Moldava nad Bodvou *Ukraine - Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Uzhhorod History According to legend, the village was founded by a forester raising oxen (''Boi'' in Romanian (Romanian language)) in a glade


Białystok

, which used to own the whole city of Bialystok. The most famous member, Jan Klemens Branicki, the Great Crown Hetman of Poland with unsuccessful aspirations to the Polish throne, made the city prosperous and striving. The palace was given its current shape in early 18th century and since then has been called many names reflecting its grandeur, including "the Versaille of Podlasie". Although badly damaged by German bombs during the World War II, it was carefully rebuilt and now serves


Islamabad

station is a junction, from where lines leads for Sargodha district via '''Akhtar Karnana'''.Lalamusa-Dinga road via Jaura Karnana. Moreover Lahore - Islamabad GT Road passes through the city. Commons:Category:Islamabad WikiPedia:Islamabad Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan Provinces Islamabad Capital Territory


East Timor

be unsuccessful, and that those loyal to Indonesia would be rewarded when they regained control of the area. Most of the worst acts of the period, including the Liquiçá Church Massacre, were committed by these East Timorese groups, albeit often with support of the Indonesian military. Eurico Guterres was the most famous member of these groups. The International Police assigned to the unit then would carry the case on through from an investigative side. The International Police portion of the unit primarily worked out of Liquiçá (Liquiçá (district)) and its surrounding districts, whereas the military element worked island wide within all of East Timor. Initially commanded by Steve Minhinnet of Great Britain, the unit was later commanded by American (United States of America) investigator Karl Clark. Throughout its existence, it relied heavily on intelligence information collected by American intelligence officer Alan Williams. With the rotation of new International Police into East Timor, the unit was eventually disbanded toward the end of 2000, and absorbed into the Human Rights investigative unit in Dili, called the Serious Crimes Unit. Karl Clark, an original member of the unit, eventually played a pivotal role in Human Rights investigations in East Timor, while other unit police members moved on to other UN mission locations. Commons:Category:East Timor WikiPedia:East Timor Dmoz:Regional Asia East Timor


Indonesia

Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia


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