-) McCarthy's father was from a wealthy Irish Catholic family based in Minnesota, and his mother was born in Washington state to a Protestant father and a Jewish mother.
. - 1785 Kara Mahmud Bushati, an Albanian noble from the Bushati family based in Shkodër, attacked Montenegrin (Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro) territory and was named governor of Shkodër by Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) authorities. - - align "center" bgcolor #ffaaaa Shkodër (Shkodër County) Shkodër align right 246,060 align right 3,562 align right 69 Malësi e Madhe (Malësi e Madhe District), Pukë (Pukë District), Shkodër District Shkodër
established his sisal plantation and the Berenty forest reserve. *1940 – Vichy France takes over control of Madagascar. The de Guitaut family, based out of Fort Dauphin, starts local growing and production of tobacco as none can be imported. *1942 – Fort Dauphin invaded by British forces who replaced Vichy France's control with that of the Free French Forces. While Mica was mined in western Anosy continued to be exported from Fort Dauphin to both sides of conflict, sisal production fell due to a lack of imports. *1943 – Some Tandroy refugees from the famine in Androy fled to Fort Dauphin, though having nothing when they got there, some of them died there. *1945 – Expansion of irrigated farming near Behara results in quite a few people moving here to work. *1947 – Tsivory Catholic parish established. *1948 – Beginning of lobster production in Anosy. *1950s–60s – Boetchi (Swiss), de Heaulme and Jenny families and the Lyonnaise and Marseillaise companies exported wild beans of Castor oil plant, cattle (10,000–30,000 year), mica and sisal. Henry de Heaulme began his conservation efforts by establishing a nature (including lemurs) reserve on his sisal plantation on the Mandrare river. *1954 – Establishment of Manambaro Hospital, some 25 km west of Fort Dauphin, by Lutheran Mission. *1955 – Societe Fonciere du Sud de Madagascar (SFSM) developed 130 hectares of rice fields and planted 25,000 coffee trees on their remaining 260 hectares concession near Ifarantsa. They had earlier planted 2,175 hectares of coffee near Ranomafana, having abandoned 800 hectares of attempted sisal near Ranopiso as well as a 182 hectare coconut plantation at Lokaro. * The Apostolic Vicariate of Fort-Dauphin becomes the Diocese of Fort Dauphin. * Amboasary Catholic parish established. *1956 - 138,000 Antanosy. *1956-57 - Just outside Amboasary Sud, bestriding the Mandrare river at a 15 m height, Paindavoine Sarl launch, by the incremental method, a 414 m long, design-improved and appropriate, licensed Callender-Hamilton bridge. Holding up the steel girders - six 69 m long spans - the massive reinforced concrete 5 piles and 2 abuttals (some of them, on compressed air-caisson foundations) were erected by Ets Eiffel (Eiffel (company)), who designed the work. The Direction Générale des Travaux Publics de Madagascar was the Owner and the Construction Supervisor. It was financed by FIDES credits (public investments' fund of the French Union Overseas Ministry) for 400 million fCFA (around US$2 million). The ''Pont du Mandrare'' provides the first all-year-long road link between the Anosy and Androy regions (RIG 13). *1957 – Just outside Fort Dauphin,is completed the SIFOR sisal weaving factory (assets 60 million fCFA Ets Vandesmet).Decorticated fibers from the Mandrare plants are processed into strings,cords,sacks and rugs(production 345t). * Three sawmills, owned by Jenny (at Bemangidy) and the Societe Sciere d'Ilandy (at Antsapa), along with another sawmill at Elandy were producing over 1,000 m 3 of lumber yr, much of it either precious or at least semi-precious wood. *1958 – Henri de Heaulme becomes President of the Provincial Assembly and Vice-President of the National Assembly, urging independence for Madagascar. He is present with Philibert Tsiranana and Monja Jaona at the signing of the new constitution for the Malagasy Republic. * Eli Lilly begins development of cancer treatment drugs from Rosy Periwinkle, a plant indigenous to Madagascar which grows along the coast of southern Madagascar beginning at Ranopiso (western Anosy) to Beloha (western Androy), but by then found in several different countries, from which they were able to develop cancer treatment drugs that earned the company hundreds of millions of dollars. While Eli Lilly bought Periwinkle from several countries and even grew it in Texas, the best quality was from southern Madagascar. *1959 – 148,132 Antanosy. In the Mandrare valley, 6 companies were growing sisal, each with 2,000+ hectares planted, employing a total of 4,500 Malagasy. Anosy as part of the Republic of Madagascar (1960–present) (Rakotoarisoa, 1998). First Republic, led by President Philibert Tsiranana (1960–1972) *1960 – Madagascar became an independent nation. * Second Catholic parish established in Tolagnaro. *1961 – SIFOR was producing 800 tonnes per year, half of which was exported to France and Reunion. *1963 – Between 1954 and 1963, 3,986 tons of highly radioactive Uranothorianite had been mined and exported to France. *1964 – Year of greatest sisal production from the Mandrare valley (almost 30,000 tonnes), having grown from just over 2,000 tonnes in 1950. France was the primary importer. *1965 – Population of Fort Dauphin is 11,800 and that of the Antanosy estimated to be 148,132. * Manantenina Catholic parish established. *1966 – Beginning of export of seaweed to Japan. *1967 – Due to the growing popularity of synthetic fibers, the price for sisal had dropped 50% since 1964. *1972 – First "industrial" plantation of Periwinkle, located near Ranopiso, with others located in Androy, starts large-scale exportation to the US and Europe. *1973 – Decreasing quality and unreliable exports of Rosy Periwinkle has Eli Lilly reducing purchases of it as they tried to grow it in Texas. * Trano Vato site excavated by the Malagasy Musee d'Art et d'Archeologie. *1974 – Beginning of the export of live lobsters from Anosy to Europe which was made possible in part due to beginning of 737 service between Fort Dauphin and Tananarive which connected with a flight to Europe. * Boom in exportation of Periwinkle, with 7 different firms involved. Second Republic, led by Admiral Didier Ratsiraka (1975–1991) *1975 – Initial analysis of Ilmenite in Anosy conducted by US Steel which set up a very small pilot plant in Mandena. Cyclone Deborah damages much of Anosy, including Tolagnaro and Amboasary, knocking out electricity and water supply for several days. * 1,200 tons of Periwinkle exported. *1978 – With worldwide demand for Periwinkle in decline, many of the companies involved in its exportation stopped doing this. *late 1970s – Demand for Periwinkle becomes so great that Eli Lilly again began purchasing it from large-scale plantations in Madagascar. *1980s – Anosy region becomes a high priority area for conservation efforts by international NGOs, resulting in the influx of a wide variety of foreign conservation experts (and some Malagasy), who began work in this area. SHTM created by de Heaulme which currently has 5 hotels in the Tolagnaro area plus the Berenty Reserve. *mid-1980s – Growth of Tolagnaro results in increased demand for charcoal for cooking, resulting in rapid deforestation of forests near Tolagnaro, Manantantely and the spiny forest east of Amboasary-Sud (this charcoal primarily produced by Antandroy). *1985 – World Wildlife Fund began working with the Andohahela reserve, conducting preliminary biological inventories, ICDP projects began in 1987 and USAID funding was obtained in 1990. *1986 – Henri and Jean de Heaulme family awarded the J. Paul Getty Award for Conservation Leadership for their conservation work in Madagascar. OMNIS and what became QIT Madagascar Minerals begin a 20+ year process which finally leads to mining of both ilmenite and ???. What was then known as QIT-Fer et Titane establishes an office in Tolagnaro and begins work in the Anosy region. *1988 – Demand for Periwinkle increases to about 800 tons year. *1989 – Diocese of Fort Dauphin becomes that of Tolagnaro. *1990s – Parts of Anosy and a reserve near Berenty (in eastern Androy) become major tourist destinations, causing rapid growth in the tourism industry in this area. *1990–97 – Andohahela national reserve project received over $4 million of funding. Third Republic, led by Presidents Albert Zafy, Didier Ratsiraka and Marc Ravalomanana (1992–2009) *1992 – Initial exploitation of Sapphires found near Andranodambo, some 210 km from Tolagnaro (first seen by French in the mid-1600s, early 1800s and 1950s) in what was then a location where mica was mined. *1994 – Cyclone Daisy passes through. Azafady starts working in Anosy. Later that year Andrew Lees (Andrew Lees (environmentalist)) dies of heat exhaustion in the Petriky forest, just west of Tolagnaro, while researching the potential impacts of the mining of Ilmenite in the Anosy region. The next year the Andrew Lees Trust was established, with an office set up at Libanona (just outside of Tolagnaro), to develop and implement social and environmental education projects across southern Madagascar. *1995 – 300 tons of seaweed per year exported to Japan. *1996 – Anosy region is identified as one of the ecologically most diverse regions of Madagascar. *1997 – Cyclone Gretelle passes through. *1998 – 20,500 passengers disembark at Tolagnaro airport. *1999 – 24,800 tourists visit Anosy. '''21st century:''' *2000 – Of the 15,000 tourists who visit Anosy, 7,000 of them visit Berenty. * Cholera outbreak *2004 – Between 1988 and 2004, about 800 tons year of Periwinkle are exported, employing over 7,000 people in both Anosy and Androy,with another 15,000 supported through kin networks. Due to the rising value of growing food in central Anosy, most Periwinkle production in this region occurs in the southwest. Unfortunately, exporters receive 22 times what is paid the peasant producers. *2005 – World Food Program responds to malnutrition in Anosy caused by a combination of drought and flooding. *2006–08 – QMM created over 4,400 jobs, 61% local hires, 10% expatriate. *2007 – Over 500,000 people now living in Anosy. In addition, Malagasy from all over the island, Europeans, North Americans, Filipinos, French, Japanese and South Africans all living in Tolagnaro while working on the QMM projects, filling up all the hotels for the next two years, ruining most of the tourism business in Anosy. *2007 – Major Syphilis outbreak in Toalagnaro. State of Emergency is declared with up to 17.000 people (30% of the sexually active population) being infected. – Port d'Ehoala Port d'Ehoala. is completed and QIT Madagascar Minerals begins to export Ilmenite through it to Canada for processing after over 30 years of exploration and studies and several years of construction of the port and mining facilities. Fourth Republic led by Mr. Andry Rajoelina (2010–present) *2011 – QMM begins to temporarily provide electricity to Tolagnaro. *2012 - Increasing lawlessness by "dahalo" (bandits) in the regions of Anosy northwest of Ranomafana all the way up to Betroka results in over 100 bandits being killed by vigilante groups. References (Category:Anosy Region) Category:Regions of Madagascar
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to prominence and it became the most influential in Sidon in political and financial terms, even though the presence of the Saad and the El-Bizri in local politics remained significant at the level of visibility and activism. The politics of Sidon is similar to that of the traditional old cities of the Levant in the sense of being family-based. In broad terms one could say that the El-Bizri family had an influence since Ottoman times, and then most significantly across almost the entirety of the 20th
History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.
completing his studies and married Josefa Margarita Alfaro Monterroso in 1814. They had six children, but Fruto was subsequently considered a member of this family, based on strategic needs related to administration of the family resources, for which the administrator was expected to be at least 25 years of age. He was acknowledged by his father shortly before the latter's death in 1824, and his stepmother insisted he use the name Fruto Chamorro Pérez. Upon returning to Guatemala, she conducted
'', which is endemic (endemism) to New Zealand has been placed with the family based on a number of morphological features and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, but the placement is still controversial. Boles, W. E. (2007). Family Pachycephalidae (Whistlers) pp. 374-437 in: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A., & Christie, D. eds. (2007). ''Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 12. Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees.'' Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2 Pacific theater After stopping briefly at the Tonga Islands and New Caledonia, she rendezvoused on 10 September with Task Force 18 (TF 18) under the command of Rear Admiral Leigh Noyes, flying his flag on Commons:Category:Tonga WikiPedia:Tonga Dmoz:Regional Oceania Tonga
" into accepting it. continent Europe region Normandy, Channel Islands country France Ivo of Chartres was born to a non-noble family based in or nearby Chartres around the year 1040. He is claimed to have studied first in Paris, then in Abbey of Bec in Normandy where (according to some sources) he studied under Lanfranc along with Anselm of Canterbury. We do not hear much of him until some time after he had joined the clergy, when around 1070 he was asked to become the prior of the canon at the Augustinian house of Saint Quentin at Beauvais by his bishop. From there he quickly established himself as being one of the best teachers in all of France during this time. Rye, as part of the Saxon Manor of Rameslie, was given to the Benedictine Abbey of Fécamp (Abbey of Fécamp) in Normandy by King Æthelred (Æthelred the Unready); it was to remain in Norman hands until 1247. Culture Wareham is twinned (Twin towns and sister cities) with Conches-en-Ouche in Normandy, France and with Hemsbach in Germany. Commons:Normandie