Places Known For

extensive political


Southern Yan

. The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. After Tuyühu Khan departed from the northeast, Murong Wei composed an "Older Brother’s Song," or "the Song of A Gan:" "A Gan" is Chinese transcription of "a ga" for "older brother" in the Xianbei language. Qi, Jinyü 祁进玉 (2008). Qun ti shen fen yu duo yuan ren tong: ji yu san ge tuzu she qu de ren lei xue dui bi yan jiu Group Identity and Diversity of Identification: an anthropological comparison of three Tu ethnic communities 群体身份与多元认同:基于三个土族社区的人类学对比研究.Beijing 北京 : Shehui ke xue wen xian chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Academic Literature Press 社会科学文献出版社. The song lamented his sadness and longing for Tuyühu. Legends accounted that Murong Wei often sang it until he died and the song got spread into central and northwest China. The Murong Xianbei whom he had led successively founded the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (383-407), and Southern Yan (398-410). Their territories encompassed the present Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan, and their capitals included Beijing and other cities. Through these establishments, they were immersed among the Chinese (Chinese people), whereas the Xianbei who followed Tuyühu Khan preserved their language and culture until the present times. '''Emperor An of Jin''' (Simplified Chinese character: 晋安帝, Traditional Chinese character: 晉安帝, Pinyin Jìn Āndì, Wade-Giles Chin An-ti) (382–419), personal name '''Sima Dezong''' (司馬德宗), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. He was described as so developmentally disabled (developmental disability) that he was unable to speak, clothe himself, or be able to express whether he was hungry or full. He was created crown prince in 387 and ascended the throne in 397. Because of his disability, the actual power was controlled by his uncle, Sima Daozi the Prince of Kuaiji. During his reign, regents and warlords dominated the Jin regime. Revolts by various governors also ravaged the land. From 398 to 403, there were constant revolts and civil war campaigns. In 403, the Jin regime was usurped by the warlord Huan Xuan, and while Emperor An was restored in 404, the Jin Dynasty was nearing its end. With the warlord Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song) as the actual power, Jin destroyed Southern Yan and Later Qin, greatly expanding its territory. However, with Liu Yu up in the north, the renegade governor of Guang Province (廣州, modern Guangdong and Guangxi), Lu Xun, rebelled and threatened the capital city Jiankang, before Liu Yu returned and crushed the revolt. In 419, Emperor An was strangled (asphyxia) under the order of Liu Yu and replaced with his brother Emperor Gong (Emperor Gong of Jin), who would be the last emperor of the dynasty, before Liu Yu would take the throne and establish the Liu Song Dynasty. Campaigns against Southern Yan and Lu Xun In 409, the Southern Yan emperor Murong Chao began a campaign of attacking and pillaging the Jin northern borders, intending to capture men and women to be trained as musicians. In response, Liu Yu decided to launch a campaign to destroy Southern Yan, over the objections of most imperial officials, but was supported by one of Liu Yu's initial allies in starting the uprising against Huan Xuan, Meng Chang (孟昶). While Liu Yu was quickly able to defeat Southern Yan main forces in late 409 and put the Southern Yan capital Guanggu (廣固, in modern Qingzhou, Shandong) under siege, Guanggu did not fall quickly. While Liu Yu was sieging Guanggu, Xu Daofu persuaded a reluctant Lu Xun (who was afraid of a confrontation with Liu Yu) to attack north, reasoning that eventually when Liu Yu was ready, Liu Yu would attack first, and that with Liu Yu sieging Guanggu, they could capture the rest of the empire together. As the years went by, Liu Yu gradually concentrated more and more power in his hands, destroying rivals including Liu Yi (劉毅), Zhuge Zhangmin (諸葛長民), and Sima Xiuzhi (司馬休之), while greatly showing his strength in campaigns destroying rival states Southern Yan, Western Shu, and Later Qin. Sima Dewen continued to be largely ceremonially honored but actually powerless during this period. In 416, during Liu Yu's campaign against Later Qin, Sima Dewen asked to undertake a mission in Luoyang, recently captured from Later Qin, to try to restore the imperial tombs of the early Jin emperors, but it is not known what came of the mission. He returned to Jiankang in 418 after Liu Yu destroyed Later Qin. In fall 410, after Liu Yu had destroyed Southern Yan, Lu Xun took the opportunity to capture much of Jin territory, but then was forced to retreat when Liu Yu returned from his Southern Yan campaign. Qiao Zong then, after approval from Yao Xing, attacked Jing Province (荊州, modern Hubei and Hunan) with Huan Qian and the Later Qin general Gou Lin (苟林). They were, however, defeated by Liu Yu's brother Liu Daogui (劉道規), and Huan Qian was killed. Qiao Zong withdrew back to his domain, but did manage to, in the process, capture Badong Commandery (巴東, roughly modern Chongqing). ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) * Yan (state), state in China during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period * Former Yan, Southern Yan, Western Yan, & Later Yan Murong-Xianbei states during the Sixteen Kingdoms Period * Yan (Anshi), the rebel state which played a key role in the An Shi Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty '''Murong Wei''' (慕容暐) (350–385), courtesy name '''Jingmao''' (景茂), formally '''Emperor You of (Former) Yan''' ((前)燕幽帝, posthumous name given by his uncle Murong De, emperor of Southern Yan) was the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Former Yan. He became emperor at age 10 and, late in his reign, with powers in the hands of his mother Empress Dowager Kezuhun (Empress Kezuhun (Jingzhao)) and his incompetent and corrupt granduncle Murong Ping, was captured by Former Qin's prime minister Wang Meng (Wang Meng (Former Qin)) in 370, ending Former Yan. Later, during the middle of Former Qin's collapse after its defeat at the Battle of Fei River in 383, he tried to join his brother Murong Chong in rebellion and was executed by Former Qin's emperor Fu Jiān in early 385. ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Southern Yan''' ***Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ***Murong Chao. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (405-410) ***Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ***Murong Chao. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (405-410) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong Chao. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (405-410) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong Chao. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (405-410) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) Around the new year 398, with Tuoba Gui ready to attack Yecheng, Yecheng's defender Murong De abandoned it and fled south of the Yellow River, to Huatai (滑台, in modern Anyang, Henan), where he declared an independent Southern Yan state. With resistance north of the Yellow River largely gone, Tuoba Gui left Tuoba Yi and Suhe Ba (素和跋) as viceroys over the former Later Yan territory, and returned to Shengle. In order to enhance communications and control, Tuoba Gui constructed a highway between Wangdu (望都, in modern Baoding, Hebei) and Dai (代, in modern Zhangjiakou, Hebei), over the Taihang Mountains. He soon, however, recalled Tuoba Yi to be his prime minister and replaced him with his cousin Tuoba Zun (拓拔遵) the Duke of Lueyang. '''Murong De''' (慕容德) (336–405), name changed in 400 to '''Murong Beide''' (慕容備德), courtesy name '''Xuanming''' (玄明), formally '''Emperor Xianwu of (Southern) Yan''' ((南)燕獻武帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Southern Yan. He was the son of Former Yan's founding prince Murong Huang (Prince Wenming) and younger brother to both Former Yan emperor Murong Jun (Emperor Jingzhao) and Later Yan emperor Murong Chui (Emperor Wucheng), and therefore was an imperial prince and general during the times of both states. After Murong Chui's son Murong Bao lost most of Later Yan's territory to Northern Wei, Murong De took troops under his own command south and established Southern Yan, which secured modern Shandong, but failed to expand further, and was destroyed by Jin Dynasty (265-420) after Murong De's death and succession by his nephew Murong Chao. '''Murong Chao''' (慕容超) (385–410), courtesy name '''Zuming''' (祖明), was the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Southern Yan. He was the nephew of the founding emperor Murong De (Emperor Xianwu) who was trapped under the rule of Later Qin, but was welcomed to Southern Yan after his uncle found out about his existence. Because Murong De had no surviving sons, Murong Chao inherited his throne after his death in 405. Initially considered able, Murong Chao turned out to be capricious and thoroughly unwilling to accept criticism once he became emperor, and after he provoked Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), the Jin general Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song) captured and killed him in 410, ending Southern Yan. In 409, Yao Xing himself launched an attack on Liu Bobo, but when he reached Ercheng (貳城, in modern Yan'an, Shaanxi), he was nearly trapped by Liu Bobo, and escaped only after major casualties. This defeat forced Yao Xing to cancel a mission, commanded by his general Yao Qiang (姚強), to try to save Southern Yan from being destroyed by Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)). (Without Later Qin aid, Southern Yan fell in 410.) For the next several years, Xia and Later Qin forces battled constantly, often inconclusively, but with the wars becoming much more costly to Later Qin than Xia, with Southern Liang and Western Qin no longer being willing to be Later Qin vassals as a result. In 412, when Western Qin's prince Qifu Gangui was assassinated by his nephew Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府), Liu Bobo considered attacking Western Qin despite its status as an ally, but at the counsel of his advisor Wang Maide (王買德) did not do so. '''Ji''' (吉 (wikt:吉)) is a Chinese (Chinese name) and Korean (Korean name) surname. *from Ji (姞, Gat) clan of Southern Yan (南燕) from Huang Di *from Ji (姫, Kei) clan from King Xuan of Zhou of Zhou Dynasty Campaigns against Southern Yan and Lu Xun In 409, the Southern Yan emperor Murong Chao began a campaign of attacking and pillaging the Jin northern borders, intending to capture men and women to be trained as musicians. In response, Liu Yu decided to launch a campaign to destroy Southern Yan, over the objections of most imperial officials, but was supported by Meng Chang. While Liu Yu was quickly able to defeat Southern Yan main forces in late 409 and put the Southern Yan capital Guanggu (廣固, in modern Qingzhou, Shandong) under siege, Guanggu did not fall quickly. While Liu Yu was sieging Guanggu, Xu Daofu persuaded a reluctant Lu Xun (who was afraid of a confrontation with Liu Yu) to attack north, reasoning that eventually when Liu Yu was ready, Liu Yu would attack first, and that with Liu Yu sieging Guanggu, they could capture the rest of the empire together.


Western Yan

palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. After Tuyühu Khan departed from the northeast, Murong Wei composed an "Older Brother’s Song," or "the Song of A Gan:" "A Gan" is Chinese transcription of "a ga" for "older brother" in the Xianbei language. Qi, Jinyü 祁进玉 (2008). Qun ti shen fen yu duo yuan ren tong: ji yu san ge tuzu she qu de ren lei xue dui bi yan jiu Group Identity and Diversity of Identification: an anthropological comparison of three Tu ethnic communities 群体身份与多元认同:基于三个土族社区的人类学对比研究.Beijing 北京 : Shehui ke xue wen xian chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Academic Literature Press 社会科学文献出版社. The song lamented his sadness and longing for Tuyühu. Legends accounted that Murong Wei often sang it until he died and the song got spread into central and northwest China. The Murong Xianbei whom he had led successively founded the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (383-407), and Southern Yan (398-410). Their territories encompassed the present Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan, and their capitals included Beijing and other cities. Through these establishments, they were immersed among the Chinese (Chinese people), whereas the Xianbei who followed Tuyühu Khan preserved their language and culture until the present times. * Yan (state), state in China during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period * Former Yan, Southern Yan, Western Yan, & Later Yan Murong-Xianbei states during the Sixteen Kingdoms Period * Yan (Anshi), the rebel state which played a key role in the An Shi Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty Meanwhile, Murong Chui's nephew and Murong Wei's brother Murong Hong, upon hearing news of Murong Chui's uprising, gathered some Xianbei soldiers and started his own rebellion within Guanzhong, claiming his old Former Yan title of Prince of Jibei and starting Western Yan. Fú Jiān sent his brother Fu Rui (苻叡) the Duke of Julu, assisted by Yao Chang, against Murong Hong. Murong Hong, in fear, was about to leave Guanzhong, and Fu Rui was intent on cutting off his escape route, despite Yao's suggestion to let the Xianbei leave. Instead, Murong Hong, forced into combat, defeated and killed Fu Rui. When Yao sent messengers to the capital to report the defeat, Fú Jiān, for reasons unknown, got so angry that he killed Yao's messengers—causing Yao to panic and flee with Qiang soldiers. Yao then declared himself "the Prince of Qin of Ten Thousand Years" (萬年秦王), establishing Later Qin. '''Fu Pi''' (苻丕) (died 386), courtesy name '''Yongshu''' (永叔), formally '''Emperor Aiping of (Former) Qin''' ((前)秦哀平帝), was an emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Di (Di (ethnic group)) state Former Qin. He was Fu Jiān's oldest son, although not his crown prince, and after Fu Jiān's death at the hands of Yao Chang, the founder of Later Qin, and his brother Fu Hong (苻宏) the Crown Prince was forced to flee to Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), he claimed imperial title in 385, but was defeated by the Western Yan prince Murong Yong in 386, and then subsequently killed by the Jin general Feng Gai (馮該). In spring 384, Murong Chui openly declared the establishment of Later Yan, claiming the title of Prince of Yan. Fu Pi tried to persuade Murong Chui to end his rebellion, but Murong Chui refused and attacked Yecheng but was unable to capture it quickly. However, most cities north of the Yellow River and east of Taihang Mountains switched allegiance or were captured by Later Yan forces, leaving Yecheng isolated. (The Former Qin cities south of the Yellow River were largely captured by Jin.) With the heart of the empire itself under attacks by rebel regimes Later Qin and Western Yan, Fu Pi could have no expectation of receiving aid, and the situation soon grew desperate for him and his troops. In late 384, Murong Chui briefly lifted the siege of Yecheng to try to regroup, but at the same time, Jin forces attacked. Fu Pi sued for peace, but without his knowledge his assistant Yang Ying (楊膺) also promised on his behalf that he would surrender to Jin. With that promise, the Jin general Xie Xuan aided him with troops and food supplies, but eventually the temporary alliance broke up again. Meanwhile, Murong Chui returned and again put the city under siege after defeating Jin troops under Liu Laozhi (劉牢之). In 385, Fu Pi abandoned Yecheng and headed northwest to Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), where he received news that his father Fu Jiān had been killed by the Later Qin ruler Yao Chang. He then declared himself emperor. In 385, the Former Qin capital Chang'an fell to the rebel state Western Yan, and Fu Jiān was killed by another rebel general, Yao Chang the founder of Later Qin. Upon hearing this news, Fu Pi, who had then withdrawn from Yecheng to Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), declared himself emperor, and he created Princess Yang empress. In 386, however, as he tried to intercept Western Yan's prince Murong Yong, who was trying to return east, he was defeated by Murong Yong, and Empress Yang was captured. Fu Pi would then be intercepted by the Jin general Feng Gai (馮該) and killed. Murong Yong wanted to take Empress Yang as a consort, but she tried to assassinate him with a sword. He then put her to death. As prince Yao Chang initially opted to keep his troops mobile, as he anticipated Murong Hong's Western Yan forces to siege Chang'an and destroy Former Qin and then depart for their homeland, so that he could take Chang'an without major engagements. In doing this, he hoped to conserve and increase his strength while his rivals battled. He therefore temporarily placed his capital at Beidi (北地, in modern Tongchuan, Shaanxi), seizing the cities of the modern northern Shaanxi. Despite this, he had periodic battles with Former Qin and Western Yan forces, as Former Qin and Western Yan also battled each other. '''Murong Hong''' (慕容泓) (died 384) was the founder of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Yan. He was a son of the Former Yan emperor Murong Jun and a younger brother of Former Yan emperor Murong Wei. '''Murong Chong''' (慕容沖) (359–386), formally '''Emperor Wei of (Western) Yan''' ((西)燕威帝), was an emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Yan. He was a son of the Former Yan emperor Murong Jun and a younger brother of Former Yan emperor Murong Wei. '''Duan Sui''' (段隨) (died 386) was a ruler of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Yan. He was the only ruler of the short-lived state who was not a member of the Murong clan, the imperial clan of Former Yan. Original from the University of California and was said to have settled down in Shangdang Commandery (上黨, roughly modern Changzhi, Shanxi) in the aftermaths of the conquest of the northern half of Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) during the reign of Emperor Huai of Jin by Han Zhao. Feng Ba's father Feng An (馮安) later served the Western Yan emperor Murong Yong as a general. When Western Yan was destroyed by the Later Yan emperor Murong Chui in 394, Feng An's household was forcibly moved to Helong (和龍, also known as Longcheng (龍城), in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), where Feng Ba grew up, apparently under heavy Xianbei influence, for his nickname Qizhifa suggested Xianbei origin. He had three younger brothers, all of whom admired heroic behavior and largely ignored social restraints, but Feng Ba himself was considered to be careful and diligent, managing his household well. During Murong Bao's reign, he became a general. He came to respect Murong Bao's adoptive son Murong Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Yan)) the Duke of Zhaoyang, and they became great friends.


Western Qin

. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. Tuyühu Empire After Tuyühu Khan died in Linxia (Linxia City), also known as Huozhou, Gansu in 317, his sixty sons inherited to further develop the empire, by annihilating the Western Qin (385-430), which had annexed Southern Liang (396-414) earlier, and Haolian Xia (Xia Dynasty) (407-431) kingdoms, from which the Qinghai Xianbei, Tufa Xianbei, Qifu Xianbei and Haolian Xianbei joined them. These Xianbei groups formed the core of the Tuyühu Empire and numbered about 3.3 million at their peak. They carried out extensive military expeditions westward, reaching as far as Hetian in Xinjiang and the borders of Kashmir and Afghanistan, and established a vast empire that encompassed Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, northern Sichuan, eastern Shaanxi, southern Xinjiang, and most of Tibet, stretching 1,500 kilometers from the east to the west and 1,000 kilometers from the north to the south. They unified northwest China for the first time in history, developed the southern route of the Silk Road, and promoted cultural exchanges between the eastern and western territories, dominating the northwest for more than three and half centuries until the empire was destroyed by the Tibetans (Tibetan Empire) who rose up in 670. Zhou, Weizhou 周伟洲 (1985). Tuyühu shi The Tuyühu History 吐谷浑史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Tibet Through this extensive rule, the Xianbei asserted everlasting cultural imprints in the region. The English reference for "Tibet" most likely came from the Xianbei language for the Tibetans referred to as "Tiebie," in contrast to the self reference of the Tibetans as "Bo". Shên, Tsung-lien and Shêng-chi Liu (1953). Tibet and the Tibetans. Stanford, California, Stanford University Press. p. 4. The name "Tiebie" was probably derived from the Tuoba Xianbei who founded the Southern Liang (397-414). Because the Tuoba who established the Northern Wei (386-535) in China proper objected the Tuoba of Southern Liang to use the same Chinese characters, the latter adopted "Tufa (Southern Liang)," when in fact they were of the same Tuoba descent. Zhou, Weizhou 周伟洲 , 2006. Nanliang yu xi qin Southern Liang and Western Qin 南凉与西秦. Guilin 桂林 , Guangxi shi fan da xue chu ban she Guangxi Normal University Press 广西师范大学出版社. After the Southern Liang was annexed by the Western Qin, which in turn was annexed by the Tuyühu Empire, the majority of Tufa Xianbei joined the Tuyühu Empire. Some submitted under the Northern Wei in China, while a small fraction went into Tibet and gave rise to the name "Tiebie". Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 87, 90. In the ancient Chinese records, the reference of Tibet included "Tubo" and "Tufan," which reflected the Chinese transcriptions of "Tuoba" and "Tufa." It is likely that "Tuoba" recorded in the Chinese language may have been pronounced as "Tiebie" originally in the Xianbei language. Among the Monguor settlement in Minhe (Minhe Hui and Tu Autonomous County), Qinghai today, the La and Bao Family Villages were accounted to have descended from "Tiebie", Qi, Jinyü 祁进玉 (2008). Qun ti shen fen yu duo yuan ren tong: ji yu san ge tuzu she qu de ren lei xue dui bi yan jiu Group Identity and Diversity of Identification: an anthropological comparison of three Tu ethnic communities 群体身份与多元认同:基于三个土族社区的人类学对比研究.Beijing 北京 : Shehui ke xue wen xian chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Academic Literature Press 社会科学文献出版社. p. 62–63. indicating that they have derived their origins from the Tufa (Tuoba) Xianbei of the Southern Liang. The Tibetans refer to the Monguor as "Huo’er," which came from the final word of the name of Tuyühu Khan (Khan (title)). The Monguor refer to Tuyühu Khan as "Huozhou didi;" in which "Huozhou" was applied to Linxia (Linxia City), Gansu where Tuyühu Khan died, and "didi" was traditionally a reverence term for a deceased ancestor with deity status. The earliest record of the Monguor in the Western publications was made by the French (French people) missionaries, Huc and Gabet, who traveled through northwest China in 1844–46. They used "Dschiahour" to represent the Monguor, based on Tibetan reference, Huc, Evariste Régis and Joseph Gabet (1987). Travels in Tartary, Tibet, and China, 1844–1846 . New York, Dover Publications. in which "Dschia" was likely abbreviated from the first part of "Chaghan" (or "White") from the self reference of the Monguor as "Chaghan Monguor" (or "White Mongols"), and "Hour" was a variant record to the Tibetan reference of the Monguor as "Huo’er" used by the Tibetans today. The defeat of the Former Qin in the Battle of Fei River and the subsequent uprisings split the Former Qin territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jiān: one located at present day Taiyuan, Shanxi and was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling. The other struggled in its greatly reduced territories around the border of present day Shaanxi and Gansu until disintegration in 394 under years of invasions by the Western Qin and the Later Qin. Emperor An's death With Later Qin destroyed, there was an expectation that Liu Yu would next advance northwest and either destroy or force the subjugation of the several states in the northwest still -- Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)), Western Qin, Northern Liang, and Western Liang. Indeed, at this point, Western Qin's prince Qifu Chipan, Northern Liang's prince Juqu Mengxun, and Western Liang's prince Li Gao were all sufficiently intimidated that they nominally submitted to Jin's authority. However, Liu Muzhi then died at this time, and Liu Yu, intending on taking the throne, decided to return to Jiankang himself, leaving his 11-year-old son Liu Yizhen (劉義真) and the generals Wang Zhen'e, Shen Tianzi, Mao Dezu (毛德祖), and the official Wang Xiu (王脩) in charge of Chang'an. ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ***Tufa Lilugu, Prince of Southern Liang (Southern Liang) (399-402) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ***Tufa Lilugu, Prince of Southern Liang (Southern Liang) (399-402) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ** '''Southern Liang''' - Tufa Wugu, Prince of Southern Liang (Southern Liang) (397-399) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ** '''Southern Liang''' - Tufa Wugu, Prince of Southern Liang (Southern Liang) (397-399) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ** '''Southern Liang''' - Tufa Wugu, Prince of Southern Liang (Southern Liang) (397-399) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Southern Liang''' - Tufa Wugu, Prince of Southern Liang (Southern Liang) (397-399) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Northern Wei''' - Emperor Daowu (Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei), Emperor of Northern Wei (Northern Wei) (386-409) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Northern Wei''' - Emperor Daowu (Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei), Emperor of Northern Wei (Northern Wei) (386-409) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Northern Wei''' - Emperor Daowu (Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei), Emperor of Northern Wei (Northern Wei) (386-409) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) ** '''Northern Wei''' - Emperor Daowu (Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei), Emperor of Northern Wei (Northern Wei) (386-409) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) *'''Gupta Empire ''' – Chandragupta II, Gupta Emperor of India (Gupta dynasty) (375-414) After Tuyuhun died in Linxia, Gansu in 317, his sixty sons further expanded the empire by defeating the Western Qin (385-430) and Xia (407-431) kingdoms. The Qinghai Xianbei, Tufa Xianbei, Qifu Xianbei and Haolian Xianbei joined them. They moved their capital 6 km west of Koko Nur. "Note sur les T’ou-yu-houen et les Sou-p’i." Paul Pelliot. ''T’oung pao'', 20 (1921), p. 323. Language The Xianbei are generally considered speakers of Mongolic languages. Some tribes such as the Duan (Duan (tribe)), Qifu (Western Qin) and Tufa (Southern Liang) have not left sufficient evidence to prove that they, as sub-tribes, were in fact Mongolic, although most scholars assume that they were Mongolic based on some indications. There is no doubt, however, regarding the Khitan (Khitan people) and Shiwei sub-tribes being Mongolic (in their case there is strong evidence). As far as the Murong are concerned, the evidence pointing in the Mongolic direction is relatively convincing. In 387, Fu Deng created the ruler of Western Qin, Qifu Guoren, the Prince of Wanchuan, and Qifu Guoren accepted, signifying at least nominal submission to Fu Deng. After Qifu Guoren died in 388 and was succeeded by his brother Qifu Gangui, the relationship continued. In 391, Lü Guang tried to make a surprise attack against Western Qin while its prince, Qifu Gangui, was attacking the rebel Mo Yigan (沒奕干), but Qifu Gangui quickly responded upon hearing about the attack, and so Lü Guang withdrew. This appeared to, however, start a series of battles with Western Qin. In 392, Lü Guang sent his brother Lü Bao (呂寶) against Western Qin and son Lü Zuan against Western Qin's vassal, the Qiang (Qiang people) chief Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念), and both Lü Bao and Lü Zuan were defeated, although Lü Guang then personally attacked Peng, capturing Peng's city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and forcing him to flee. '''Yao Xing''' (姚興) (366–416), courtesy name '''Zilue''' (子略), formally '''Emperor Wenhuan of (Later) Qin''' ((後)秦文桓帝), was an emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Qiang (Qiang people) state Later Qin. He was the son of the founding emperor Yao Chang (Emperor Wucheng). For most of his reign, he did not use the title of emperor, but used the title Heavenly Prince (''Tian Wang''). During his reign, he destroyed the rival Former Qin and proceeded to expand his hegemony over nearly all of western China, as he temporarily seized all of Western Qin's territory and forced Southern Liang, Northern Liang, Western Liáng, and Qiao Zong's Western Shu (西蜀) all to at least nominally submit to him, but late in his reign, defeats on the battlefield, particularly at the hands of the rebel general Helian Bobo (who founded Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))), and internecine struggles between his sons and nephews greatly damaged the Later Qin state, and it was destroyed soon after his death. Yao Xing was an avid Buddhist, and it was during his reign that Buddhism first received official state support in China. The monk Kumarajiva also visited Chang'an at Yao Xing's request in 401. Early reign: establishment of Later Qin as regional power Despite Yao Xing's hopes of keeping his father's death a secret, Fu Deng received news of it anyway—and immediately prepared a major attack against Later Qin. Fu Deng had his brother Fu Guang (苻廣) defend the base of Yongcheng (雍城, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi) and Fu Chong defend the base of Hu Kong Castle (胡空堡, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), and, in his anxiety, did not make sure that his army had sufficient water supply. Yao Xing set up his army at Mawei (馬嵬, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi) to prevent Former Qin forces from reaching the river near Mawei, and Former Qin forces were stricken by thirst, but still fought harder. Yao Xing initially ordered Yin to be cautious, but Yin, realizing the trouble the Former Qin forces were already in and believing that morale would be destroyed if he undertook a cautious strategy, fought back fervently, and the Former Qin forces collapsed. Upon hearing the defeat, Fu Deng's brother Fu Guang (苻廣) and son Fu Chong abandoned the two bases that they were holding, and Fu Deng was unable to recapture them. He then sought help from the prince of Western Qin, Qifu Gangui, who sent a relief force headed by Qifu Yizhou (乞伏益州). As Fu Deng sought to join up with Qifu Yizhou, Yao Xing ambushed and captured him, and then executed him. He disbanded Fu Deng's troops and gave Fu Deng's Empress Li (Empress Li (Gao)) to Yao Huang. Fu Deng's crown prince Fu Chong would assume imperial title and attempt to resist Later Qin a few months longer, but later in the year died in battle against Western Qin after Qifu Gangui turned against him, ending Former Qin. Later Qin assumed nearly all of Former Qin's remaining territory. Around the new year 395, Later Qin established peace with Later Yan, thus obviating likelihood of war on the eastern border—although later in 395, when Later Yan's crown prince Murong Bao carried out a disastrous campaign against Northern Wei's prince Tuoba Gui (Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei), Later Qin sent a relief force to aid Northern Wei, although Later Qin forces did not actually engage Later Yan. Further, in 397, with Later Yan under heavy attack by Northern Wei after its founding emperor Murong Chui died and was replaced by Murong Bao, Later Qin refused to provide aid to Later Yan. In 394, after Yao Chang's death, Fu Deng launched a major attack against Later Qin; he had his brother Fu Guang (苻廣) defend the base of Yongcheng (雍城, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi) and Fu Chong defend the base of Hu Kong Castle (胡空堡, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi) and, in his anxiety, did not make sure that his army had sufficient water supply. Yao Xing set up his army at Mawei (馬嵬, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi) to prevent Former Qin forces from reaching the river near Mawei, and Former Qin forces collapsed in thirst. Upon hearing the defeat, Fu Guang and Fu Chong abandoned the two bases that they were holding, and Fu Deng was unable to recapture them. He instead fled to Pingliang and then into the mountains. He sent his son Fu Zong the Prince of Ruyin to the ruler of Western Qin, Qifu Gangui and married his sister to Qifu Gangui as his princess, seeking aid from Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui sent his general Qifu Yizhou (乞伏益州) to aid Fu Deng, but as Fu Deng came out of the mountains to join Qifu Yizhou's forces, Yao Xing ambushed and captured him, and then executed him. '''Qifu Gangui''' or '''Qifu Qiangui''' '''Princess Tufa''' (禿髮王后, personal name unknown) (died 423) was a princess of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Qin. Her husband was Qifu Chipan (Prince Wenzhao). In 409, Yao Xing himself launched an attack on Liu Bobo, but when he reached Ercheng (貳城, in modern Yan'an, Shaanxi), he was nearly trapped by Liu Bobo, and escaped only after major casualties. This defeat forced Yao Xing to cancel a mission, commanded by his general Yao Qiang (姚強), to try to save Southern Yan from being destroyed by Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)). (Without Later Qin aid, Southern Yan fell in 410.) For the next several years, Xia and Later Qin forces battled constantly, often inconclusively, but with the wars becoming much more costly to Later Qin than Xia, with Southern Liang and Western Qin no longer being willing to be Later Qin vassals as a result. In 412, when Western Qin's prince Qifu Gangui was assassinated by his nephew Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府), Liu Bobo considered attacking Western Qin despite its status as an ally, but at the counsel of his advisor Wang Maide (王買德) did not do so. In 397, Lü Guang sent his brother Lü Yan (呂延) on an attack against Western Qin, but Lü Yan was killed in a trap set by the Western Qin prince Qifu Gangui. Juqu Mengxun's uncles Juqu Luochou (沮渠羅仇) and Juqu Quzhou (沮渠麴粥) were Lü Yan's assistants, and in light of Lü Yan's death, Lü Guang believed false accusations against them and executed them. Juqu Mengxun escorted their caskets back to their home territory of Zhangye (張掖, in modern Zhangye, Gansu) and then persuaded the various Xiongnu tribes to rise against Later Liang. Initially, he was defeated by Lü Guang's son Lü Zuan and fled into the mountains, but he was soon joined in rebellion by his cousin Juqu Nancheng (沮渠男成), who sieged Jiankang (建康, also in modern Zhangye) and persuaded Duan Ye the governor of Jiankang Commandery to accept leadership of the rebels, establishing Northern Liang. Soon, Lü Guang came under the greater threat of a rebellion by Guo Nen (郭黁) and recalled Lü Zuan to face that threat, and Duan Ye's nascent state survived. Juqu Mengxun joined Duan Ye, and was made a major general of the state. In 398, Duan Ye sent him on an expedition against Lü Guang's nephew Lü Chun (呂純), and Juqu Mengxun captured Lü Chun, causing all remaining Later Liang cities west of Zhangye to submit to Northern Liang, further enlarging Northern Liang territory. Duan Ye therefore created Juqu Mengxun the Marquess of Linchi. Lü Guang's son Lü Hong (呂弘) soon abandoned Zhangye, and Duan Ye moved his capital to Zhangye, and tried to further pursue Lü Hong against Juqu Mengxun's advice. Lü Hong defeated him and nearly killed him, but Juqu Mengxun saved Duan Ye. In 399, when Duan Ye claimed the title of Prince of Liang, he made Juqu Mengxun one of his two prime ministers, sharing responsibilities with Liang Zhongyong (梁中庸). Later that year, when Northern Liang was under attack by Lü Guang's crown prince Lü Shao and Lü Zuan, it was at Juqu Mengxun's suggestion that Duan Ye refused to engage, forcing Lü Shao and Lü Zuan to retreat when Southern Liang relief forces under Tufa Lilugu arrived. In 400, when the general Wang De (王德) rebelled, Duan Ye sent Juqu Mengxun to attack him, and Juqu Mengxun defeated him and, while he fled, captured his wife and children. ** Juqu Zhengde (沮渠政德), the Heir Apparent (created 413, killed in battle by Rouran forces 423) ** Juqu Xingguo (沮渠興國), the Heir Apparent (created 423), later captured and detained by Western Qin's prince Qifu Mumo 429 (d. 431) ** Juqu Puti (沮渠菩提), the Heir Apparent (created 429, deposed 433) In spring 430, Liu Song launched a major attack, and Emperor Taiwu, judging his own defenses south of the Yellow River to be unable to withstand a Liu Song attack, withdrew them north, judging correctly that Liu Song forces would stop at the Yellow River, planning to counterattack in the winter after the river froze. Meanwhile, hearing that Liu Song and Xia had subsequently entered into a treaty to attack him and divide Northern Wei lands, he judged correctly that despite the treaty Liu Song had no intention to cross the Yellow River north, and he decided to destroy Xia once and for all. In fall 430, he made a surprise attack on the new Xia capital Pingliang (平涼, also in modern Pingliang), while Helian Ding was engaging Western Qin's prince Qifu Mumo, putting Pingliang under siege, but although he then sent Helian Chang to Pingliang to try to persuade its defender, Helian Shegan (赫連社干, younger brother to both Helian Chang and Helian Ding), to surrender, Pingliang would not fall quickly. However, the Northern Wei general Tuxi Bi (吐奚弼) engaged Helian Ding as Helian Ding was trying to relieve Pingliang, defeating him and surrounding him at the Chungu Plains (鶉觚原, in modern Pingliang). Northern Wei forces surrounded him, and his army became hungry and thirsty. After several days, he forcibly fought his way out of the siege, but his forces mostly collapsed, and he himself was badly injured. He gathered the remaining forces and fled to Shanggui. Around the new year 431, Helian Shegan surrendered. Nearly all former Xia territory was now in Northern Wei hands. (Upon recovering Daxi Jin from Xia captivity, Emperor Taiwu punished him for his failures by temporarily making him the imperial porter in charge of serving meals, but soon pardoned him and restored him to his princely title.) (By 432, Helian Ding was no longer able to hold Shanggui, and he, after destroying Qifu Mumo's Western Qin, tried to head west to attack Northern Liang, but was intercepted by the khan of Tuyuhun (Tuyuhun Kingdom), Murong Mugui (慕容慕璝), defeated, and captured. In 433, Murong Mugui, with promises of rewards, turned Helian Ding over to Emperor Taiwu, and he had Helian Ding executed.) In 420, Juqu Mengxun set another trap for Li Xin. He pretended to attack Western Qin's city Haomen (浩亹, in modern Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai), but once reaching Haomen, immediately withdrew and hid his army at Chuanyan (川巖, near Zhangye). Li Xin, believing wrongly that Juqu Mengxun's defenses were down, decided to attack Zhangye, against the advice of Song Yao and Zhang Tishun. Princess Dowager Yin also spoke against it, pointing out that he had insufficient strength to conquer Northern Liang and warning him that a defeat would destroy his state. He ignored them, but as they had predicted, as he approached Zhangye, Juqu Mengxun intercepted him and defeated him. His generals then advised him to quickly withdraw to Jiuquan, but Li Xin, stating that he had disobeyed his mother and would only be able to see her again after a victory, engaged Juqu Mengxun again, suffering an even greater defeat, and he was killed in battle. Juqu Mengxun quickly captured Jiuquan, and by 421 would take over the rest of Western Liang territory. '''Qifu Mumo''' (乞伏暮末) (died 431), courtesy name '''Anshiba''' (安石跋), was the last prince of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Qin. When he succeeded his father Qifu Chipan (Prince Wenzhao) in 428, Western Qin was already in a state of decline, under incessant attack by Northern Liang, Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)), Tuyuhun (Tuyuhun Kingdom), and Chouchi, but under Qifu Mumo, who had a violent temper, Western Qin declined further, and in 431 the Xia emperor Helian Ding, his own state nearing destruction, captured and executed Qifu Mumo, ending Western Qin. '''Princess Liang''' (梁王后, personal name unknown) was a princess of the Chinese (History of China) state Western Qin. Her husband was the final prince, Qifu Mumo. In 426, with Western Qin's prince Qifu Chipan attacking Northern Liang, Northern Liang's prince Juqu Mengxun sent messengers to persuade Helian Chang to attack the Western Qin capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu). Helian Chang, in response, sent his general Hulu Gu (呼盧古) to attack Wanchuan (苑川, in modern Baiyin, Gansu) and Wei Fa (韋伐) to attack Nan'an (南安, in modern Dingxi, Gansu), and while Western Qin was able to hold Wanchuan, Nan'an fell, at great loss. In winter 426, Xia forces commanded by Hulu and Wei attack Fuhan, forcing Qifu Gangui to move the capital to Dinglian (定連, also in Linxia), and Hulu and Wei then captured another important Western Qin city, Xiping (西平, in modern Xining, Qinghai), and while they then withdrew, Western Qin had been dealt a major blow. Steps toward usurpation With Later Qin destroyed, there was an expectation that Liu Yu would next advance northwest and either destroy or force the subjugation of the several states in the northwest still -- Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)), Western Qin, Northern Liang, and Western Liang. Indeed, at this point, Western Qin's prince Qifu Chipan, Northern Liang's prince Juqu Mengxun, and Western Liang's prince Li Gao were all sufficiently intimidated that they nominally submitted to Jin's authority. However, Liu Muzhi then died at this time, and Liu Yu, intending on taking the throne, decided to return to Jiankang himself, leaving his 11-year-old son Liu Yizhen (劉義真) and the generals Wang Zhen'e, Shen Tianzi, Mao Dezu (毛德祖), and the official Wang Xiu (王脩) in charge of Chang'an. Meanwhile, Western Qin's prince Qifu Mumo, unable to stand pressures from Northern Liang and Tuyuhun, sought to surrender to Northern Wei, and with Northern Wei promising to give Xia's Pingliang and Anding Commanderies to him as his domain, he abandoned his capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and headed east, intending to join Northern Wei forces at Shanggui. Upon hearing this, Helian Ding personally tried to intercept Qifu Mumo, who was forced to stop at Nan'an (南安, in modern Longxi, Gansu), with his territory having otherwise all fallen to Tuyuhun. ** '''Northern Yan Dynasty (Northern Yan)''' - Emperor Féng Hóng (Feng Hong), Emperor of Northern Yan (Northern Yan) (430–436) ** '''Western Qin Dynasty (Western Qin)''' - Emperor Qǐfú Mùmò (Qifu Mumo), Emperor of Western Qin (Western Qin) (428–431) (no successor) ** '''Xia Dynasty (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))''' - Emperor Hèlián Dìng (Helian Ding), Emperor of Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)) (428–431) (no successor) ** '''Northern Yan Dynasty (Northern Yan)''' - Emperor Féng Hóng (Feng Hong), Emperor of Northern Yan (Northern Yan) (430–436) ** '''Western Qin Dynasty (Western Qin)''' - Emperor Qǐfú Mùmò (Qifu Mumo), Emperor of Western Qin (Western Qin) (428–431) (no successor) ** '''Xia Dynasty (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))''' - Emperor Hèlián Dìng (Helian Ding), Emperor of Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)) (428–431) (no successor) ***Emperor Féng Hóng (Feng Hong), Emperor of Northern Yan (Northern Yan) (430–436) ** '''Western Qin Dynasty (Western Qin)''' - Emperor Qǐfú Mùmò (Qifu Mumo), Emperor of Western Qin (Western Qin) (428–431) ** '''Xia Dynasty (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))''' - Emperor Hèlián Dìng (Helian Ding), Emperor of Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)) (428–431) ***Emperor Féng Hóng (Feng Hong), Emperor of Northern Yan (Northern Yan) (430–436) ** '''Western Qin Dynasty (Western Qin)''' - Emperor Qǐfú Mùmò (Qifu Mumo), Emperor of Western Qin (Western Qin) (428–431) ** '''Xia Dynasty (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))''' - Emperor Hèlián Dìng (Helian Ding), Emperor of Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)) (428–431) ** '''Northern Yan Dynasty (Northern Yan)''' - Emperor Féng Bá (Feng Ba), Emperor of Northern Yan (Northern Yan) (409–430) ** '''Western Qin Dynasty (Western Qin)''' - Emperor Qǐfú Mùmò (Qifu Mumo), Emperor of Western Qin (Western Qin) (428–431) ** '''Xia Dynasty (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))''' - Emperor Hèlián Dìng (Helian Ding), Emperor of Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)) (428–431) ** '''Northern Yan Dynasty (Northern Yan)''' - Emperor Féng Bá (Feng Ba), Emperor of Northern Yan (Northern Yan) (409–430) ** '''Western Qin Dynasty (Western Qin)''' - Emperor Qǐfú Mùmò (Qifu Mumo), Emperor of Western Qin (Western Qin) (428–431) ** '''Xia Dynasty (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))''' - Emperor Hèlián Dìng (Helian Ding), Emperor of Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)) (428–431)


Northern Qi

the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. Taiyuan was an ancient capital, constructed by Zhaojianzi ( ). It served as the capital of Zhao (Zhao (state)). It was renamed Taiyuan following its conquest by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. Under the later Han dynasty, it was the capital of Bing Province (Bingzhou) (Bingzhou). For a time in the 6th century, the city was a secondary capital of Eastern Wei and Northern Qi states, growing into a fairly large city and also becoming a center of Buddhism. A new city was built in AD 562, which was later linked to the old city during the Tang Dynasty in AD 733. From that time until the middle of the Tang dynasty (618–907), the construction of the cave temples at Tianlong Mountain just southwest of the city, continued. The dynastic founder of the Tang began his conquest of the empire with Taiyuan as a base and using the support of its local aristocracy. It was periodically designated as the Tang's northern capital and grew into a heavily fortified military base. Xiao Fangzhi 蕭方智 xiāo fāng zhì 555-557 In 558, a year after Emperor Jing had yielded the throne to Chen Baxian (and had been killed by Chen), his nephew Xiao Zhuang the Prince of Yongjia, with support from Northern Qi, was proclaimed the emperor of Liang by the general Wang Lin. In 560, Wang Lin was defeated by Chen troops, and both he and Xiao Zhuang were forced to flee to Northern Qi. It is a matter of controversy whether Xiao Zhuang should be considered an emperor of Liang. Shaotai (紹泰 shào tài) 555-556 Taiping (太平 tài píng) 556-557 When the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Chen), it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang Dynasty -- and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen (Emperor Wen of Chen) and Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Chen) were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen was cornered. To make matters worse, its final emperor Chen Shubao was an incompetent and indulgent ruler, and Chen was eventually destroyed by Northern Zhou's successor state Sui. Q Q-5 (Nanchang Q-5) - Qi - Qi Baishi - Qi Dynasty North (Northern Qi) - Qi Dynasty South (Southern Qi) - Qi Empress - Qi Xi - Qian Xuantong - Qian Zhongshu - Qiang people - Qiang languages - Qiang (spear) - Qianjiang District - Qianjiang, Hubei - Qianlong Emperor of China - ''Qieyun'' - Qigong - Qilin - Qin Dechun - Qin Dynasty - Qin Er Shi - Qin Shi Huang - Qinhuangdao - Qing Dynasty - Qing dynasty emperors - Qingdao - Qinghai - Qinghai Lake - Qingzhou - Qing Ming Jie - Qinghua Daxue - Qingpu District, Huai'an - Qingpu District, Shanghai - Qinqiang - Qiongzhou Strait - Qipao - Qiqihar - Qiu Jin - Qong Tayiji - QQ - Qu You - Qu Yuan - Quanzhou - Queen's College, Hong Kong - Quemoy - Qufu - ''Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong'' - Quzhou group1 Northern dynasties list1 Northern Wei • Eastern Wei • Western Wei • Northern Qi • Northern Zhou group2 Southern dynasties Chen Baxian and his commanding general, Wang Sengbian, who controlled the eastern provinces of Liang, refused to recognize the emperor installed by Western Wei, Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, instead initially intending to install Emperor Yuan's son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an as the new Liang emperor. However, in spring 555, fearful of Northern Qi attacks, Wang accepted the candidate proposed by Northern Qi, Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming. Displeased over this selection, Chen made a surprise attack on Jiankang in fall 555, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming, making Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). In 557, he had Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, establishing Chen Dynasty (as Emperor Wu). '''Xiao Zhuang''' (蕭莊) (548-577?), often known by his princely title of '''Prince of Yongjia''' (永嘉王), was a grandson of Emperor Yuan of Liang, who was declared by the general Wang Lin to be the legitimate emperor of Liang Dynasty in 558, under military assistance by Northern Qi. He thus was one of the three claimants to the Southern dynasties throne, competing with Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, who was supported by Northern Zhou, and Chen Dynasty's founder Emperor Wu of Chen and later his nephew Emperor Wen of Chen. In 560, with Wang Lin defeated by Chen troops, both Wang and Xiao Zhuang fled to Northern Qi, ending their rivalry with Chen and Western Liang. While Northern Qi emperors made promises to return Xiao Zhuang to the Liang throne, Northern Qi was never able to accomplish that promise, and Xiao Zhuang died shortly after Northern Qi's own destruction in 577. Despite Wang Sengbian's intent to make Xiao Zhuang's uncle Xiao Fangzhi emperor, he soon changed his mind when he became fearful of Northern Qi after Northern Qi forces scored several victories against his. He accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Wang Sengbian's lieutenant Chen Baxian (Emperor Wu of Chen) was displeased by Wang Sengbian's decision, and in fall 555, he made a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang Sengbian and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Qi forces almost immediately attacked, and while Chen was able to repel them, in order to try to make peace with Northern Qi, he sent Xiao Zhuang, as well as his nephew Chen Tanlang (陳曇朗), and Wang Min (王珉) the son of the key official Wang Chong (王沖) as hostages to Northern Qi. Image:ForeignMerchant.jpg Tang Dynasty Foreign Merchant Image:SogdiansNorthernQiStellae550CE.jpg Northern Qi depiction of Sogdians (Sogdiana) In compiling the work, Wei Shou was criticized for showing partiality to ancestors of political allies and intentionally defamatory to or entirely ignoring ancestors of political enemies. Detractors of the work referred to the book as 穢書, (Hui Shu), nearly pronounced as 'Wei Shu', but meaning "Book of Filth". From a modern historical view point, the book had glaring problems, as it took glorification of the Northern Wei to an extreme, intentionally misstating history of her predecessor state Dai (State of Dai), which was a vassal of Western Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), Later Zhao, Former Yan, and Former Qin, but which the book characterized as a powerful empire that those states were vassals of. It further characterized all other rival states as barbaric and made unsubstantiated accusations against their rulers. Further, it retroactively used the sinicized surnames introduced by Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei in 496 to apply to events long before, making it difficult for readers to know what the actual names of historical personages were. In addition, Wei Shou was criticized in that, as an official of the Eastern Wei (Eastern Wei Dynasty) and its successor state Northern Qi, he included the sole emperor of Eastern Wei, Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei), among his imperial lists while intentionally omitting the three emperors from the rival state Western Wei after the division of the Northern Wei in 534. However, he was credited with harmonizing highly confusing and fragmented accounts of historical events from the state of Dai to the early period of Northern Wei and creating coherent accounts of events. Around that time, many men took tonsure to be Buddhist monks in order to avoid taxation and labor. In 714, Yao, pointing out that veneration of Buddhist monks did nothing to save Later Zhao, Later Qin, Northern Qi, and Liang Dynasty, suggested that Emperor Xuanzong order a thorough review of the ranks of Buddhist monks and nuns and force those who were not truly devout to return to civilian life and be subject to taxation and labors. Some 12,000, as a result, were forced to return to civilian life. Meanwhile, however, when Yao spoke against a campaign that the general and fellow chancellor Xue Na advocated against the Khitan, Emperor Xuanzong did not listen to him and had Xue attack Khitan anyway. (Xue's campaign eventually ended in failure in fall 714.) Yao and his fellow chancellor Lu Huaishen, meanwhile, also did much to try to eliminate the culture of the nobles exerting influence in civil service matters. Background It is not known when Du Xian was born. However, Du was said to be in his 60s when he died in 740, and thus, based on the Chinese calculation of age, was born sometime between 672 and 681. See ''Book of Tang'', vol. 98. His family was from Pu Prefecture (濮州, roughly modern Heze, Shandong) and claimed its ancestry from the Qin Dynasty general Du He (杜赫), and traced itself to a line of officials during Northern Wei, Northern Qi, Sui Dynasty, and Tang Dynasty. It was said that the clan's members were on such good terms that it did not divide for five generations down to Du Xian. Both Du Xian's grandfather Du Yikuan (杜義寬) and father Du Chengzhi (杜承志) were low level officials. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 72.Background Han Xiu was born in 672, during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Emperor Gaozong . His family was from the Tang Dynasty capital Chang'an and traced its ancestry to the royal house of the Warring States Period state Han (Han (state)). It also claimed, as ancestors, a line of officials during Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty (265-420), Northern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou, Sui Dynasty, and Tang. Han Xiu's grandfather Han Fu (韓符) served as a prefectural prefect during Tang, and Han Xiu's father Han Dazhi (韓大智) served as a census official at the eastern capital Luoyang. Han Xiu's uncle Han Damin (韓大敏) was a more-known official who, during the early reign of Emperor Gaozong's wife Wu Zetian, refused to falsely implicate the official Li Xingbao (李行褒), and ultimately, when Wu Zetian executed Li Xingbao anyway, was forced to commit suicide. For the next year, Chen advanced north through modern Jiangxi, fighting the various local warlords and generals loyal to Hou, with his main struggle against Li Qianshi (李遷仕). In spring 551, he captured and killed Li. Xiao Yi made him the governor of Jiang Province (江州, roughly modern Jiangxi). By fall 551, he had rendezvoused with Xiao Yi's main general, Wang Sengbian, at Xunyang (尋陽, in modern Jiujiang, Jiangxi). In 552, after they had sworn a solemn oath to Liang, they advanced east toward Jiankang, where Hou had killed Xiao Gang (who had succeeded Emperor Wu as Emperor Jianwen) and taken the throne himself as Emperor of Han. Chen was instrumental in the subsequent siege of Jiankang, and they defeated Hou together, causing Hou to flee. Subsequently, Hou was killed by his own men. For Chen's contributions, Xiao Yi created Chen the Marquess of Changcheng—Chen's home county. Wang put Chen in charge of the important city Jingkou (京口, in modern Zhenjiang, Jiangsu). For the next two years, Chen was several times involved in border battles against Northern Qi (Eastern Wei's successor state). At times, when Xiao Yi (who had by now taken the throne as Emperor Yuan but set up his capital at his headquarters of Jiangling (Jiangling County) rather than at Jiankang) summoned Wang on campaigns, Wang would put Chen in charge of Jiankang. First built in the mid-6th century during the Northern Qi, Mutianyu Great Wall is older than the Badaling section of the Great Wall. In the Ming dynasty, under the supervision of General Xu Da, construction of the present wall began on the foundation of the wall of Northern Qi. In 1404, a pass was built in the wall. In 1569, the Mutianyu Great Wall was rebuilt and till today most parts of it are well preserved. The Mutianyu Great Wall has the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall. Background Wei Zheng was born in 580, shortly before the founding of Sui Dynasty in 581. His family was from Julu Commandery (鉅鹿, roughly modern Xingtai, Hebei). His father Wei Changxian (魏長賢) was a county magistrate during Northern Qi. Wei lost his father early in life and was poor, but had great expectations, not caring about making wealth. At one point, he became a Taoist monk. He favored studying, and as he saw that the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui was beginning to make Sui fall into a state of confusion, he particularly paid attention to strategic works. Background Feng Deyi was born in 568, when his grandfather Feng Longzhi (封隆之) was a high level official for Northern Qi. His father Feng Zixiu (封子繡) served as a provincial governor for Northern Zhou, but was captured by the Chen Dynasty general Wu Mingche in a battle, probably in 573, during Wu's main offensive against Northern Qi. Sometime after Northern Qi was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577, Feng Zixiu fled back north, and was made a provincial governor by Emperor Wen of Sui, whose Sui Dynasty succeeded Northern Zhou in 581. Feng Deyi's mother Lady Lu was probably Feng Zixiu's wife rather than a concubine, as she was the sister of the official Lu Sidao. In Feng Deyi's youth, Lu Sidao often said, with regard to Feng Deyi, "This child is more intelligent than other people, and one day will surely be a highly-ranked official, even chancellor." In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan of Western Liang) emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. He maintained tense but relatively peaceful relations with the Göktürks and the various Chinese dynasties, briefly battling the Northern Zhou at the Liaodong Peninsula in 577. He frequently sent tributes to the Chen Dynasty, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. As the Sui Dynasty united China, King Pyeongwon prepared for the impending war. As emperor Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei)) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) (荊州, modern western Hubei). In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng (Ye, China). Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao (Yao (ruler)) and Shun (Emperor Shun). Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.


Fustat

left thumb The streets of Islamic Cairo (File:Islamic-cairo-street.jpg), adorned by Islamic architecture, are narrower and older than those in the city centre alt Several people walk down a small empty lane overshadowed on both sides by three-story buildings with shrouded balconies and windows of Islamic style Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city – Garden City (Garden City (Cairo)), Downtown Cairo, and Zamalek – are located closest to the riverbank. The areas, which are home to most of Cairo's embassies (diplomatic mission), are surrounded on the north, east, and south by the older parts of the city. Old Cairo, located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria) community, Coptic Cairo. The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centrer. The Citadel (Cairo Citadel) is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the Fatimid (Fatimid Caliphate) era and the foundation of Cairo. While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture. The part of Cairo that contains Coptic Cairo and Fostat (Fustat), which contains the Coptic Museum, Babylon Fortress, Hanging Church (The Hanging Church), the Greek Church (Greek Orthodox Church) of St. George, many other Coptic (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria) churches, the Ben Ezra Synagogue and Amr ibn al-'As ('Amr ibn al-'As) Mosque. death_date 12 December 1204 death_place Fostat (Fustat), Egypt, or Cairo, Egypt Goldin, Hyman E. ''Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (Shulchan Aruch) – Code of Jewish Law'', Forward to the New Edition. (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1961) Or Tiberias Tomb of Maimonides religion Judaism Following this sojourn in Morocco, he and his family briefly lived in the Holy Land (Holy Land (Biblical)), before settling in Fostat (Fustat), Egypt around 1168. While in Cairo he studied in Yeshiva attached to a small synagogue that bears his name (Maimonides Synagogue). ref


Later Yan

into the most prosperous state of civilization seen in the world, which saw extravagant palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. After Tuyühu Khan departed from the northeast, Murong Wei composed an "Older Brother’s Song," or "the Song of A Gan:" "A Gan" is Chinese transcription of "a ga" for "older brother" in the Xianbei language. Qi, Jinyü 祁进玉 (2008). Qun ti shen fen yu duo yuan ren tong: ji yu san ge tuzu she qu de ren lei xue dui bi yan jiu Group Identity and Diversity of Identification: an anthropological comparison of three Tu ethnic communities 群体身份与多元认同:基于三个土族社区的人类学对比研究.Beijing 北京 : Shehui ke xue wen xian chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Academic Literature Press 社会科学文献出版社. The song lamented his sadness and longing for Tuyühu. Legends accounted that Murong Wei often sang it until he died and the song got spread into central and northwest China. The Murong Xianbei whom he had led successively founded the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (383-407), and Southern Yan (398-410). Their territories encompassed the present Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan, and their capitals included Beijing and other cities. Through these establishments, they were immersed among the Chinese (Chinese people), whereas the Xianbei who followed Tuyühu Khan preserved their language and culture until the present times. The defeat of the Former Qin in the Battle of Fei River and the subsequent uprisings split the Former Qin territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jiān: one located at present day Taiyuan, Shanxi and was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling. The other struggled in its greatly reduced territories around the border of present day Shaanxi and Gansu until disintegration in 394 under years of invasions by the Western Qin and the Later Qin. In 400, Later Yan, founded by the Murong clan of the Xianbei in present-day Liaoning province, attacked Goguryeo. Gwanggaeto responded swiftly, recovering most of the territory seized by the Xianbei and driving most of them from Goguryeo. Then in 402, he decided to launch an attack on Later Yan itself, determined to protect his Kingdom from further threat. In the same year Gwanggaeto defeated the Xienpei, seizing some of their border fortresses. In 404, he invaded Liaodong and took the entire Liaodong Peninsula. The Xianbei did not watch idly as Goguryeo forces took over their lands. In 405, forces of the Later Yan crossed the Liao River, and attacked Goguryeo but were defeated by Gwanggaeto. The Murong Xianbei invaded once again the following year, but yet again the Goguryeo king was able to repel them. Gwanggaeto led several more campaigns against Xianbei as well as against Khitan tribes in Inner Mongolia, which he brought under his control. In 408, the Emperor sent a peace delegate to Gao Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Yan)), then ruler of Later Yan Northern Yan, to broker a settlement between the two dynasties, because Gao Yun descended from the Goguryeo royal house as well. Goguryeo control over the Liaoning region remained strong until the Tang Dynasty seized the area as a part of its war against Goguryeo in the late 7th century. The '''Western Yan''' ( Original from the University of California and was said to have settled down in Shangdang Commandery (上黨, roughly modern Changzhi, Shanxi) in the aftermaths of the conquest of the northern half of Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) during the reign of Emperor Huai of Jin by Han Zhao. Feng Ba's father Feng An (馮安) later served the Western Yan emperor Murong Yong as a general. When Western Yan was destroyed by the Later Yan emperor Murong Chui in 394, Feng An's household was forcibly moved to Helong (和龍, also known as Longcheng (龍城), in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), where Feng Ba grew up, apparently under heavy Xianbei influence, for his nickname Qizhifa suggested Xianbei origin. He had three younger brothers, all of whom admired heroic behavior and largely ignored social restraints, but Feng Ba himself was considered to be careful and diligent, managing his household well. During Murong Bao's reign, he became a general. He came to respect Murong Bao's adoptive son Murong Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Yan)) the Duke of Zhaoyang, and they became great friends.


Northern Zhou

in the world, which saw extravagant palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. As waves and waves of the Xianbei went south and westward to establish different empires, those who remained in the northeast emerged as major powers later to rule over China. While the "Mongol Xianbei" (or "Mengwu Shiwei") emerged from the northern Manchuria and northeastern Mongolia, the Khitans, or "Qidan" in Chinese, derived their ancestral origins from the Yuwen Xianbei in southern Mongolia, Cheng, Tian 承天 (2008). Qidan di guo chuan qi Legends of the Khitan Empires 契丹帝国传奇. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo guo ji guang bo chu ban she Chinese International Broadcasting Press 中国国际广播出版社. who had earlier founded the Western Wei (535-556) and Northern Zhou (557-581) of the Northern Dynasties. When the Khitans established the Liao Dynasty (916-1125) in China proper, they were referred to as "Qara (or Black) Khitāy". Wittfogel, Karl August and Chia-sheng Feng (1949). History of Chinese society: Liao, 907-1125. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society distributed by the Macmillan Co. New York. p. 1. Their rule gave rise to the reference of China known as "Hătāi" and "Cathay" in the Persian and European countries. Fei, Xiaotong 费孝通 (1999). Zhonghua min zu duo yuan yi ti ge ju The Framework of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nationality 中华民族多元一体格局. Beijing 北京 , Zhongyang min zu da xue chu ban she Central Nationalities University Press 中央民族大学出版社. p. 176. The reference of "Qara" (or "Black") as a prefix in the name of the Khitans and "Khara" (or "Black") in that of the Mongols may indicate that both groups had substantial input from the Xiongnu, who by self proclaiming to be "Xianbei" earlier made it hard in distinguish in the Chinese records. Historical Early known players of ''pipa'' include General Xie Shang (謝尚) from the Jin Dynasty who was described to have performed playing it on tiptoe. 劉義慶 《世說新語》 A New Account of the Tales of the World by Liu Yiqing. '''Original text:''' 桓大司馬曰:「諸君莫輕道,仁祖企腳北窗下彈琵琶,故自有天際真人想。」 '''Translation:''' Grand Marshal Huan (Huan Wen) said: "Gentlemen, do not disparage Renzu, he played the pipa under the north window on tiptoe, and thus evoked thoughts of an immortal in heaven." (Note that Renzu (仁祖) refers to Xie Shang.) The introduction of ''pipa'' from Central Asia also brought with it virtuoso performers from that region, for example Sujiva (蘇祇婆) from the Kingdom of Kucha during the Northern Zhou Dynasty, Kang Kunlun (康崑崙) from Kangju, and Pei Luoer (裴洛兒) from Shule (Kashgar). Pei Luoer was known for pioneering finger-playing techniques, while Sujiva was noted for the "Seven modes and seven tones", a musical modal (Musical mode) theory from India. 杜佑 《通典》 Tongdian by Du You '''Original text:''' 初,周武帝時,有龜茲人曰蘇祇婆,從突厥皇后入國,善胡琵琶。聽其所奏,一均之中間有七聲。因而問之,答云:『父在西域,稱為知音。代相傳習,調有七種。』以其七調,勘校七聲,冥若合符。 隋書 Book of Sui (The heptatonic scale was used for a time afterwards due to Sujiva's influence until it was abandoned as it conflicted with the traditional pentatonic scale.) These players had considerable influence on the development of ''pipa'' playing in China. Of particular fame were the family of ''pipa'' players founded by Cao Poluomen (曹婆羅門) and who were active for many generations from the Northern Wei to Tang Dynasty. 《舊唐書·音樂二》 Jiu Tangshu (Book of Tang) '''Original text:''' 後魏有曹婆羅門,受龜茲琵琶于商人,世傳其業。至孫妙達,尤為北齊高洋所重,常自擊胡鼓以和之。 '''Translation''': During Later Wei there was Cao Poluomen, who was a trader in Kuchean ''pipa'' for whose craft he was famous. His grandchild Miaoda in particular was highly regarded by Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Dynasty, who would often play the ''hu'' drum in accompaniment. (Note that Poluomen (or Bolomen) means Brahmin or Indian.) Background and early career It is not known when Yu Di was born, but it is known that his family was from Henan Municipality (河南, i.e., the region of the Tang Dynasty eastern capital Luoyang). His family traced its ancestry to the prominent Xianbei clan Moniuyu (万鈕于) The ''Book of Wei'' referred to the same clan as Wuniuyu (勿忸于). See ''Book of Wei'', vol. 113 (:zh:s:魏書 卷113). of Northern Wei, which changed its name to Yu when Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei had the Xianbei clans' names changed (change of Xianbei names to Han names) to Han (Han Chinese) names. Among Yu Di's ancestors were generals and officials of Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, Sui Dynasty, and Tang, including the prominent Northern Zhou general Yu Jin (于謹). Yu Di's grandfather Yu Wang (于汪) served as the director of the archival bureau, while his father Yu Xiong (于敻) served as a military advisor to a prefectural prefect. ''New Book of Tang'', vol. 72.the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu of Chen Emperor Wu , it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang Dynasty -- and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen (Emperor Wen of Chen) and Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Chen) were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen was cornered. To make matters worse, its final emperor Chen Shubao was an incompetent and indulgent ruler, and Chen was eventually destroyed by Northern Zhou's successor state Sui. *Princess Lanling (蘭陵公主), a "princess" of the imperial family of Northern Wei, married the Khagan of the Rouran, Yujiulü Anagui. *Princess Qianjin (千金公主), daughter of Yuwen Zhao, Prince of Zhao (趙王宇文招) and a member of the imperial family of Northern Zhou, married Ishbara Qaghan, Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate (Ishbara Qaghan). *582 A.D.: Emperor Ming of Western Liang marries his daughter, Princess Xiao of Western Liang (Empress Xiao (Yang)), to Yang Guang, Prince of Jin (Emperor Yang of Sui), the second son and eventual successor of Emperor Ming's overlord Emperor Wen of Sui. Legacy of the Later Tang The importance of the Later Tang on Chinese history is far more important than its short thirteen years would imply. '''Li Gao''' (李暠) (351–417), courtesy name '''Xuansheng''' (玄盛), nickname '''Changsheng''' (長生), formally '''Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang''' ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese (History of China) state Western Liáng. (While he claimed only the title of duke during his reign, he was posthumoustly honored with the princely title.) He was initially a Northern Liang official, but in 400, he seceded from Northern Liang's prince Duan Ye's rule and established his own independent state. His state only lasted for 21 years, but as his descendants would remain key officials and nobles throughout Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty, and as one of them, Li Yuan (Emperor Gaozu of Tang), would found the Tang Dynasty in 618. After the founding of the Tang Dynasty, he was posthumously honored as '''Emperor Xingsheng''' (興聖皇帝).


Northern Wei

prosperous state of civilization seen in the world, which saw extravagant palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were


Taipei

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Tel Aviv

the National Police Agency (National Police Agency (Japan)) in 1962. In 1972, he took charge of a number of high profile cases, including the Red Army Asama-Sanso incident, the Narita Airport incident, and the Tel Aviv highjacking. Kamei is one of the few major politicians to oppose the death penalty, and wrote a book, ''Shikei Haishi ron'', asserting his opposition. In that time, he had formed extensive political partnerships and personal friendships with Jewish fellow students, many of which continue up to the present. The rented apartment where he lived for many years on top of an old building at Rothschild Boulevard in downtown Tel Aviv was a well-known rendezvous for political meetings and also the venue of sometimes boisterous student parties lasting deep into the night. Among numerous other political actions, the first demonstration against the 1982 Lebanon War - held on the war's third day, 7 June 1982, dispersed by police with considerable violence, and still well-remembered by veterans of the Israeli peace camp - was planned at a dramatic meeting held in Barakeh's Tel Aviv apartment. - 8 17 November 2008 Tel Aviv, Israel Commons:Category:Tel Aviv Wikipedia:Tel Aviv Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Tel Aviv


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