Places Known For

extensive biography


Samarkand

substantial elements of the previous regimes (such as Muslim religious courts) intact, and local self-government at the village level was quite extensive. Biography He was born at Irkutsk, in Siberia, and after attending the gymnasium (Gymnasium (school)) of his native town, proceeded to the university of Moscow, for the study more especially of zoology and geology. In 1868 he travelled through Turkestan, Samarkand, Panjkent and the upper Zarafshan River valley. In 1870 he explored the Fan Mountains south of the Zarafshan. In 1871 he reached the Alay Valley at Daroot-Korgan and saw the northern Pamir Mountains but was unable to penetrate southward. Soon after his return to Europe he perished on Mont Blanc while engaged in an exploring tour in France. The territorial expansion of the Kushans helped propagate Bactrian to Northern India and parts of Central Asia. Sites at which Bactrian language inscriptions have been found are (in North-South order) Afrasiab (Samarkand) in Uzbekistan, Kara-Tepe (Termez), Airtam, Delbarjin, Balkh, Kunduz, Baglan (Baghlan), Ratabak Surkh Kotal (Surkh Kotal), Oruzgan, Kabul, Dasht-e Navur, Ghazni, Jagatu in Afghanistan, as well as Islamabad, Shatial Bridge and Tochi Valley in Pakistan. Of eight known manuscript fragments in Greco-Bactrian script, one is from Lou-lan (Loulan) and seven from Toyoq, where they were discovered by the second and third Turpan expeditions under Albert von Le Coq. One of these may be a Buddhist text. One other manuscript, in Manichean script, was found at Qočo (Gaochang) by Mary Boyce in 1958. During the reign of the Ummayad Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz, a delegation from Tibet and China requested him to send Islamic missionaries to their countries, and Salah bin Abdullah Hanafi was sent to Tibet. Between the eighth and ninth centuries, the Abbasid rulers of Baghdad maintained relations with Tibet. However, there was little proselytisation among the missionaries at first, although many of them decided to settle in Tibet and marry Tibetan women. In 710-720,during the reign of Me Agtsom the Arabs, who now had more of a presence in China, started to appear in Tibet and were allied with them along with the Eastern Turks (Turkic peoples) against the Chinese. During the reign of Sadnalegs (799-815), there was a protracted war with Arab powers to the West. It appears that Tibetans captured a number of Arab troops and pressed them into service on the Eastern frontier in 801. Tibetans were active as far West as Samarkand and Kabul. Arab forces began to gain the upper hand, and the Tibetan governor of Kabul submitted to the Arabs and became a Muslim about 812 or 815 Beckwith, Christopher I. The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia. A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages, 1987, Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02469-3, p. 14, 48, 50. Mīr Alī Shīr was a schoolmate of Husayn Bayqarah, who would later become the sultan of Khorasan. Alī Shīr's family was forced to flee Herat in 1447 after the death of Shāhrukh created an unstable political situation. His family returned to Khurasan after order was restored in the 1450s. In 1456 Alī Shīr and Bayqarah went to Mashhad with Ibn-Baysunkur. The following year Ibn-Baysunkur died and Alī Shīr Bayqarah parted ways. While Bayqarah tried to establish political power, Alī Shīr pursued his studies in Mashhad, Herat, and Samarkand. Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


Sri Lanka

: www.shazuli.com Fassiyatush , found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (Ahmad al-Alawi) (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) Fassiyya Fassiyatush shadhili sufi order was established by Qutbul Ujud Ghouthuz Zamaaninaa Ash Sheikh Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Mas'ood bin Abdur Rahman Al Makki Al Magribi Al Fassi Ash Shadhili (Imam Fassi) (Imam Fassi) who was a Moroccan by origin and born in Makkah. Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya is widely practised in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Mauritius and Indonesia. The descendants (al-Fassi family) of Imam Fassi who are Sheikhs of Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya who live in Makkah and in Jeddah visit to these countries frequently to train Ikhwan. Contributors of civilian police personnel Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Samoa, Sweden, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Ukraine, Zambia, Zimbabwe WikiPedia:Sri Lanka Dmoz:Regional Asia Sri Lanka commons:Sri Lanka


Morocco

, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (Ahmad al-Alawi) (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) In 2004 the United Kingdom Department for International Development was criticised for having hired Aerocom to fly humanitarian aid missions to Morocco following the earthquake there (2004 Morocco earthquake), because in a 2003 United Nations report Aerocom was accused of breaking international sanctions by having transporting huge quantities of arms to Liberia in 2002. Subsequently, special permission from the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority was needed to allow Aerocom's Moldova-registered Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft to land in Britain, including an exemption from noise restrictions. The Observer 6 June 2004 Agnatic seniority and the rota system has been used in several historical monarchies, for example in Kievan Rus' during the Rurikid Dynasty, implemented by Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–1054). In the Piast Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)), the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty enacted in 1138 with the establishment of a Seniorate Province at Kraków led to a centuries-long period of fragmentation of the country among his descendants. It was sometimes used in Morocco by the Alaouite dynasty until it was definitely abolished by King Mohammed V (Mohammed V of Morocco) (1957–1961) who introduced agnatic primogeniture. Badía travelled to and wrote descriptions of Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria (including modern Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, then considered part of Syria,) and Turkey during the period of 1803–1807. He went to Mecca ostensibly to perform the hajj, saying that he was a descendant of the Abbassid Caliphs of the West. The Shaykh '''Ahmad Al-Badawī''' (or '''Al-Sayyid Al-Badawī''') was a Muslim (Islam) founder of the Badawiyyah Sufi (sufism) order. He was born in Fes, Morocco in 596 AH and died in Tanta, Egypt in 675 AH. His followers report that he was credited with many ''karāmāt'' (miracles). Between 1964 and 1967 he was Spain's ambassador to the United Nations. He also served this role in Morocco, Argentina and the Dominican Republic. He edited the ''La Vanguardia'' newspaper and helped start the ''EFE'' news agency. He is interviewed in the documentary film ''Franco, ese hombre'', a biography of the Spanish dictator. The same triangle symbol is found on a metal artefact uncovered in an archaeological dig in Lanzarote overseen by Professor Howard Foster. His stepdaughter Perpugilliam (usually called 'Peri') Brown is bored with the dig and wants to go travelling in Morocco and when he seeks to prevent this she steals the strange artefact and tries to swim for freedom. Fortunately for her the TARDIS has landed nearby – responding to a distress call sent by the strange artefact - and Turlough sees her drowning and rescues her. Going through her possessions as she recovers he finds the artefact and acknowledges the same triangle symbol is burnt into his own flesh. The Doctor (Doctor (Doctor Who)) returns to the TARDIS after attempting to triangulate the source of the signal being emitted by the artefact, and the ship dematerialises, seemingly on its own. It soon arrives on Sarn and the Doctor and Turlough set off to explore. In Morocco and Tunisia the instrument, called ''zamr'', has a single or double bell. The Moroccan instrument has six holes in each pipe. The Moroccan ''mizmār'' or ''zamr rīfī'' is over 100 centimetres long, again with six holes in each pipe, ending in two bull's horns. Origins The melhun, originally a pure literary creation, emerged as a poetic art today known in Morocco under the name of "qasida" (meaning "poem") (Arabic (Arabic alphabet): القصيدة) or "zajal" (Arabic (Arabic alphabet): الزجل). Combined with music, it quickly spread across the country where it acquired fame particularly among artisans. '''Gnawa music''' is a mixture of sub-Saharan African, Berber (Berber people), and Sufi religious songs and rhythms. It combines music and acrobatic dancing. The music is both a prayer and a celebration of life. Though many of the influences that formed this music can be traced to sub-Saharan Africa, and specifically, the Western Sahel, its practice is concentrated in north Africa, mainly South-western Algeria and Morocco. (See Gnawa for more details) *'''Mohamed Kouyou''' - In 1984 he played at the opening of the Moroccan (Morocco) Pavilion at Disney World. He also plays in essaouira's gnawa festival *'''Essaïd Bourki''' - He has his origins in the south of Morocco. He performed with his group in Belgium in 1990. He is considered the secret master of Essaouira. Besieged in 1190 by vastly superior force under the Almoravid King of Morocco Yusuf I (Yaqub, Almohad Caliph), he and his knights managed to defeat the monarch's forces and thus defending the north of the fledgling Kingdom. The estate has hosted the Manhasset negotiations, a round of talks between Morocco and the Polisario Front, August 10–12, 2007, as part of a set of UN-led meetings centering on the future of Western Sahara, among others. Created in 1969, the Pan-African film and television festival of Ouagadougou has evolved into an internationally recognized and respected event in not only the African continent but in the world at large. Alimata Salambere, the cultural minister of Burkina Faso from 1987 to 1991 was one of the founders of FESPACO. At its third edition in 1972, the name of the festival became FESPACO (Festival Pan-Africain du Cinema et de la Television de Ouagadougou). FESPACO became an institution by governmental decree on January 7, 1972. In that year, the first official winner of the best film award was ''Le Wazzou Polygame'' by Oumarou Ganda of Niger. Since then, the best film award has been won by directors from Cameroon, Morocco, Mali, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. '''Mauretania Tingitana''' was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco and Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The province extended from the northern peninsula, opposite Gibraltar, to Chellah (or Sala) and Volubilis to the south, C. Michael Hogan, ''Chellah'', The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham and as far east as the Oued Laou river. Its capital city was the city of Tingis, modern Tangier, after which it was named. Other major cities of the province were Iulia Valentia Banasa and Lixus (Lixus (ancient city)). University of Granada: Mauretania Tingitana (in Spanish) When the Umayyad Caliphs conquered all of Northern Africa, replacing Christianity and Paganism with Islam, both Mauretanias were reunited as the province of ''al-Maghrib'' (Arabic for 'the West', and still the official name of the Sherifian kingdom of Morocco). This province also included over half of modern Algeria. ''Cervus elaphus barbarus'' Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria E ''Gazella dorcas massaesyla'' Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia E ''Hyaena hyaena barbara'' Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia E Aquila heliaca adalberti Spain, Morocco, Algeria E World War I After temporary duty off Tampico, ''Nashville'' sailed from Norfolk on 2 August 1917, arriving Gibraltar on 18 August to patrol off the Moroccan (Morocco) coast. After serving as convoy escort off North Africa and in the western Mediterranean until 15 July 1918, ''Nashville'' departed Gibraltar, arriving on 1 August at Charleston, South Carolina. *Mombasa *Morocco enclaves **Agadir Yusef was an effective general and administrator, evidenced by his ability to organize and maintain the loyalty of the hardened desert warriors and the territory of Abu Bakr, as well as his ability to expand the empire, cross the Atlas Mountains onto the plains of Morocco, reaching the Mediterranean and capturing Fez (Fes, Morocco) in 1075, Tangier in 1079, Tlemcen in 1080, Ceuta in 1083, as well as Algiers, Ténès and Oran in 1082-83. He is regarded as the co-founder of the famous Moroccan city Marrakech (in Berber ''Murakush'', corrupted to ''Morocco'' in English). The site had been chosen and work started by Abu Bakr in 1070. The work was completed by Yusef, who then made it the capital of his empire, in place of the former capital Aghmāt (Aghmat). By the time Abu Bakr died in 1087, after a skirmish in the Sahara as result of a poison arrow, Yusef had crossed over into al-Andalus and also achieved victory at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (Battle of Sagrajas), also known as the ''Battle of Sagrajas'' in the west. He came to al-Andalus with a force of 15,000 men, armed with javelins (javelin (weapon)), daggers, most of his soldiers carried two swords, shields, cuirass of the finest leather and animal hide, as well as drummers for psychological combat. Yusef's cavalry was said to have included 6,000 shock troops from Senegal mounted on white Arabian horses. Camels were also put to use. On October 23, 1086, the Almoravid forces, accompanied by 10,000 Andalusian fighters from local Muslim provinces, decisively checked the Reconquista, defeating the largest Christian army ever assembled up to that point, significantly outnumbered. The death of Yusef's heir, however, prompted his speedy return to Africa. The Sanhaja confederation, which consisted of a hierarchy of Lamtuna, Musaffa and Djudalla Berbers (Berber people), represented the military's top brass. Amongst them were Andalusian Christians and heretic Africans, taking up duties as ''diwan al-gund'', Yusef's own personal bodyguard; including 2,000 black horsemen (cavalry), whose tasks also included registering soldiers and making sure they were compensated financially. The occupying forces of the Almoravids were made up largely horsemen, totaling no less than 20,000. Into the major cities of al-Andalus, Seville (7,000), Granada (1,000), Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (1,000), 5,000 bordering Castile (Castile (historical region)) and 4,000 in western Andalusia, succeeding waves of horsemen in conjunction with the garrisons that had been left there after the Battle of Sagrajas, made responding, for the Taifa emirs, difficult. Soldiers on foot used bows (Bow (weapon)) & arrows (Arrow (weapon)), sabres, pike (pike (weapon))s, javelins (javelin (weapon)), each protected by a cuirass of Moroccan (Morocco) leather and iron piked shields. During the siege of the fort-town Aledo, in Murcia, previously captured by the Spaniard (Spanish people) ''Garcia Giménez'', Almoravid and Andalusian (Andalusian people) hosts are said to have used catapults, in addition to their customary drum beat. Yusef also established naval bases in Cadiz, Almeria and neighboring ports along the Mediterranean. Ibn-Maymun, the governor of Almeria, had a fleet at his disposal. Another such example is the Banu-Ganiya fleet based off the Balearic Islands that dominated the affairs of the western Mediterranean for much of the 12th century. http: books.google.com books?id 374eAAAAIAAJ&printsec frontcover&source gbs_summary_r&cad 0#PPA5,M1 thumb Zellige (Image:Mekhnes Place El-Hedine Mosaique3.jpg), the Moroccan mosaic '''Morocco''' is a country with a multiethnic society and a rich culture, civilization, and etiquette. Throughout Moroccan history (History of Morocco), Morocco has hosted many peoples, in addition to the indigenous Berbers (Amazigh people), coming from the East (Phoenicians, Jews, and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan African), and North (Romans (Ancient Rome) and Vandals). All of these have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It has also hosted many forms of belief, from Paganism, Judaism, Christianity to Islam. page 305 ) was a Muslim Berber (Berber people) religious (religion) scholar, teacher and political leader from southern Morocco. He was the founder and spiritual leader of the Almohad (Almohad dynasty) movement, a puritanical reform movement launched among the Masmuda Berbers (Berber people) of the Atlas Mountains. Ibn Tumart launched the open revolt against the ruling Almoravids (Almoravid dynasty) during the 1120s. After his death, his followers, the Almohads, went on to conquer much of North Africa and Spain. He is also known as El-Mahdi (المهدي) in reference to his prophesied redeeming. Many of the details of Ibn Tumart's life were recorded by hagiographers (hagiography), whose accounts probably mix legendary elements from the Almohad cult of their founding figure and spiritual leader. A French translation of the relation of the Almohad hagiographer Mohammed al-Baydhaq, can be found in Lévi-Provençal (1928). A Spanish translation of the arguably most reliable Almohad chronicle ''al-Bayan al-Mughrib'' of Ibn Idhari al-Marrakushi (Ibn Idhari), can be found in Huici Miranda (1951). Ibn Idhari was a principal source for the account, ''Kitab al-'Ibar'', of Ibn Khaldun. Ibn Khallikan's entry on Ibn Tumart can be found in English translation in ''Biographical Dictionary'', 1843 M. de Slane trans., Paris, vol. 3, p.205) Ibn Tumart was born sometime between 1078 and 1082 in the small village of Igiliz (exact location uncertain Fromherz (2005: p.177) identifies Igiliz (and Ibn Tumart's nearby cave) with the modern small village of Igli, some 30 km east of Taroudant in the Sous valley ) in the Sous valley of southern Morocco. H. Kennedy (1996) He was a member of the Hargha people, a Berber (Berber people) tribe of the Anti-Atlas range, part of the Masmuda (Berber (Berber languages): ''imesmuden'') tribal confederation. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers headed west into Morocco. He stopped by Fez (Fes, Morocco), the intellectual capital of Morocco, and engaged in polemical debates with the leading Malikite scholars of the city. Having exhausted them, the ''ulama'' of Fez decided they had enough and expelled him from the city. He proceeded south, hurried along from town to town like a vagabond (reportedly, he and his companions had to swim across the Bou Regreg, as they could not afford the ferry passage). Shortly after his arrival in Marrakesh, Ibn Tumart is said to have successfully sought out the Almoravid ruler Ali ibn Yusuf at a local mosque. In the famous encounter, when ordered to acknowledge the presence of the emir, Ibn Tumart reportedly replied "Where is the emir? I see only women here!" - an insulting reference to the tagelmust veil worn by the Almoravid ruling class. Messier (2010: p.141) (According to one source, Ibn Tumart attacked the emir's own sister for going unveiled). signatories parties 22: Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Liberia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Tunisia, and Ukraine depositor Secretary-General of the United Nations State parties to the convention There are 22 state parties where the convention is ratified: Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Liberia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Tunisia, and Ukraine *'''Mali''' - Bamako (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamako) *'''Morocco''' - Rabat (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rabat), Tanger (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tanger) *'''Mozambique''' - Beira (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beira), Maputo (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maputo), Nampula (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nampula) '''Binter Canarias S.A.''' is an airline based in Gran Canaria, Spain. It is a regional carrier operating inter-island services within the Canary Islands, in addition to services to Morocco, and Portugal. The airline carried 2.9 million passengers in 2008. Binter Canarias The Company Binter Canarias received Europe's best regional airline 2005 http: www.bintercanarias.com noticias 117 2005 binter-canarias-europes-best-regional-airline-2005 and, on September 24, 2010, it was announced that Binter Canarias had won the European Regions Airline Association (ERA) Gold Award: Airline of the Year for 2010 2011. http: www.eraa.org about awards-a-honours http: www.lanzaroteinformation.com content binter-airline-year Islamic conquest and Reconquista For almost seven hundred years, Spain was the battleground for the opposing forces of the Islamic Caliphate and Western Christian forces. Both Muslims and Christian were motivated by religious conviction, which inspired the warfare. The initial Islamic invasion of Iberia (Umayyad conquest of Hispania) was sudden and unexpected. The varied Moorish tribes of Morocco united under the leadership of Arab generals sent by the reigning Umayyad caliph and crossed the Straits of Gibraltar in 711 under the leadership of the Berber (Berber people) Tariq ibn Ziyad. Tariq won a swift victory at the Guadalete (Battle of Guadalete) and defeated and killed the reigning Gothic king, Roderic. Montgomery, p.13. In a campaign lasting eight years, the whole of Iberia was subjected to Umayyad authority, except for the Asturias mountain range in the far northwest and the pockets of resistance in Navarre. The Islamic offensive ultimately paused after the losses it suffered in Frankland (Francia) and in the Asturias, where battles such as those at Tours (Battle of Tours) and Covadonga (Battle of Covadonga) showed some of the potential weaknesses of the Arab methods of warfare. Davis, p.105. Despite a resurgence during the 10th century, the Caliphate of Córdoba's attempts to reverse the Reconquista failed, and by the 11th century, Christian Iberia was united under Sancho the Great, the King of Navarre, whilst the caliphate was divided and engulfed by civil war, the period of the ''taifas''. The 11th century saw the development of a concept of Christian holy war, to be waged against Islam with the purpose of recapturing long lost territories - the Crusade (Crusades). Crusading, under other names, also took place in Spain; Franks and Normans and even Papal troops took to Spain in increasing numbers to join the locals in their fight against "the Moor." The last threat of the 11th century came in the form of the Almoravids, who with their well disciplined forces first established a hegemony over Morocco and then extended it over al-Andalus. While the ''Reconquista'' paused in the west, to the east Alfonso the Battler, the King of Aragon, redoubled efforts to retake the valley of the Ebro. In 1212, the ''Reconquistadores'' gained a decisive victory over the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Shortly after the battle, the Castilians retook Baeza and, then, Úbeda, major fortified cities near the battlefield, and gateways to invade Andalucia. Thereafter, Ferdinand III of Castile retook Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain) in 1236, Jaén (Jaén, Spain) in 1246, and Seville in 1248; then he took Arcos, Medina-Sidonia, Jerez and Cádiz, effectively bringing the bulk of the reconquista to a conclusion. History TWR started in 1952, when Paul Freed set up the organization to reach Spain by broadcasting from Morocco. Later, after TWR was evicted from Morocco, the network operated from Monaco for many years using a high-powered transmitter system abandoned by the Nazis (Nazism) after World War II. Other major transmitting sites include Guam, Bonaire, Sri Lanka, Cyprus, and Swaziland. Tea was introduced to Morocco in the 18th century through trade with Europe. The '''''grands caids''''' were Berber feudal rulers of southern quarter of Morocco under the French Protectorate (French Morocco). WikiPedia:Morocco Dmoz:Regional Africa Morocco Commons:Category:Morocco


Syria

, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) '''Ali Bey al-Abbasi (علي باي العباسي)''', was the false name pseudonym that '''Domingo Badía y Leblich''' (Barcelona 1766 – Syria 1818), a Spanish explorer and spy in the early 19th century, used for several years in his travels to North Africa and the Middle East. Notably, he witnessed the Saudi (House of Saud) conquest of Mecca in 1807. Badía travelled to and wrote descriptions of Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria (including modern Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, then considered part of Syria,) and Turkey during the period of 1803–1807. He went to Mecca ostensibly to perform the hajj, saying that he was a descendant of the Abbassid Caliphs of the West. Birth and education Ibn Qayyim was born on the 7th of the Islamic month Safar in the year 691 A.H. (circa Feb. 4, 1292) in the village of Izra' in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria


Pakistan

English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) Fassiyya Fassiyatush shadhili sufi order was established by Qutbul Ujud Ghouthuz Zamaaninaa Ash Sheikh Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Mas'ood bin Abdur Rahman Al Makki Al Magribi Al Fassi Ash Shadhili (Imam Fassi) (Imam Fassi) who was a Moroccan by origin and born in Makkah. Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya is widely practised in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Mauritius and Indonesia. The descendants (al-Fassi family) of Imam Fassi who are Sheikhs of Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya who live in Makkah and in Jeddah visit to these countries frequently to train Ikhwan. Attasiyah The 'Attasiyah Order is a branch of the 'Alawi Order. It is centered in Yemen but also has centers in Pakistan, India, and Myanmar. The 'Alawiya order in Yemen has recently been studied by the anthropologist David Buchman. In his article "The Underground Friends of God and Their Adversaries: A Case Study and Survey of Sufism in Contemporary Yemen", Professor Buchman summarizes the results of his six month period of fieldwork in Yemen. The article was originally published in the journal Yemen Update, vol. 39 (1997), pp. 21-24." Countries that strongly oppose the G4 countries' bids have formed the Uniting for Consensus movement, or the ''Coffee Club'', composed mainly of local powers that oppose the rise of neighboring countries to permanent member status. The leaders of this group are Italy, South Korea, Mexico, Argentina and Pakistan. "Players and Proposals in the Security Council Debate", Global Policy Forum, 3 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. In East Asia, both China (People's Republic of China) and South Korea heavily oppose Japan's bid. In Latin America, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico are opposing a seat for Brazil. In South Asia, Pakistan is opposing India's bid. Countries that strongly oppose the G4 countries' bids have formed the Uniting for Consensus movement, or the ''Coffee Club'', composed mainly of local powers that oppose the rise of neighboring countries to permanent member status. The leaders of this group are Italy, South Korea, Mexico, Argentina and Pakistan. "Players and Proposals in the Security Council Debate", Global Policy Forum, 3 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006. In East Asia, both China (People's Republic of China) and South Korea heavily oppose Japan's bid. In Latin America, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico are opposing a seat for Brazil. In South Asia, Pakistan is opposing India's bid. Contributors of military personnel Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, China, Croatia, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Dispatch of SDF personnel to Sudan based on the International Peace Cooperation Law. Retrieved on October 26, 2008. Japan's first PKO mission in Africa in 13 years. Retrieved on October 26, 2008 Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, Ukraine, Uruguay, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe Contributors of civilian police personnel Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Samoa, Sweden, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Ukraine, Zambia, Zimbabwe A number of countries ("dominions") within the British Empire gained independence in stages during the earlier part of the 20th century. Much of the rest of the Empire was dismantled in the twenty years following the end of the Second World War, starting with the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. The last significant territory to pass from under British control was Hong Kong, which was handed over to China in 1997. *Protectorates were similar to protected states in that they were considered to be foreign territories over which the British Government had political authority (but not sovereignty), but which lacked a local infrastructure that the British were prepared to deal with as equals; therefore, a more direct involvement in the territory's internal affairs was taken. Protectorates were often established as a means of controlling British subjects in a territory (rather than the native population), or to exclude the influence of a rival European power. Examples include Bechuanaland, now Botswana. *Dominions (British Dominions) appeared in the late nineteenth century. These were former colonies (or federations of colonies) that had achieved independence and were nominally co-equals with the United Kingdom, rather than subordinate to it. Formal acknowledgement of this status was finally given legal force by the Statute of Westminster (Statute of Westminster 1931) of 1931. An example was the Irish Free State, formed as a Dominion in 1922 from the territory of Ireland and which retained the Crown as head of state until the Irish Republic was formed in 1949. Similar examples included the dominions of Canada (1867); India (1947); Pakistan 1947; Ceylon and Kenya. *Mandates (mandated territory) were forms of territory created after the end of the First World War. A number of German (Germany) colonies and protectorates were held as mandates (mandated territory) by the United Kingdom, and its dominions of Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa. In theory these territories were governed on behalf of the League of Nations for the benefit of their inhabitants. Most became converted to United Nations Trust Territories in 1946. 1947 Independent as Pakistan after partition (Partition of India) '''!T! abc \\ ''' 1971- East Pakistan, (part of Pakistan after partition (Partition of India)), separated to form Bangladesh in 1971 '''!T! abc \\ ''' '''Armaan''' (Urdu: '''ارمان''') is a Pakistani (Pakistan) black-and-white film produced by Waheed Murad and directed by Pervaiz Malik. It was the first Pakistani film to complete 75 weeks in cinemas and, thus, became the first Pakistani "Platinum Jubilee" film. The film was picturized in black-and-white prints in Karachi. Gallery: Waheed Murad and Zeba (1) Armaan - Memorable films during last 60 years '''Syed Kamal''' ( Commons:Category:Pakistan WikiPedia:Pakistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan


India

the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) Fassiyya Fassiyatush shadhili sufi order was established by Qutbul Ujud Ghouthuz Zamaaninaa Ash Sheikh Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Mas'ood bin Abdur Rahman Al Makki Al Magribi Al Fassi Ash Shadhili (Imam Fassi) (Imam Fassi) who was a Moroccan by origin and born in Makkah. Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya is widely practised in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Mauritius and Indonesia. The descendants (al-Fassi family) of Imam Fassi who are Sheikhs of Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya who live in Makkah and in Jeddah visit to these countries frequently to train Ikhwan. Attasiyah The 'Attasiyah Order is a branch of the 'Alawi Order. It is centered in Yemen but also has centers in Pakistan, India, and Myanmar. The 'Alawiya order in Yemen has recently been studied by the anthropologist David Buchman. In his article "The Underground Friends of God and Their Adversaries: A Case Study and Survey of Sufism in Contemporary Yemen", Professor Buchman summarizes the results of his six month period of fieldwork in Yemen. The article was originally published in the journal Yemen Update, vol. 39 (1997), pp. 21-24." The '''G4''' is an alliance among Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council (United Nations Security Council). Unlike the G8 (formerly known as G7), where the common denominator is the economy and long-term political motives, the G4's primary aim is the permanent member seats on the UN Security Council. However, the G4's bid is often opposed by certain countries (see below). Commons:Category:India Wikipedia:India Dmoz:Regional Asia India


France

and the Alawiyya (Ahmad al-Alawi) (no connection to the Turkish or Syrian Alawi or Alevi groups) which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) * Die Kassierer, a punk rock band from Germany, made a cover called ''Zu voll zum Verkehr'' on their album "Musik für beide Ohren". * French (France) singer Camille (Camille (singer)) performed an a cappella version at several of her concerts. '''Operation Jericho''' The operation's eponym is the biblical event when the Wall of Jericho miraculously fell down (Book of Joshua). was a low-level World War II bombing raid (Airstrike) by Allied (Allies of World War II) aircraft on Amiens Prison in German (Nazi Germany)-occupied France on 18 February 1944. The stated object of the raid was to free French Resistance and political prisoners. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


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