of bringing the war to a speedy and successful conclusion. He represented Ashburton (Ashburton, New Zealand) on the Canterbury Provincial Council (Canterbury Province) from 1866 to 1870 and Heathcote in 1871 and 1875–76. For a short time in 1875 he was President of the Provincial Executive. In addition he served on numerous local bodies and was a keen member of the Canterbury Acclimatisation Society. He was an early member of the Canterbury Jockey Club and helped Cass to select the site of the racecourse. He commanded the Canterbury Yeomanry Cavalry, was a patron of opera and drama, a governor of Canterbury College, and a diocesan synodsman. As a farmer, he imported pedigree sheep, principally Lincolns, and founded a stud flock. Born in Ashburton (Ashburton, New Zealand), New Zealand, he attended Auckland Grammar School. He gained a BSc (Bachelors of Science) in geology and physics from the University of Auckland, an MA (Master of Arts (postgraduate)) in anthropology from Cambridge University (University of Cambridge) and an MLitt (Master of Letters) and DPhil (Doctor of Philosophy) from Oxford University.
*Macomb, Illinois (MAC) *Madera, California (MDR) (Amtrak station) (Madera (Amtrak station)) *Madison, Florida (MDO) (Amtrak station) (Madison (Amtrak station)) 200px right thumb The San Joaquin parked at Bakersfield Station. (Image:San Joaquin at Bakersfield in 2003.jpg) The ''San Joaquin'' operates twelve trains (six in each direction) each day between Bakersfield (Bakersfield, California) and Stockton (Stockton, California). From Stockton, four trains from Bakersfield continue west to Oakland (Oakland, California), while two trains proceed north to the state capital of Sacramento (Sacramento, California). Central Valley (Central Valley (California)) communities served include Fresno (Fresno, California), Corcoran (Corcoran, California), Hanford (Hanford, California), Lodi (Lodi, California), Madera (Madera, California), Merced (Merced, California), Modesto (Modesto, California), Turlock (Turlock, California) Denair (Denair, California) and Wasco (Wasco, California). Delta (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta) Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) communities of Antioch (Antioch, California), Martinez (Martinez, California), and Richmond (Richmond, California) are also served by the ''San Joaquin''. Los Angeles is not served because in order to get there, the train must use the Tehachapi Pass line, where the Union Pacific prohibits passenger train use. His first headlining tour, also named Beautiful Soul, began on May 2, 2005 at the Crest Theatre in Sacramento, California. The United States portion of the tour spanned 56 stops, ending on September 10, 2005 at the Madera District County Fair in Madera, California. In the fall of 2005, McCartney toured Australia, and opened for the Backstreet Boys in Europe in the summer of 2005. His July 9 performance at California's Great America in Santa Clara, California was recorded, released as ''Live: The Beautiful Soul Tour'' in November 2005. Ahwahnee is hilly and located in the Sierra Nevada (Sierra Nevada (U.S.)) mountains. The ZIP Code is 93601. The community is inside area code 559. It is part of the Madera (Madera, California)–Chowchilla (Chowchilla, California) Metropolitan Statistical Area. The largest cities (over 50,000 population) in the region are Fresno (Fresno, California), Modesto (Modesto, California), Visalia (Visalia, California), Salinas (Salinas, California), Merced (Merced, California), Turlock (Turlock, California), Madera (Madera, California), Hanford (Hanford, California), and Porterville. North Fork is at the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (Sierra Nevada (U.S.)) near Yosemite National Park. According to the
Generalleutnant der Polizei. Berlin Police Commissioner in the 1920s and an early member of both the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Schutzstaffel (SS), as well as President of Interpol (from June 1942-43). Nebe was appointed head of the Kriminalpolizei (Criminal Police) or Kripo under Heydrich as chief of the SiPo and later the RSHA. Executed in 1944 for alleged involvement in the 20 July Plot. * Konstantin von Neurath - Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938) and Reichsprotektor (Governor
positions in other factories in Berlin, Bremen and Cologne he became unemployed. Throughout the period 1926-1929, Aumeier moved from one job to another, and was in and out of employment, taking part-time work and summer jobs in order to survive. He was an early member of the Nazi Party, joining in December 1929, and in 1931 he joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) and was soon employed as a driver at the SA headquarters in Berlin. Later in December 1931 he was transferred
, it is the night that Hitler orders to assassinate the upper echelon of the Sturmabteilung corps (Night of the long knives), to consolidate his power. The Sturmabteilung man is discovered and killed by SS (Schutzstaffel) men in Max and Rudy's apartment, and the two have to flee Berlin. Beginning career in the Nazi Party Greiser was an early member of the Nazi party (Party number 166,635). After many years with the nationalist Deutschsoziale Partei of von Kunze and membership
– 6 February 1972, Munich) was an early member of the Nazi Party and one of the founders of the SS . A watchmaker by trade, Maurice was a close associate of Adolf Hitler with a personal friendship
''Aliyah'' Gordon was an early member of the Hibbat Zion movement and made ''aliyah'' to Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Palestine in 1904, when he was 48. His wife and daughter immigrated with him, but his son refused to accompany him because of differences in their religious outlooks. Four months after he arrived in the country, his wife became ill and died. Gordon lived in Petah Tikva and Rishon LeZion, before finally settling in the Galilee in 1919. He lived simply
the mandate era. He studied at the Military Academy of Damascus (which later was relocated to Homs) and became an early member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) of Antun Saadeh, promoting the concept of a Greater Syria. His brother Salah was also a prominent member of the SSNP. After independence, Shishakli fought in a volunteer Arab army, known as the Army of Deliverance, against the Zionist (Zionism) militias in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. DATE OF BIRTH 1909 PLACE OF BIRTH Hama, Syria DATE OF DEATH September 27, 1964 Amassing of forces Al-Ashraf Khalil assembled the forces of Egypt and Syria, which included a great number of volunteers Abu al-Fida,p.278 vol.13. According to Ibn Taghri most of Khalil's troops were volunteers. Ibn Taghri, p.5 vol. 8 and siege engines from everywhere at Hisn al-Akrad (Krak des Chevaliers). Some of Khalil's catapults were huge and had such names as "Al Mansuri" and "The Furious" in addition to lighter, but potent, mangonels called "Black Bulls". Asili, p. 110. Templar of Tyre, p.105 Al-Mansuri (The victorious; Arabic: المنصورى) might refer to Khalil himself as he was Khalil Al-Mansuri, The Furious (Arabic: Al-Ghadibah الغاضبة), Black Bulls (Arabic: Al-Thiran Al-Sawda'a الثيران السوداء) Four armies from Damascus (led by Lajin), Hama (led by al-Muzaffar Taqai ad-Din), Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon) (led by Bilban) and Al Kark (led by Baibars al-Dewadar) marched to Acre to join the Egyptian army of Khalil. There are no reliable figures for the Muslim army, according to some sources it consisted of 60 000 cavalry and 160 000 infantry. Though the numbers seem exaggerated, the army of the Muslim was probably larger than that of the Crusaders. Asili, p.111 Michaud, ''ibid'', pp. 75–76, gives account of 7 emirs leaving in ''Kalouan's'' (ie Sultan Qalawun) stead as he was ill; he reports that each emir had 4,000 horse and 20,000 foot at his command – giving about 160,000 men. * 1171 - Pont d'Avignon begun. * 1172 - Nur Al-Din Mosque completed in Hama, Syria. * 1172 - Newcastle Castle rebuilt in stone. '''Salamiyah '''( Wikipedia:Hama commons:حماة
-Ashbury neighborhood of that city. Inventory of the San Francisco Oracle Archives, 1966-1991;(1966-1968 bulk) Allen Cohen (poet) Allen Cohen (1940–2004), the editor during the paper's most vibrant period, and Michael Bowen (Michael Bowen (artist)), the art director, were among the founders of the publication. The ''Oracle'' was an early member of the Underground Press Syndicate. Silliman edited a newsletter, ''Tottels'' (1970–81), available on-line at the ''Eclipse'' archive, link here: ''Tottel's Magazine'' that was one of the early venues for ''Language Poetry''. However, it was "The Dwelling Place," a feature of nine poets that Silliman did for ''Alcheringa (Alcheringa (magazine))'' in 1975 that Silliman himself describes as his "first attempt to write about language poetry". Silliman's Blog: weblog entry for Tuesday, October 31, 2006 Silliman writes that "my afterword to that selection, “Surprised by Sign: Notes on Nine,” was my first attempt to write about language poetry". Published in 1975, the editing had been done in 1973: "The nine poets included Bruce Andrews, Barbara Baracks, Clark Coolidge, visual poet Lee DeJasu, Ray Di Palma, Robert Grenier, David Melnick, Barrett Watten & your humble correspondent" In 1976 & '77, he co-curated a reading series with Tom Mandel (Tom Mandel (poet)), at the ''Grand Piano'', See the first volume of ''The Grand Piano: An Experiment in Collective Autobiography.'' (Detroit, MI: Mode A This Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9790198-0-X) -- this work is described as an ongoing experiment in collective autobiography by ten writers identified with Language poetry in San Francisco. The project will consist of 10 volumes in all. Along with Silliman, the other 9 writers are: Bob Perelman, Barrett Watten, Steve Benson (Steve Benson (poet)), Carla Harryman, Tom Mandel (Tom Mandel (poet)), Kit Robinson, Lyn Hejinian, Rae Armantrout, and Ted Pearson. This book further describes itself as follows: "It takes its name from a coffeehouse at 1607 Haight Street, where from 1976 to 1979 the authors took part in a reading and performance series. The writing project, begun in 1998, was undertaken as an online collaboration, first via an interactive web site and later through a listserv". http: www.thegrandpiano.org. a coffee house in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury, continuing a series originally founded by Barrett Watten. This series was followed by one at the Tassajara Bakery, co-curated with Bob Perelman, and a series combining poets with performance artists at The Farm (The Farm (San Francisco)), co-curated with Jill Scott. thumb Amoeba Music on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood (Image:AmoebaRecordsHollywood01.jpg) '''Amoeba Music''' is an independent music chain with stores in Berkeley (Berkeley, California), San Francisco (San Francisco, California), and Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Founded by former employees of nearby Rasputin Records (Rasputin Music), it opened on Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley in 1990. The stores are unusually large given their independent status. The San Francisco store, which opened in 1997 in the Haight-Ashbury district, is especially notable for its size. Occupying a 24,000 square foot (2,200 m²) former bowling alley, the store regularly stocks upwards of 100,000 CDs (Compact disc), vinyl records, and audio cassettes (Compact audio cassette), both new and used (Used good). '''Stephen Gaskin''' (born February 16, 1935) is a counterculture (Counterculture of the 1960s) hippie icon best known for his presence in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco in the 1960s and for co-founding "The Farm (The Farm (Tennessee))", a famous spiritual intentional community in Summertown, Tennessee. Meunier, Rachel (1994). Communal Living in the Late 60s and Early 70s. The Farm, Summertown, Tennessee. He was a Green Party (Green Party (United States)) presidential primary candidate in 2000 on a platform which included campaign finance reform, universal health care, and decriminalization of marijuana. Stephen Gaskin for President Synthesis Regeneration 22 (Spring 2000) He is the author of over a dozen books, a father, a grandfather, a teacher, a musician (drummer), a semantic rapper, a public speaker, a political activist, a philanthropic organizer, and a self-proclaimed professional hippie. Northeast Civic Center (Civic Center, San Francisco) West Haight-Ashbury, Buena Vista (Neighborhoods_in_San_Francisco#Buena Vista) East Civic Center (Civic Center, San Francisco) The corner of Haight and Ashbury (Haight-Ashbury) Streets in San Francisco, California is regarded as the axis mundi in the hippie subculture. Christopher Street (Christopher Street (Manhattan)) in Manhattan in New York City is the axis mundi in the gay subculture. Folsom Street (Folsom Street Fair), also in San Francisco, is the axis mundi in the leather subculture. thumb 380px right Looking north on Coventry Road (File:Coventry Village September.jpg) '''Coventry Village''' is a commercial business district in Cleveland Heights, Ohio, situated on Coventry Road between Mayfield Road (U.S. Route 322) and Euclid Heights Boulevard. Coventry is associated with Northeast Ohio's artistic, musical, bohemian (bohemianism) and hippie communities and is the center of Cleveland's creative class, inviting comparisons to the Haight-Ashbury district in San Francisco and Greenwich Village in New York City, although on a smaller scale. History In 1985, after years of associating with peers of all races, Bob Heick began writing and distributing leaflets, mostly from a nationalist (Nationalism) anti-communist (Anti-communism) stance, in response to the increasing leftist (Left-wing politics) influence in the local punk subculture. Originally intended as an umbrella organization for all American skinheads, AF had no formal structure or membership. In San Francisco, Heick lost favor with the mostly apolitical skinheads. Media attention and constant vandalism and assault (such as breaking the windows of the ''Bound Together'' Anarchist bookstore and harassing interracial couples in the Haight-Ashbury) by the group brought increased attention from the local police. Spitfire List--Dave Emory Blog (also has picture of Bob Heick and Boyd Rice): In addition, Heick's progression from patriotism to Nazism lost him many friends, and some people accused him of trying to take over the local skinhead scene. Heick then started associating with heavy metal music fans and rural white workers. He formed the short-lived group ''United White Brethren'' in the North and South Bay Areas. * '''Miss Mercy''' (born February 15, 1949) was born in Burbank, California. She has been referred to by Miss Pamela as "the human facsimile". Having moved to Florida with her parents and older sister at an early age, the family eventually settled in San Mateo, California. Then, in 1964 (when she was 15), she dropped out of high school and told her parents she was ready to become legally independent. Despite their disapproval, she filed for emancipation, becoming a ward of the court within a couple of weeks. Miss Mercy went to live with a group of friends in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, California. Some of their neighbors included members of the Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, and a young Charles Manson. Eventually, Miss Mercy and Miss Pamela heard that Los Angeles was the mecca for meeting entertainers and especially rock & roll musicians. In addition, Miss Pamela wanted to pursue her acting career in Hollywood, and in early 1969, they moved south, immersing themselves into the local scene. Then, one of Miss Pamela's childhood friends, Don Glen Vliet (aka Captain Beefheart), took the girls to a large castle-like compound in Laurel Canyon where they were introduced to musician Frank Zappa. Soon after the breakup of the GTO's she became romantically involved with blues guitar prodigy Shuggie Otis, the son of rhythm & blues pioneer Johnny Otis. They married and had a son, Lucky Otis, who became a world-renowned multi-instrumentalist musician in the likeness of his father and grandfather. A few years later, Miss Mercy and Shuggie divorced. For the next 15 to 20 years she moved around northern and southern California, living a life of heavy drug use and sporadic public appearances. Miss Mercy re-married in 1991 and in 2000 divorced her second husband and quit all hard drugs and cigarettes. She has been clean and sober ever since. Miss Mercy currently resides in downtown Los Angeles and works for a thrift store in Hollywood. A somewhat concise account of her biography, entitled "Miss Mercy's Blues", is featured at length in its own chapter of ''I’m With The Band'', and her quite extensive resumè spans over five decades, ranging from magazines and books to radio, television, and feature-length award-winning documentaries. (she had a ten-minute segment dedicated to her life in the cult hit called ''The Mayor Of Sunset Strip'' starring alternative rock pioneer KROQ disc jockey Rodney Bingenheimer, who is a close longtime friend of the GTO's). Miss Mercy and Miss Pamela still remain close friends. As of 2011, Miss Mercy is working closely with an author biographer to help document her life. The most famous hippie hangout was the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. The state's cities, especially San Francisco, became famous for their gentility and tolerance. A distinctive and idyllic Californian culture emerged for a time. The peak of this culture, in 1967, was known as the Summer of Love. California became known elsewhere in the U.S. often derogatorily, as the "land of fruits and nuts." A copy of one of Antoine Wiertz's works, the statue of ''The Triumph of Light'' was once prominently located high on San Francisco's Mount Olympus between the Haight-Ashbury and Corona Heights. It had been presented to the city of San Francisco by Adolph Sutro in 1887. Over the years due to lack of care and maintenance the statue fell into disrepair. By the late 1930s, even the history and origins of the statue were no longer common knowledge in San Francisco, and by the mid 1950s, the statue disappeared. All that remains today is the pedestal and base of the monument. Sutro's Triumph of Light Statue N Owl 4th St. and Townsend Caltrain station (San Francisco 4th and King Street Station) Judah and La Playa Ocean Beach (Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California) Mission Bay (Mission Bay, San Francisco, California), Embarcadero (Embarcadero (San Francisco)) Financial District (Financial District, San Francisco), Civic Center (Civic Center, San Francisco), Lower Haight (Lower Haight, San Francisco, California), Haight-Ashbury, Cole Valley (Cole Valley, San Francisco, California), Sunset (Sunset District, San Francisco) Schedule Route map (PDF) right thumb 200px Ross Alley in San Francisco's Chinatown 1898. (Photo by Arnold Genthe (Image:Chinatownsf-large1.jpg)) It was during the 1860s to the 1880s when San Francisco began to transform into a major city, starting with massive expansion in all directions, creating new neighborhoods such as the Western Addition (Western Addition, San Francisco), the Haight-Ashbury, Eureka Valley (Eureka Valley, San Francisco), the Mission District (Mission District, San Francisco), culminating in the construction of Golden Gate Park in 1887. The City's famous Cable Cars (San Francisco cable car system) were built around this time, a unique invention devised by Andrew Smith Hallidie in order to traverse the City's steep hills while connecting the new residential developments. San Francisco grew in cultural prominence at this time as famous writers Mark Twain, Bret Harte, Ambrose Bierce, Rudyard Kipling, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Oscar Wilde spent time in the city, while local characters developed such as Emperor Norton. In 1967, thousands of young people entered the Haight-Ashbury district during what became known as the Summer of Love. The San Francisco Sound emerged as an influential force in rock music (rock and roll), with such acts as Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead achieving international prominence. These groups blurred the boundaries between folk, rock and jazz traditions and further developed rock's lyrical content. The CWLF attracted into its membership many Christians and new converts who were interested in its ministry objectives. Among those who were attracted were three men who later collaborated in the formation of the SCP: Brooks Alexander, David Fetcho (who named the ministry), and Bill Squires. Both Alexander and Fetcho were converts to Christianity from the counterculture. Alexander had participated in the psychedelic drug usage of the counterculture, was an initiate of Transcendental Meditation, and lived in the famous Haight-Ashbury community in San Francisco. Brooks Alexander, ''Reflections of an Ex'', revised ed.,(Berkeley: SCP, 1984) (originally published in ''Right On'', September 1973). Fetcho had been involved with the Ananda Marga Yoga Society before converting to Christianity. David Fetcho, "Last Meditation Lotus Adept," ''SCP Journal'', 6 1 (Winter 1984), pp. 31–36. While residing in the Bay Area, Roberts performed in many of the local clubs and as the opening act for the Steve Miller Band at the Straight Theater in Haight-Ashbury in September, 1967. He also opened for the Santana (Santana (band)) Band at a Bill Graham Winterland concert in 1970. Deanery Three The parishes in Deanery Three consist of those from the Western Addition, Japantown, Haight-Ashbury, Richmond District (Richmond District, San Francisco, California), and Cow Hollow neighborhood.
–1952), high-ranking naval officer of Mongolian (Mongols) origin * Lin Sen (林森, 1868–1943), President of the Republic of China from 1931 to 1943 * Lin Juemin (林觉民, 1887–1911), one of 72 Revolutionary Martyrs at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou * Hou Debang (侯德榜, 1890–1974), chemical engineer * Lin Xiangqian (:zh:林详谦, 1892–1923), a martyr, labor movement leader and an early member of the Communist Party of China (CPC) * Lu Yin (:zh:廬隱, 1898–1934), writer * Zheng Zhenduo (郑振铎, 1898–1958), journalist and literary scholar * Bing Xin (冰心, 1900–1999), writer * Watchman Nee (倪柝声, 1903–1972), Christian author and church leader * Lin Huiyin (林徽因, 1904–1955), architect and writer * Chen Jingrun (陈景润, 1933–1996), mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory * Chen Zhangliang (陈章良, 1962–), biologist, elected as vice-governor of Guangxi in 2007 * Wu Qingyuan (吳清源, 1914–), Chinese Weiqi Go player, considered by many players to be the greatest player of the game in the 20th century and one of the greatest of all time. Education Colleges and universities * Fujian Normal University (founded in 1907) * Fuzhou University (founded in 1958) * Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University * Fujian Medical University * Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine * Minjiang University * Fujian University of Technology Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. High Schools * Fuzhou Foreign Languages School ( Wikipedia:Fuzhou commons:Fuzhou
Early life Ray Huang was born in Changsha, Hunan Province, in 1918. He was the oldest of three children. His father, Huang Zhenbai (黄震白), was an early member of the revolutionary group, Tongmenghui, who became less active in the group over the years. Ray Huang grew up in Hunan and went to study electrical engineering at Nankai University, Tianjin in 1936. At the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938, he returned to Changsha and wrote for the ''Japanese War Report'' (《抗日战报》). DATE OF BIRTH June 25, 1918 PLACE OF BIRTH Changsha, Hunan DATE OF DEATH January 8, 2000 In 2010 the Chinese state halted construction of a third Xi'an production base.
and summer jobs in order to survive. He was an early member of the Nazi Party, joining in December 1929, and in 1931 he joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) and was soon employed as a driver at the SA headquarters in Berlin. Later in December 1931 he was transferred to the SS (Schutzstaffel) where he worked in the garage as a driver, and was on the staff of ''Reichsführer-SS'' Heinrich Himmler. He had now found a job he liked and the discipline of the SA and SS suited Aumeier well, he felt he belonged, although he wanted to be a soldier. '''Erich Julius Eberhard von Zelewski''' or '''Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski''' (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a Nazi (Nazism) official and a member of the SS (Schutzstaffel), in which he reached the rank of ''SS-Obergruppenführer'' (General). Beneš—the leader of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile—together with František Moravec—head of Czechoslovak military intelligence—organized and coordinated a resistance network. Hácha, Prime Minister Eliáš (Alois Eliáš), and the Czech resistance acknowledged Beneš's leadership. Active collaboration between London and the Czechoslovak home front was maintained throughout the war years. The most important event of the resistance was the Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, SS (Schutzstaffel) leader Heinrich Himmler's deputy and the then Protector of Bohemia and Moravia. Infuriated, Hitler ordered the arrest and execution of 10,000 randomly selected Czechs, but, after consultations, he reduced his response. The assassination of Reinhard Heydrich Over 10,000 were arrested, and at least 1,300 executed. The assassination resulted in one of the most well-known reprisals of the war. The villages of Lidice and Ležáky were completely destroyed by the Nazis; all men over 16 years of age from the village were murdered and the rest of the population was sent to Nazi concentration camps where many women and nearly all the children were killed. In January 1929, Heinrich Himmler was appointed the leader of the fledgling ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS). He launched a massive recruitment campaign that took the SS from fewer than three hundred members in 1929 to ten thousand in 1931. Pringle, Heather (Heather Pringle), ''The Master Plan: Himmler’s Scholars and the Holocaust'', Hyperion, 2006. Once the SS had grown, Himmler began its transformation into a "racial elite" of young Nordic (Nordic race) males. This was to be accomplished by a new bureaucracy in the SS, the Race and Settlement Office of the SS (''Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt-SS'') known as RuSHA. Himmler named SS-Obergruppenführer Richard Walther Darré to lead the organisation, which determined if applicants were racially fit to be in the SS. This brought about a campaign meant to educate the new applicants about their Nordic past through weekly classes taught by senior RuSHA graduates using the periodical ''SS-Leitheft''. The general organization of the forces is historical. SS units (Schutzstaffel) are excluded, along with all political elements (for example, the Nazi Party, the Gestapo and swastika). During the Nazi (Nazism) regime, Stark attempted to become the Führer of German physics through the ''Deutsche Physik'' ("German physics") movement (along with Philipp Lenard) against the "Jewish physics" of Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg (who was not Jewish). After Werner Heisenberg defended Albert Einstein's theory of relativity Stark wrote an angry article in the SS (Schutzstaffel) newspaper ''Das Schwarze Korps'', calling Heisenberg a "White Jew". According to Cohen, by 1940, Vavilov had accumulated a collection of 200,000 plant seeds from the Soviet Union and from abroad. The collection was seized by a German SS squad in 1943 and partially transferred to the SS (Schutzstaffel) Institute for Plant Genetics, which had been established at the Lannach Castle near Graz, Austria. Heinz Brücher and the SS botanical collecting command to Russia 1943. ''PGR Newsletter 129''. Bioversity International. However, the Germans could only take samples stored within the territories occupied by the German armies, mainly in Ukraine and Crimea. The main gene bank in Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) was not affected. The leader of the German squad was Heinz Brücher, an SS officer who was also a plant genetics expert. This principle became the law of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazi Party) and the SS (Schutzstaffel) and was later transferred onto the whole German (Germany) totalitarian (totalitarianism) society. Appointed mayors replaced elected local governments. Schools lost elected parents councils and faculty advisory boards, with all authority being put in the headmaster's hands. Lynn H. Nicholas, ''Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web'' p. 74 ISBN 0-679-77663-X The Nazis suppressed associations and unions with elected leaders, putting in their place mandatory associations with appointed leaders. The authorities allowed private corporations to keep their internal organization, but with a simple renaming from hierarchy to ''Führerprinzip''. Shop stewards had their authority carefully circumscribed to prevent their infringing on that of the plant leader. Richard Grunberger, ''The 12-Year Reich'', p 193, ISBN 03-076435-1 In a similar case, former German chancellor Helmut Kohl was criticised by writers Günter Grass and Elie Wiesel for visiting the war cemetery at Bitburg (in the company of Ronald Reagan) which also contained the bodies of SS troops (Schutzstaffel). ''Reagan Joins Kohl in Brief Memorial at Bitburg Graves'' - ''New York Times'', Monday 6 May 1985 Unlike the case of the Yasukuni Shrine, there was no element of intentional disregard of international opinion involved, as is often claimed for the politician visits to the Japanese shrine. The '''3rd Special Service Brigade''' was formed in 1943 and sailed for the Far East and saw action against the Japanese (Empire of Japan) in the Burma Campaign. On 6 December 1944 the Brigade was re named 3rd Commando Brigade, removing the hated title ''Special Service'' and its association with the German (Nazi Germany) SS (Schutzstaffel). Moreman 2008, p. 32. In January 1945 they were involved in the battles to secure the Myebon peninsula and Kangaw, holding a key position during the battle of Hill 170 against repeated Japanese attacks. The Brigade was then withdrawn to India to prepare for the amphibious assault (Amphibious warfare) on Malaya (British Malaya), but the dropping of the atom bomb (Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki)s on Japan ended the war (Surrender of Japan) before the planned invasion. Instead the Brigade moved to Hong Kong to secure the Crown Colony. A monarchist, Bock personally despised Nazism, and was not heavily involved in politics (politics of Germany). However, he also did not sympathize with plots to overthrow Adolf Hitler, and never filed official protests over the treatment of civilians by the ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS). Bock was also uncommonly outspoken, a privilege Hitler extended to him only because he had been successful in battle. Battle of Russia, ''Battlefield: Battles that Won the Second World War — Series 2''. Universal Pictures Video. 2 May 2005 Bock — along with his wife and only daughter — were killed by a strafing British fighter-bomber on 4 May 1945 as they traveled by car toward Hamburg. * Ann Fisher-Wirth (1947–Present), American (United States) poet (List of poets from the United States) and university professor * Christian Wirth (1885–1944), notorious member of the Nazi (Nazism) Schutzstaffel (SS) involved in the Action T4 program and Operation Reinhard * Christian Wirth (RaD Man) (a.k.a. RaD Man), computer art historian and founder of ACiD (ACiD Productions) According to Anthony Sampson's book ''The Sovereign State of ITT'', one of the first American businessmen Hitler received after taking power in 1933 was Sosthenes Behn, then the CEO of ITT and his German representative, Henry Mann. Antony C. Sutton, in his book ''Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler'', makes the claim that ITT subsidiaries made cash payments to SS (Schutzstaffel) leader Heinrich Himmler. Story Dr. Von Reichter, a member of the SS (Schutzstaffel) and the Nazi (Nazism) party, is an expert in genetic engineering. He initially began his work in concentration camps (Nazi concentration camps) during World War II, implanting cybernetic organs (organ (anatomy)) in the bodies of dead prisoners in an attempt to bring them back to life to serve in the Führer's (Adolf Hitler) army. However, the Allied (Allies of World War II) forces intervened to defeat the Nazis, so he fled to South America where he once again continued his sinister experiments. In late March 1945, the camp had a prisoner population of some 11,700, but in early April the SS (Schutzstaffel) evacuated almost all the prisoners on death marches to Buchenwald. The SS guards (SS-Totenkopfverbände) killed many of the remaining prisoners who were too ill to walk to the railcars. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. '''Otto Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann)''' (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi (w:Nazi) and ''SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-Obersturmbannführer (w:Obersturmbannführer)'' (Lieutenant Colonel). Due to his organizational talents and ideological reliability, he was tasked by ''Obergruppenführer (w:Obergruppenführer)'' Reinhard Heydrich (w:Reinhard Heydrich) to facilitate and manage the logistics of mass deportation to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe and worked under Ernst Kaltenbrunner until the end of the war. He was captured by Israeli Mossad (w:Mossad) agents in Argentina and indicted by Israeli court on fifteen criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity (w:crimes against humanity) and war crimes (w:war crimes). He was convicted and hanged. '''Otto Skorzeny (w:Otto Skorzeny)''' (June 12, 1908 – July 7, 1975) was an Austrian SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-''Standartenführer (w:Standartenführer)'' (colonel) in the German (w:Germany) Waffen-SS (w:Waffen-SS) during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front (w:Eastern Front (WWII)), he was chosen as the field commander to carry out the rescue mission (w:Gran Sasso raid) that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif (w:Operation Greif), in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' language, uniforms, and customs. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was involved with the Werwolf guerrilla movement (w:Werwolf) and the ODESSA (w:ODESSA) network where he would serve as Spanish coordinator. thumb right Christian Wirth (File:Wirth, Christian.jpg) '''Christian Wirth (w:Christian Wirth)''' (24 November 1885 — 26 May 1944) was a German (w:Germany) policeman and SS (w:Schutzstaffel) officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland (w:History of the Jews in Poland), known as Operation Reinhard (w:Operation Reinhard). His nicknames included '''Christian the Terrible''' and '''The Wild Christian'''. 27-year-old Robin Parkircher arrived in Israel (w:Israel) today to apologize to Holocaust (w:Holocaust) survivors for his grandfather's behavior. Parkircher's grandfather was an SS (w:Schutzstaffel) guard in a Nazi (w:Nazi) concentration camp (w:concentration camp) near Bremen (w:Bremen (city)), Germany (w:Germany), where over eight hundred women were incarcerated. In an interview, Parkircher told Israeli Yediot Aharonot (w:Yedioth Ahronoth) newspaper that years after his grandfather passed away, Parkircher found a picture of him wearing an SS uniform (w:uniform). After inquiring with his grandmother, he discovered about his grandfather's service as a camp guard.