Places Known For

early bronze


Afula

: www.tourism.gov.il GOVheb Ministry%20of%20Tourism MoreyDerech Documents MOZAR-NOTZRI.pdf but contemporary scholars generally disagree with this supposition. Archaeological finds date from the Chalcolithic through the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) period, followed by remains from the Crusader and Mamluk periods. The first excavations at Tel ‘Afula, carried out in 1948, found Late Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age remains. Tombs from the Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age II, Late Bronze Age–Iron

Age I and Roman period were discovered near the municipal water tower. Archaeologists discovered the Crusader-Mamluk fortress on the southern peak of the tell, a Byzantine olive press and evidence of an Early Bronze Age settlement near the northern peak. Tel Afula final report In 1950–1951, excavations on the northwestern slope of the peak revealed

Authority on the southern peak of Tel Afula where the Crusader-Mamluk fortress is located. Due to construction activity from the 1950s, settlement layers on the tell may have been destroyed. Only meager remnants were found, indicative of a settlement from Early Bronze Age I and the Roman period. Pottery from Early Bronze Age III, Iron Age I and a single Hellenistic Attic fragment indicate settlement on the tell in these periods. Fragments of glazed bowls from the thirteenth century were found


Madaba

Hippolytus mosaic 03.jpg alt2 caption2 Detail of the Hippolytus mosaic in the Archaeological Park of Madaba The University of Toronto has been excavating in Madaba from 1996 until the present. Their efforts have focused primarily on the west acropolis where an open field has allowed access to uncover the entire sequence of occupation at Madaba from the modern period down to the Early Bronze Age levels. The most visible feature of this area is a 7.5 meter wide fortification wall

probably by earthquakes. Also there are several menhirs, cupholes and stone alignments as well. These dolmens dating to around 3000 B.C about 5000 years old, from the Early Bronze Age I. The locals there believed that dolmens are the houses of ghosts, they called it in Arabic Bit Al Ghula. You can start your trip to Jordan by staying the first 2 nights in Madaba - it is only 25 km from the airport. Buy Very good quality and cheap rugs. There are places where you can have them made


Sabratha

methodology of the Levant. Ground-breaking discoveries concerning the Neolithic cultures of the Levant were made in this ancient settlement. Her excavation of the Early Bronze Age walled city and the external cemeteries of the end of the Early Bronze Age, together with her analysis of the stratified pottery of these periods established her as the leading authority on that period. At the same time she also completed the publication of the excavations at Samaria. Her volume, ''Samaria Sebaste III


Jish


Gori, Georgia

), (23 August 1925 in Gori (Gori, Georgia) — 15 September 1991 in Tbilisi) was one of Georgia (Georgia (country))'s foremost composers. In 1299, the Ilkhanid khan (Khan (title)) Ghazan installed him as a rival ruler to George’s elder brother, the rebellious Georgian King David VIII (David VIII of Georgia). However, George’s authority did not extend beyond the Mongol-protected capital Tbilisi, so George was referred to during this period as "The Shadow King of Tbilisi". In 1302, he was replaced by his brother, Vakhtang III (Vakhtang III of Georgia). After the death of both his elder brothers – David and Vakhtang – George became a regent for David’s son, George VI (Giorgi VI the Minor), who died underage in 1313, allowing George V to be crowned king for a second time. Having initially pledged his loyalty to the Il-khan Öljaitü, he began a program of reuniting the Georgian lands (Kingdom of Georgia). In 1315, he led the Georgian auxiliaries to suppress an anti-Mongol revolt in Asia Minor, an expedition that would prove to be the last in which the Georgians fought in the Mongol ranks. In 1320, he drove the marauding Alans out of the town Gori (Gori, Georgia) and forced them back to the Caucasus Mountains. thumb Georgia in 1311 AD, before repulsion of Mongols and subsequent unification by George V (File:Caucasus 1311 AD map de alt.svg) Peace between the two Georgian kingdoms didnot last long, and in August 1509, Alexander invaded Kartli, taking a fort-city Gori (Gori, Georgia) and the surroundings. News that Imereti had been raided by the Ottoman (Ottoman Turks)s at Alexander’s absence made the king to return to Kutaisi, and Gori was soon taken back by David X of Kartli. He was the eldest son of Constantine II (Constantine II of Georgia), whom he succeeded as king of Kartli in 1505 The regnal numbers (Use of ordinals by monarchs) traditionally assigned to the kings of Kartli continue from those applied to the kings of a united Georgia. . Despite the fact that Constantine had recognised the independence of the breakaway Georgian kingdoms of Imereti and Kakheti, the rivalry among these polities was to continue under David. He had to defend his kingdom against the attacks by Alexander II of Imereti in the west, and George II of Kakheti in the east. In August 1509, Alexander took a fort-city Gori (Gori, Georgia) and the northwestern corner of Kartli, but had to abandon the occupied lands to David due to the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) raid on Imereti in 1510. A year later, George of Kakheti surged into Kartli, but failed to capture the king in a besieged castle of Ateni (Ateni (Georgia)). In 1513, George invaded again, only to be defeated and taken prisoner by David’s younger brother Bagrat I of Mukhrani. He died in captivity and his kingdom was annexed to Kartli. In 1518, the Persian (Persian Empire) shah Ismail I of the newly established Safavid dynasty (Safavids), sent in an army under Div Sultan Rumlu, who was joined by the Georgian prince Qvarqvare III Jaqeli, atabeg of Samtskhe. The invaders occupied Surami and Gori, and David had to make peace with the Persians and to promise to pay tribute. Meanwhile, the Kakhetian nobles used the opportunity to install Levan (Levan of Kakheti), son of the late king George II, as their king. David besieged the Maghrani Castle where Levan had taken positions, but soon had to abandon the siege as the Turkomans (Turkoman people) appeared again in the Georgian lands. David recognised Lavan as the king of Kakheti in order to win his support against the invaders. In 1522, he refused to convert to Islam as Shah Ismail had demanded. A new Persian invasion ensued, led this time personally by the shah. David and his son, Luarsab I (Luarsab I of Kartli), offered him a fierce resistance at the Battle of Teleti, but were finally outnumbered and defeated. The Kartlian capital Tbilisi was taken by treachery and garrisoned by a large Persian force. On the death of Ismail in 1524, David liberated Tbilisi and expelled the Persians from the country. In 1525, he reconquered Aghjakala, Lower Kartli, and massacred all the Turkomans who had settled there. The same year, he abdicated the throne in favor of his younger brother, George IX (George IX of Kartli), and retired to a monastery under the name of Damiane. First reign and struggle against Persia The eldest son of the heroic king Luarsab I of Kartli, he commanded his father's army at the Battle of Garisi against the Persian invaders, 1556. He was proclaimed by his father co-ruler and heir apparent just prior to the action. Though Luarsab was mortally wounded, the battle was won by Simon, who soon ascended the throne on the death of his father. As the Kartlian capital Tbilisi remained in the Persian hands, Simon had a residence in Gori (Gori, Georgia), whence he ruled over the territories recaptured from the occupants. In 1559, he allied himself with another Georgian sovereign, Levan I of Kakheti, and married his daughter Nestan-Darejan. Beginning in 1560, Simon launched a series of battles to recover Tbilisi, but suffered a defeat at the Battle of Tsikhedidi, April 1561. His brother, David (David XI of Kartli), presently submitted to the Safavid (Safavid dynasty) Shah Tahmasp I, converted to Islam, and returned with a Persian army to claim the crown. Simon blockaded Tbilisi and won the battles at Dighomi (Battle of Digomi) (1567) and Samadlo (1569), but he was finally defeated and taken prisoner at P'artskhisi (Battle of Partskhisi), 1569. David, now known as Daud Khan, was made by Persians a tributary king of Kartli. Simon was sent to Persia where he refused to convert to Islam and was imprisoned at the fortress of Alamut for nine years. Life Kocharli was born in 1863 in Shusha being the only child of Ahmad bey Kocharli. Firudin graduated from the local Russian-Muslim school and was admitted to the Transcaucasian Teachers Seminary in Gori, Georgia


Kingdom of Nri

-Ukwu pay special attention to detail depicting birds, snails, chameleons, and other natural aspects of the world such as a hatching bird. Other pieces include gourds and vessels which were often given handles. The pieces are so fine that small insects were included on the surfaces of some while others have what looks like bronze wires decorated around them. None of these extra details were made separately; the bronzes were all one piece. Igbo-Ukwu gave the evidence of an early bronze casting


Nasiriyah

Explore the ziggurat of Ur , The Ziggurat of Ur, The British Museum is a Neo-Sumerian ziggurat in what was the city of Ur near Nasiriyah, in present-day Dhi Qar Province (Dhi Qar Governorate), Iraq. The structure was built during the Early Bronze Age (21st century BC), but had crumbled to ruins by the 6th century BC of the Neo-Babylonian period when it was restored by King Nabonidus. Image:Ancient ziggurat at Ali


Ryazan Oblast

tribes of which are recorded to have immigrated to those parts of Anatolia at the invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia. This suggestion is supported by recent genetic studies regarding Y-DNA Haplogroup I2b2-L38 have concluded that there was some Late Iron Age migration of Celtic La Tène people, through Belgium, to the British Isles


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

not lend itself to propagation from suckers or from cuttings, it could have been domesticated even before the introduction of grafting". Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC) of the Near East, or possibly a little earlier. A well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt (c. 1325 BC), probably imported from the Levant. Of the European countries


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