(유두유록, 遊頭流錄)", Farmers burnt or chopped their tea trees to refuse their tea tax. And case of Joseon Dynasty, governed based by Confucianism, sustained Tabang for tea ceremony but reduced tea production scale for protecting the agricultural balance. By this reason, the development of tea industry prevented very long time. And except Yangban and Royal family, Korean original tea drinking culture and ceremony remained in limited area around tea tree forested region. Hwang
Yun-sook, "Beautiful tea of korea" (Seoul: Korean traditional food research, 2007) p.54 Towards the end of the Joseon Dynasty, commoners joined the trend and used tea for ancestral rites. Mainly Scholars of Silhak, like Jeong_Yak-yong, Kim_Jeong-hui, had interested about tea "drinking" culture and its production at their exile period on tea forested region . These people corresponded with monks who still had tea drinking culture. It started from
Silla and Goryeo Dynasty that monks formed and administrated tea forest around the temple and it pass down as their possession. And buddhist tea ceremony and drinking culture stylized in the traditional temple. And these two cultural leader group's relationship influenced both Seonbi society and contemporary monks. Hwang Yun-sook, "Beautiful tea of korea" (Seoul: Korean traditional food research, 2007) p.54 In the period of the Three Kingdoms (Three Kingdoms of Korea), the traditional Korean medicine was being influenced by other traditional medicines such as Chinese Medicine (Traditional Chinese Medicine). In the Goryeo dynasty with the influence of others like Chinese medicine, more intense investigation of domestic herbs took place, and the result was the publication of numerous books on domestic herbs. Medical theories at this time were based on medicine of Song (Song Dynasty) and Yuan (Yuan Dynasty), but prescriptions were based on the medicine of the Unified Silla period such as the medical text ''First Aid Prescriptions Using Native Ingredients'' or "Hyangyak Gugeupbang'' (향약구급방), which was published in 1245. History The location of Cheongwadae was the site of a royal villa in what was then Hanyang (Seoul), the southern capital of the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392). It was built by King Sukjong (Sukjong of Goryeo) (r. 1095–1105) in 1104. Goryeo's principal capital was at Kaesŏng (Kaesong), and it also maintained a western capital at Pyongyang and an eastern capital at Gyeongju. '''Munhwa Ryoo''' clan of Korea (or spelled '''Ryu''' or '''Rieu''') is one of the great aristocratic houses of Goryeo and Joseon (Joseon Dynasty) dynasty. "Munhwa" is the name of the clan seat (bon-gwan), a township in modern-day Hwanghae province, North Korea. The surname "Ryoo" comes from the character meaning willow tree. Hence, the lineage is also called "willow Ryoo" (버들 류씨). *'''Sultanate of Kerman''' - Arslan Shah I (1101–1142) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Sukjong (Sukjong of Goryeo) (1095–1105) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Tianzuodi (Emperor Tianzuodi of Liao) (1101–1125) *'''Sultanate of Kerman''' - Arslan Shah I (1101–1142) *'''Korea (Goryeo Kingdom) (Goryeo)''' - Sukjong (Sukjong of Goryeo) (1095–1105) *'''Liao (Liao Dynasty)''' ('''Khitan Empire''') - Emperor Tianzuodi (Emperor Tianzuodi of Liao) (1101–1125) Around the 1st century, the valley is believed to have been inhabited by the Byeonhan confederacy tribes. During the Three Kingdoms period (Three Kingdoms of Korea), the Gaya confederacy controlled the valley, until they were overrun by Silla in 562. These states exploited the river's potential for navigation and commerce, operating a thriving trade in armor and weapons with neighboring countries, including Yamato period Japan. Through the Silla, Goryeo, and Joseon (Joseon Dynasty) periods, the river continued to serve as a major transportation corridor in the Gyeongsang region. It was especially used for transporting fresh seafood inland, such as mackerel, which were salted and dried in order to prevent them from spoiling. The city of Andong was the farthest inland the fish could be brought before going bad, so many people flocked there during the Joseon Dynasty to eat fish. http: www.hansik.org zh restaurant recommendRestaurantView.do?fboardId 1075 thumb upright Painting of Kublai Khan (Image:Liu-Kuan-Tao-Jagd.JPG) on a hunting expedition, by artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280 AD. The Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) of China was the easternmost part of the vast Mongol Empire (stretching from East Asia to East Europe), which became politically separated into four khanates beginning with the succession war in 1260. The Mongol leaders Genghis Khan, Ögedei Khan, Mongke Khan, and Hulagu Khan were able to conquer the Tangut Western Xia and the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234) in northern China, as well as invaded Korea (Mongol invasions of Korea) under the Goryeo Dynasty, turning it into a vassal state that was ruled indirectly. The Mongols withdrew after Korean monarchs agreed to move its capital back to the mainland from Ganghwa Island. '''Wonjong of Goryeo''' (1219–1274, r. 1260–1274) was the 24th ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea. He ascended to the throne with the help of Kublai Khan. During his reign, Goryeo became a dependency of the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty in China.
) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東） province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅，李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务，充防海御倭总兵官，救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月，倭犯朝鲜，陷王京，朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国，而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁）,was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健，有大将才。家贫，不能袭职，年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之，资入京，乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年，士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功，进副总兵，仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月，张摆失等屯塞下，成梁迎击斩之，歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西，唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜，祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代，名为：李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼，洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝，归附后“授总旗”，高祖李英，授世铁岭指挥佥事，从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代，李氏一门世袭官爵，族亲旺盛，成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.
. The Alderney Community and Sports Centre is currently planned, with building costing £2.2m and starting in March 2012. This would include a swimming pool, two bowling lanes and facilities within a sports hall for archery, indoor football (indoor soccer), indoor tennis and also badminton. Pubs Due in part to the tourist industry but mainly to the Ridunians' own drinking culture (there is a common expression elsewhere in the Channel Islands that Alderney is composed of 'two thousand alcoholics, clinging to a rock' Channel hopping: Lucy Golding finds Alderney is a world away from commercial-centric holidays (From Oxford Mail) ) there are many restaurants and public houses. There is a vibrant and lively nightlife which is enjoyed by many especially in the summer, and informal dance music events often take place in abandoned bunkers ('bunker parties') and more organised events in and around Alderney Week at the Corporation Quarry ('Quarry parties'). It was one of the last places in the British Isles to introduce a smoking ban in pubs, shops, restaurants and other indoor public places (Guernsey, Jersey, the UK, and the Isle of Man all having outlawed this already). The States of Alderney passed the anti-smoking legislation with the President's casting vote on 13 January 2010; the legislation came into force at 4am on 1 June 2010. commons:Alderney - Aurigny
' from 'karim hotel', or 'fresh from the pan' halwa poori from satelitown, or 'rabri' (milky drink) from 'nirala' in saddar ... Its a never-ending list! Drink Alcohol in Pakistan is forbidden but one can find drinks at many modern hotels like Pearl Continental(PC), Shalimar hotel and Flashman Hotel. There are no bars and night clubs in Rawalpindi city but all the big markets are open til late-night. Drinking culture in Pakistan is essentially soft-drink culture, where Pepsi is traditionally
the drink of choice. It is impossible to avoid Pepsi advertising throughout Pakistan. Be warned as a traveller about the cleanliness of bottles - always drink from a straw, and always request that bottles be opened in front of you, as a cleanliness measure. Drinking culture also revolves around tea, called 'chai' in Urdu, and this is available everywhere and anywhere. Coffee is not impossible to come by, however iced coffee tends to be the popular coffee drink of choice. The Locally available
Pub url email address Nongye Road lat long directions To the right of the Henan Provincial Museum phone tollfree fax hours price content For an unusual drinking experience, consider this pub, located in a bunker-like concrete building. This place features a cabaret-style show with a mix of song, dance, and jokes. Unless you understand Chinese, it will be mostly incomprehensible, yet the experience will give you insight into Chinese drinking culture. The place
Soviet Union countries, customer service is largely lacking, and Dagestani culture adds to the experience the guarantee of waiting a very, very long time for your order. In general unless you like traditional Dagestani dishes, which are delicious, you are unlikely to be impressed by the food in Dagestan. Drink thumb 280px Kurag mountain aul (File:Кураг.jpg) The occasional Sharia booster may try his hardest, but this is Russia, and the drinking culture is as always indomitable—you'll have no problem getting a drink, be it in a house in a mountain aul or a cafe bar in Derbent. Sleep The best developed facilities (still pretty basic) are in Makhachkala and Derbent, but you should be able to find guesthouse style lodging with little difficulty in any town or village. Despite the very real dangers that absolutely should deter sane tourists from visiting most parts of this region, the Dagestani peoples still retain their legendary chivalric hospitality, and will help you get set up. Learn * Dagestan State University — located in Makhachkala * Dagestan State Technical University — located in Makhachkala * Dagestan State Medical Academy, Makhachkala (formerly known as Dagestan State Medical Institute). Caters local and international students,mainly from southeast countries. Work thumb 280px Gunib, the one-time fortress town defended by Imam Shamil (File:Гуниб б.jpg) Stay safe Dagestan is not a safe tourist destination by any stretch of the imagination. The mountainous areas of the republic (i.e., the most interesting areas) have seen major military operations in recent years between various groups and the Russian military. Criminal activity is widespread throughout the region, often targeting the few foreign tourists that do continue to visit for kidnapping, extortion, and worse. Dagestan shares along with the rest of the North Caucasus an extravagantly corrupt official culture and bribes and harassment are business as usual. However, it is generally the north of Dagestan that is actually safe to travel. If you'd like to catch a glimpse of Dagestani culture and beauty, check online for a copy of the late Sergei Bodrov's haunting film, ''Prisoner of the Mountains'' (''Кавказский пленник''), which was shot in a Dagestani mountain aul, hiring the villagers as extras. Stay healthy Respect Dagestan is a predominantly conservative Muslim region with very strong chivalric mountaineer traditions. Be careful not to insert yourself into local politics or to insult locals' sense of honour, or you might find yourself estranged (i.e., shot) in a strange land. Connect thumb 280px Fortress gate in the Old City of Derbent (File:Derbent gate.jpg) Mobile In Dagestan there are four GSM operators (MTS, Beeline, Megafon, Dagestanskaya Sotovaya Svyaz') and two 3G-UMTS operators (Megafon, Beeline), and they often have offers that give you a SIM card for free or at least very cheap. If you are planning to stay a while and to keep in touch with Dagestani and other North-Caucasian peoples, then you should consider buying a local SIM card instead of going on roaming. If you buy a SIM card from a shop you'll need your passport for identification. It only takes five minutes to do the paperwork and it will cost less than $US10. Embassies and Consulates Visitors should know that there are no embassies or consular services in Dagestan, with the most convient likely to be in distant Moscow. Go next Just across the border with Georgia (Georgia (country)) is the breathtakingly gorgeous region of Tusheti (Kakheti#Other destinations), but the border is for all intents and purposes closed, so the route to Georgia becomes extremely long and indirect via plane. Georgia is the place to be, though, to safely experience the sort of romantic, chivalric Caucasian mountain cultures that would be an attraction in a safer Dagestan. The border with Azerbaijan was until recently open only to CIS passport holders. It has now (2015) been reopened for non-CIS passport holders, but regardless, it is reputedly a very bad experience. However, Northeastern Azerbaijan is a wonderful place for treks in forest covered mountains. thumb 280px Salbuzdag Mountain (File:Shalbuzdag.jpg) The most obvious next destination would be Chechnya, with its shared culture, proximity, and similarly beautiful mountainous landscapes, but anything interesting there is far too dangerous to visit. If you are in Dagestan, best to leave via the airport in Makhachkala. WikiPedia:Dagestan commons:Дагестан
authorlink coauthors year 1995 publisher Pelican Publishing Company location isbn 1-56554-074-3 page 142 There is also a strong coffee drinking culture in Israel and coffee is prepared in many ways, such as instant (Instant coffee) (''nes''), iced (Iced coffee#Israel), latte (''hafuḥ''), Italian-style espresso, or Turkish coffee (Turkish coffee#Israel).
couple of months, so no internet guide will be able to direct you to the hippest place (even though some may try). Many places in Tel Aviv have minimum age limitations that vary from 18+ to 30+. Usually the limitation is different between males and females and while some spots may be flexible others will be as strict as possible. Israel has no unique drinking culture so any place with any self-respect will have the entire world wide alcohol selection available, from Wine and Beer to Tequila, Arak
Nightlife, bars and pubs The drinking culture in Hull city centre tends towards late bars, while the wine bars and pubs around Hull University and its accommodation area are popular with students. In particular, the areas around Newland Avenue and Prince's Avenue have seen a rapid expansion in continental-style bars and cafes encouraged by the redesign of the street layout. Festivals
in Bavaria. Another great thing to participate are the regular traditional beer festivals. Of course, everybody knows ''Oktoberfest'' in Munich, but actually every city and town in Bavaria has its own festivities at least once a year for a few days. In fact, those are mostly much more traditional and fun is guaranteed, as those obviously come with the same beer drinking culture. Eat Image:Bavarian food.jpg thumb Hearty Bavarian food on a fancy plate. Left to right: ''Schnitzel'', pork belly
into a ''very'' sweet wine. Stay safe Statistically, Bavaria is one of the safest regions (if not ''the'' safest) in Germany and maybe Europe. The biggest threat to your wallet are the (perfectly legal) high prices, and the beer drinking culture in combination with the easy availability of alcohol. Be aware that there is a big difference between the Bavarian police and the police from maybe Hamburg or Berlin. In Berlin, it might not pose a problem, if you are caught with a few joints in your pocket
of the province of Central Java, Indonesia. Slawi is known for the production of a particularly fragrant black tea and the tea drinking culture known as Moci. * As the shipping lanes are very large, sections of the lane exist which can be shallow or have some kind of obstruction (e.g. sand bank). This threat is greatest when passing some narrows, such as between islands in the Indian ocean (e.g. near Indonesia) as well as between islands in the Pacific (e.g. near the Marquesas islands, Tahiti) * Some shipping lanes, such as the Straits of Malacca off Indonesia and the waters off Somalia are notorious pirate (Piracy) havens, and passing ships run a risk of being attacked and held for ransom. The '''Republic of India''' (India) is a country that occupies a greater part of the Indian subcontinent. It borders Pakistan in the northwest, the People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan in the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. India's coastline stretches for over seven thousand kilometers. Its neighbours in the Indian Ocean are the island nations of the Maldives in the southwest, Sri Lanka in the south, and Indonesia in the southeast. India is the second most populated (List of countries by population) country in the world, with a population of over one billion (1 E9) and is the seventh largest (List of countries by area) country by geographical area. It is a constitutional republic consisting of twenty eight states (states of India) and seven union territories (union territory). The word ''India'' derives from the Old Persian cognate for the Sanskrit word'' Sindhu'', the Indus river. The Constitution of India also recognizes ''Bhārat'' Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia