Places Known For

detailed history


Ballantrae, Ontario

, Ontario Pine Orchard , Pleasantville (Pleasantville, Ontario), Preston Lake (Preston Lake, Ontario), Ringwood (Ringwood, Ontario), Vandorf (Vandorf, Ontario), Vivian, and Wesley Corners (Wesley Corners, Ontario). Cf. Boundary Map, Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, official website. For a detailed history of these unique communities, see Jean Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township (Erin, ON: Boston Mills, 1993). The town is bounded by Davis Drive (York Regional Road 31) in the north, York-Durham Line (York Regional Road 30) in the east, and Highway 404 (Ontario Highway 404) in the west. The southern boundary conforms with a position approximately 200 metres north of 19th Avenue (York Regional Road 29), and is irregular due to the annexation of lands formerly part of Markham Township (Markham, Ontario) in 1971. A Brief History of Whitchurch-Stouffville (Part 5), Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville (official website). The hamlet of Stouffville grew rapidly in the 1840s, and by 1849, it had "one physician and surgeon, two stores, two taverns, one blacksmith, one waggon maker, one oatmeal mill, one tailor, one shoemaker." Stouffville, ''Canadian Gazatteer'' (Toronto: Roswell, 1849), 177. The population reached 350 in 1851, 600 in 1866, and 866 in 1881, with a diversity of Mennonite, Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist and Congregational places of worship. Cf. Barkey et al., Appendix A: Churches, ''Whitchurch-Township'', 126ff. Also C.P. Mulvany, et al., Stouffville, ''History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario'' (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), 202. Mulvany (p. 152) notes that Whitchurch Township, without the Village of Stouffville, had a population of 4,529 in 1881. Cf. also The Ecclesiastical Gazette, (London, 1869), 318;The Congregational Quarterly, Vol. 11 (1869):140; A Historical and Statistical Report of the Presbyterian Church of Canada (Montreal, 1866), 36; Altona Mennonite Meetinghouse (Stouffville), ''Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online''; see esp. Barkey, Stouffville, 1877-1977, 138–151, 7. In 1869 Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) had a populuation of 75, Bloomington (Bloomington, York Region, Ontario) 50, Gormley (Gormley, Ontario) 80, Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario) 75, and Ringwood 100. McEvoy, The Province of Ontario Gazetteer and Directory, 1869. In 1876, there was a regular stage coach connection from the hamlet of Stouffville to Ringwood (Ringwood, Ontario), Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario), Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario), Glasgow (Glasgow, Ontario), Altona (Altona, Ontario) and Claremont (Claremont, Ontario). J. A. Crawford, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Ontario, for the year 1876 (Uxbridge, ON: 1876), 14. The hamlet of Stouffville grew rapidly in the 1840s, and by 1849, it had "one physician and surgeon, two stores, two taverns, one blacksmith, one waggon maker, one oatmeal mill, one tailor, one shoemaker." Stouffville, ''Canadian Gazatteer'' (Toronto: Roswell, 1849), 177. The population reached 350 in 1851, 600 in 1866, and 866 in 1881, with a diversity of Mennonite, Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist and Congregational places of worship. Cf. Barkey et al., Appendix A: Churches, ''Whitchurch-Township'', 126ff. Also C.P. Mulvany, et al., Stouffville, ''History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario'' (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), 202. Mulvany (p. 152) notes that Whitchurch Township, without the Village of Stouffville, had a population of 4,529 in 1881. Cf. also The Ecclesiastical Gazette, (London, 1869), 318;The Congregational Quarterly, Vol. 11 (1869):140; A Historical and Statistical Report of the Presbyterian Church of Canada (Montreal, 1866), 36; Altona Mennonite Meetinghouse (Stouffville), ''Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online''; see esp. Barkey, Stouffville, 1877-1977, 138–151, 7. In 1869 Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) had a populuation of 75, Bloomington (Bloomington, York Region, Ontario) 50, Gormley (Gormley, Ontario) 80, Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario) 75, and Ringwood 100. McEvoy, The Province of Ontario Gazetteer and Directory, 1869. In 1876, there was a regular stage coach connection from the hamlet of Stouffville to Ringwood (Ringwood, Ontario), Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario), Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario), Glasgow (Glasgow, Ontario), Altona (Altona, Ontario) and Claremont (Claremont, Ontario). J. A. Crawford, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Ontario, for the year 1876 (Uxbridge, ON: 1876), 14. With new commuter rail service on the Stouffville Line in the 1990s, the drilling of two deep aquifer (Aquifer#Classification) wells to secure safer water for a large, new development in the hamlet of Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) Warren Smith, Ballantrae Golf and Country Club - Not always thus .... Between 2001 and 2006, Ballantrae's population mushroomed from a population 295 to 1,278 people (Statistics Canada, Population and dwelling counts, for urban areas, 2006 and 2001). in 1996, and the controversial expansion of the York-Durham Sewage System Big Pipe (Politics_of_the_Oak_Ridges_Moraine#The_Big_Pipe) with additional water capacity from Lake Ontario, Whitchurch–Stouffville began a major self-transformation. York Region, Water and Wastewater Masterplan (November 2009); Amendment 6 to the Official Plan for the Regional Municipality of York (1998). Not unlike the late 19th century, responsible land and water stewardship, as well as the positive integration of many new residents annually into the community, define the challenges and opportunities for Whitchurch–Stouffville in the years to come. The most significant challenge facing Whitchurch–Stouffville in the coming years, however, is the federal government's proposed development of an international airport immediately south-east of Whitchurch–Stouffville (the Pickering Airport lands). Under the current plan, approaches for two of the three landing strips would be directly above Whitchurch–Stouffville communities: the first over Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario), Musselman's Lake (Musselman Lake, Ontario) and the north-east corner of urban Stouffville, with planes descending (or ascending) from 535 to 365 metres (with an allowable building height in Stouffville of 43 metres); the second over Gormley (Gormley, Ontario) and the Dickson Hill (Dickson Hill, Ontario) area (near the Walmart and Smart Centre). The 2004 plan anticipates 11.9 million passengers per year (or 32,600 per day) by 2032. Cf. Transport Canada, Plan Showing Pickering Airport Site; also Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Pickering Airport Draft Plan Report, 6.3. By comparison, Toronto Pearson International Airport had 32.3 million passengers in 2008, with an average of 1,179 "aircraft movements" per day (GTTA, Toronto Pearson Fast Facts. Stouffville is the closest urban centre to the proposed airport and would be most directly impacted by noise levels and quality of life; Planned(Phase 2) residential developments for south-east Stouffville will be 4.8 km. from the nearest planned runway; compare Transport Canada, Plan Showing Pickering Airport Site with Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, Community of Stouffville Secondary Plan, Phase 2 Development Lands (2009), Maps 5, 6 & 7. yet because planned roads to the airport are from the south only (Highway 407 (Ontario Highway 407) and Highway 7 (Ontario Highway 7)), a direct economic benefit, however, would be minimal. The current runway configuration would also block the continuous flow of vehicular traffic south out of Stouffville on the York-Durham Line (York Regional Road 30). In 1998, Whitchurch–Stouffville Council endorsed a resolution by the Town of Pickering requesting the Minister of Transportation not to declare the federal lands in Pickering as an airport site. Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, Special Council Minutes, December 22, 1998. When public consultations were held in 2003, Whitchurch–Stouffville was one of the few directly affected municipalities that did not submit written representation to Transport Canada. Transport Canada, Pickering Airport Site Zoning Regulations: Schedule A (Map), 2004; Pickering Airport Site Zoning Regulations: Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement - Consultation, September 30, 2004. A "Needs Assessment Study" was completed by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority for the federal government in May 2010. After a "due diligence review," Transport Canada released the report in July 2011, which identified the most likely time range for the need of the airport to be 2027-2029, and confirmed the site layout proposed in the 2004 Draft Plan Report. See GTAA, "Needs Assessment Study Pickering Lands: Final Report," March 2011, fig. 12.1 & par. 12.4.3; also Transport Canada, News Release: "Transport Canada releases findings of the 2010 Pickering Lands Needs Assessment Study," July 11, 2011; S. Bolan, "Stouffville politicians mixed over airport plan," ''Stouffville Sun-Tribune'', July 13, 2011. Outside of urban Stouffville, the town operates community centres in the hamlets of Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario), Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario), and Vandorf (Vandorf, Ontario). The relative prosperity of the town has made it difficult for those with low income; a high proportion of recent immigrants experience housing affordability problems in certain census tracts in Whitchurch–Stouffville. York University, Infrastructure in York Region: Human Resources Analysis , (June 30, 2009), 88. The ratio of owned dwellings to rented dwellings in Whitchurch–Stouffville is almost 6 to 1, whereas for Ontario as a whole it is 2.5 to 1. Between 1994 and 2009, 84% of the new residential units in Whitchurch–Stouffville were low-density dwellings. Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, Community of Stouffville Phase Two Development Lands: Background and Options Report (Sept. 2009), 11. In 2006, the median monthly payments for rented dwellings in Whitchurch–Stouffville was $924.00, or 15% higher than the Ontario median; the average value of homes in Whitchurch-Stoufville was 66% higher than the provincial average in 2006, and 52.6% higher than in 2001. Statistics Canada, 2006 Community Profile for Stouffville; cf. also 2001 Community Profile for Whitchurch-Stouffville. Soaring housing costs in the region have resulted in a 28% rise in Food Bank use between January 2008 and January 2010. Editorial, Soaring housing market not good for everyone, ''Stouffville Sun-Tribune'', March 25, 2010; also York Region Food Network, 2009 Report on Hunger, 2. The Community and Health Services Department of York Region has no resources in Stouffville for the homeless; there are two group homes in Whitchurch–Stouffville, as well as 51 units of public social housing and 124 not-for-profit units for the elderly (including a long-term care facility). Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, Community of Stouffville Phase Two Development Lands: Background and Options Report (Sept. 2009), 14; cf. also York Support Services Network, Housing Options Program. In 2006, 4% of residents were in a low-income bracket, compared to the provincial average of 11%. Social services in Whitchurch–Stouffville include the ''Whitchurch–Stouffville Food Bank'', located at the Churchill Community Church (Baptist) between the communities of Musselman Lake and Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) Whitchurch-Stouffville Food Bank, York Region Food Network. and the ''Care and Share Thrift Store'' (Mennonite Central Committee) located on Main Street in urban Stouffville on the original settlement site of Abraham Stouffer. The YMCA also operates an employment resource centre in Stouffville. title Communities of Whitchurch–Stouffville, Ontario (Whitchurch–Stouffville) list1 Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) A significant issue facing the Musselman Lake community in the coming years is the federal government's proposed development of an international airport immediately south-east of Whitchurch–Stouffville (the Pickering Airport lands); under the current plan, an approach for one of the three landing strips would be directly above the communities of Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) and Musselman Lake, with planes descending (or ascending) from 500 to 450 metres. The plan calls for 11.9 million passengers per year (or 32,600 per day) by 2032. Cf. Transport Canada, Plan Showing Pickering Airport Site; also Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Pickering Airport Draft Plan Report, 6.3. A "Needs Assessment Study" was completed by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority for the federal government in May 2010. After a "due diligence review," Transport Canada released the report in July 2011. Transport Canada, News Release: "Transport Canada releases findings of the 2010 Pickering Lands Needs Assessment Study," July 11, 2011. Nearest communities Musselman's Lake is situated near the eastern boundary of the town of Whitchurch–Stouffville. Neighbouring communities within Whitchurch–Stouffville include Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) to the north-east and Bloomington (Bloomington, York Region, Ontario) to the south. Goodwood (Goodwood, Ontario), a community of the town of Uxbridge (Uxbridge, Ontario), lies to the east.


Katsina

Chronicle , a well-regarded and detailed history of the city of Kano, composed in the late 19th century, but incorporating earlier documentary material. According to this chronicle, she was a contemporary of Muhammad Dauda, who ruled from 1421–38, and Amina conquered as far as Nupe (Nupe people) and Kwarafa (Jukun people (West Africa)), collected tribute from far and wide and ruled for 34 years. H. R. Palmer, ed. "The Kano Chronicle," ''Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland'' 38 (1908), p. 75. A number of scholars accept this information and date her reign to the early to mid-15th century. R. A. Adeleye, "Hausaland and Bornu, 1600-1800," in J. F. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, eds. ''History of West Africa'' (2 vols., London, 1971) vol. 1 Humphrey Fisher. "The Eastern Maghreb and the Central Sudan," ''Cambridge History of Africa'' (8 vols., Cambridge, 1977) 3: 232-330. In the late 1450s, Islam arrived in Zaria by the way of its sister Habe cities, Kano and Katsina. Along with Islam, trade also flourished between the cities as traders brought camel caravans filled with salt in exchange for slaves and grain. Between the fifteenth and sixteenth century the kingdom became a tributary state of the Songhai Empire. In 1805 it was captured by the Fulani (Fula people) during the Fulani Jihad. British forces led by Frederick Lugard took the city in 1901. Flight Resistance against the Jihadists was continued in the north-east by Sarkin Ali dan Yakubu and Sarkin Mayaki. With the help of the Hausa ruler of Katsina the latter built a new capital of Gobir in Tibiri, 10 km north of Maradi in 1836. Here in present Niger the old dynasty of the Hausa rulers of Gobir is still continued today. A rival branch of the dynasty has its seat in Sabon Birni north of Sokoto in Nigeria. birth_date


Creston, British Columbia

13 Detailed history of the Creston Valley . south southeast of Creston (Creston, British Columbia), British Columbia, Canada. In 1998 the '''LSSRS''' made a return visit to Canada playing this time in Vancouver, Creston (Creston, British Columbia), Calgary, Banff (Banff, Alberta), Medicine Hat, Toronto and also Ann Arbor in Michigan, USA. Location Located 40 kilometres north of Creston, British Columbia. Access to the park is usually done by hiking from Lockhart Creek Provincial Park, but vehicle access to the park boundary is possible via old unmaintained forestry roads.


Chinatown, Los Angeles

Sources *''American Chinatown: A People's History of Five Neighborhoods'', Bonnie Tsui, 2009 ISBN 978-1-4165-5723-4 Official website *Ki Longfellow, ''China Blues'', Eio Books 2012, ISBN 0-9759255-7-1 Contains detailed history of Chinese immigration to California and other historical information relating to Chinatown. Also, how the Chinese were treated in California. External links * Los Angeles Chinese


Osoyoos

south of the Highway 3 and 97 intersection on the northwest side of town. The town is situated on Osoyoos Lake, which


History of the Khitans

Turkic and Iranian populations and left no influence of themselves. As the Khitan language is still almost completely illegible it is difficult to create a detailed history of their movements. The Khitans were mainly employed by the Mongols in military and civil services after they conquered most of Eurasia. Daur people and some Baarin people are direct descendants of the Khitans. Inner Mongolian "Odon" television Historical atlas Image:Asia 400ad.jpg 400 Image:Asia 500ad.jpg 500 File:East-Hem_600ad.jpg 600 Image:Asia 700ad.jpg 700 Image:Asia 800ad.jpg 800 Image:Asia 900ad.jpg 900 Image:Asia 1025ad.jpg 1025 File:KaraKhitaiAD1200.png Kara-Khitan Khanate circa 1200 File:Kara-Khitan Khanate 2.jpg Kara-Khitan Khanate File:Mongol Empire c.1207.png Mongol Empire circa 1207, showing the locations of the Kara-Khitans and Khitans See also Category:History of Mongolia Category:1211 disestablishments Category:States and territories established in 388 Category:Khitans * (Category:Khitan history) The 3rd century AD saw both the fragmentation of the Xianbei Empire in 235 and the branching out of the various Xianbei tribes later to establish significant empires of their own. The most prominent branches are the Murong, Tuoba, Khitan (Khitan people), Shiwei and Rouran. These tribes spoke Mongolic (or Para-Mongolic) languages. The Murong tribe were descendants of the tribal division ruled by Murong, the Xianbei chief of the central section under Tanshihuai. Murong Mohuba actively supported Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign in 238, leading an auxiliary Murong force. Mohuba was succeeded in 246 by his son Muyan (木延) who also aided the Cao Wei campaign against the Goguryeo that same year. The Former Yan (337-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (384-409) dynasties as well as the Tuyuhun Kingdom (285-670) were all later founded by the Murong. The Tuoba (Tabgach) tribe started their rise with Tuoba Liwei (219-277) who was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the Yaonian Khaganate (List of the Khitan rulers) (730-906), the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and the Kara-Khitan Khanate (1124–1218). The Shiwei tribe, like the Tuoba, were originally located to the north of the Murong and Khitan. While the Tuoba migrated south and established the State of Dai (310-376) and Northern Wei dynasty (386-534) the Shiwei remained in the north but eventually paid tribute to the Northern Wei (for example the Wuluohu sub-tribe started paying tribute in 444). Known also as the Tatars the Shiwei would later establish the Khamag Mongol Khanate (Khamag Mongol) (1125–1206), the Mongol Empire (1206–1368), the Northern Yuan Dynasty (1368–1635) and the Zungar Empire (1640–1756). The Rouran tribe remained in Outer Mongolia after the fragmentation of the Xianbei Empire. Yujiuliu Muguliu (reigned early 4th century) was the first ancestor of the Rouran khagans. Yujiuliu Shelun was the first major steppe leader to use the title “Khagan” in 402. The Rouran (also called Jujuan, Juanjuan and Nirun) are sometimes equated with the Avars (Eurasian Avars). The Avar khagan Bayan I has both a Mongol name (meaning 'rich') and title. The Göktürks relentlessly pursued the Rouran (whose subjects they formerly were) west all the way to Crimea in the 550's-570's. - 1125 Song Dynasty forces ally with rebel Jurchens (Jurchen people) to topple the Khitan (History of the Khitans) Liao Dynasty. - Etymology In his fantasy setting of the Hyborian Age, Howard created imaginary kingdoms to which he gave names from a variety of mythological and historical sources. Khitai (History of the Khitans) is his version of China, lying far to the East (Eastern world), Corinthia is his name for a Hellenistic civilization, a name derived from the city of Corinth and reminiscent of the imperial fiefdom of Carinthia (Carinthia (duchy)) in the Middle Ages. Howard imagines the Hyborian Picts to occupy a large area to the northwest. The probable intended correspondences are listed below; notice that the correspondences are sometimes very generalized, and are portrayed by ''ahistorical'' stereotypes. Most of these correspondences are drawn from "Hyborian Names", an appendix to ''Conan the Swordsman'' by L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter. De Camp, L. Sprague (L. Sprague de Camp), Carter, Lin (Lin Carter), and Nyberg, Björn (Björn Nyberg) (1978). "Hyborian Names". Appendix to ''Conan the Swordsman''. Toronto: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-20582-X.


Whitchurch–Stouffville

of land. History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario, vol. 2 (1885), 462. Elizabeth's brother Peter Reesor established what is today Markham (Markham, Ontario), first called Reesorville. Fifty-five more families from Pennsylvania, mostly Mennonite, arrived in Stoufferville in the next few years. For a detailed account, see Jean Barkey, ''Stouffville, 1877–1977: A Pictorial History of a Prosperous Ontario Community'' (Stouffville, ON: Stouffville Historical Committee, 1977), 2ff. Stouffer's sawmill was in operation by 1817 on Duffin's Creek on the Whitchurch side of Main St., and by 1825 he had a gristmill across the street on the Markham Township side of Main St. as well. (Whitchurch Township, 34; also Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793–1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979), 289-296. For a detailed description of pioneer life, cf. L. Henry and G.C. Paterson, Pioneer Days in Ontario (Toronto: Ryerson, 1938). In the early 1830s, the old Stouffville Road was carved through largely virgin forest to connect York (Toronto) with Brock Township; Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 18. a post office was opened in 1832 and the name Stouffville was standardized. A Brief History of Whitchurch-Stouffville (Part 2), Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville (official website). In 1839, a new resident from England noted that Stouffville still had "no church (other than the Mennonite Meeting House in neighbouring Altona (Altona, Ontario)), baker, or butcher," though "saddlebag Methodist circuit preachers sometimes arrived and held meetings at the schoolhouse." Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 96. Nonetheless, Stouffville was considered a centre "of Radical opinion," one of the "hotbeds of revolution," and it was here that William Lyon Mackenzie set forth his plan for the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837–38. C. Fothergill, ed., Mackenzie's Own Narrative of the Late Rebellion (Ottawa: Golden Dog, 1980), 5; J.C. Dent, The Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion, vol. 2 (Toronto: 1885), 218; D.B. Read, ''The Canadian rebellion of 1837'' (Toronto, 1896), 293. The hamlet of Stouffville grew rapidly in the 1840s, and by 1849, it had "one physician and surgeon, two stores, two taverns, one blacksmith, one waggon maker, one oatmeal mill, one tailor, one shoemaker." Stouffville, ''Canadian Gazetteer'' (Toronto: Roswell, 1849), 177. The population reached 350 in 1851, 600 in 1866, and 866 in 1881, with a diversity of Mennonite, Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist and Congregational places of worship. Cf. Barkey et al., Appendix A: Churches, ''Whitchurch-Township'', 126ff. Also C.P. Mulvany, et al., Stouffville, ''History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario'' (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), 202. Mulvany (p. 152) notes that Whitchurch Township, without the Village of Stouffville, had a population of 4,529 in 1881. Cf. also The Ecclesiastical Gazette, (London, 1869), 318;The Congregational Quarterly, Vol. 11 (1869):140; A Historical and Statistical Report of the Presbyterian Church of Canada (Montreal, 1866), 36; Altona Mennonite Meetinghouse (Stouffville), ''Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online''; see esp. Barkey, Stouffville, 1877–1977, 138–151, 7. In 1869 Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) had a population of 75, Bloomington (Bloomington, York Region, Ontario) 50, Gormley (Gormley, Ontario) 80, Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario) 75, and Ringwood 100. McEvoy, The Province of Ontario Gazetteer and Directory, 1869. In 1876, there was a regular stage coach connection from the hamlet of Stouffville to Ringwood (Ringwood, Ontario), Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario), Lemonville (Lemonville, Ontario), Glasgow (Glasgow, Ontario), Altona (Altona, Ontario) and Claremont (Claremont, Ontario). J. A. Crawford, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Ontario, for the year 1876 (Uxbridge, ON: 1876), 14. In 1877, Stouffville became an incorporated village. Cf. the detailed 1878 maps, Township of Markham; Township of Whitchurch, ''Illustrated historical atlas of the county of York and the township of West Gwillimbury & town of Bradford in the county of Simcoe, Ont.'' (Toronto : Miles & Co., 1878); also Stouffville Map (1880). Stouffville's growth was aided by the establishment of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway, built in 1871, which connected Stouffville and Uxbridge (Uxbridge, Ontario) with Toronto. In 1877, a second track was built north to Jackson's Point (Jackson's Point, Ontario) on Lake Simcoe. These connections were created in large part to provide a reliable and efficient means of transporting timber harvested and milled in these regions. A Brief History of Whitchurch-Stouffville (Part 3), Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville (official website). Soon ''Stouffville Junction'' serviced thirty trains per day. Barkey, Stouffville, 1877–1977, 19. During this time of prosperity, Stouffville businessman R.J. Daley built a large music hall, roller-skating rink, and curling rink. History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario, vol. 2 (1885), 453. In 1911 Stouffville had a public library, two banks, two newspapers, as well as telephone and telegraph connections. Intensive forestry in Whitchurch Township led to large-scale deforestation, eroding (erosion) the thinner soils of northern Whitchurch into sand deserts; by 1850 Whitchurch Township was only 35 percent wooded, and that was reduced to 7 percent by 1910. Cf. Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 18-19, 21; 28f. The Lake Simcoe Junction Railway Line was consequently abandoned in 1927. Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 92. Reforestation efforts were begun locally, and with the passage of the Reforestation Act (1911), the process of reclaiming these areas began. Vivian Forest, a large conservation area in northern Whitchurch–Stouffville, was established in 1924 for this purpose. This development has helped to restore the water-holding capacity of the soil and to reduce the cycles of flash spring floods and summer drought. In 2008, the town had more than 62²km of protected forest; Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville, Annual Report 2008, 6. the forest is considered one of the most successful restorations of a degraded landscape in North America. York Regional Forest, York Region official website. Yet similar environmental consequences due to increased urbanization were projected in 2007 by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority as probable for southern Whitchurch–Stouffville (headwaters of the Rouge River watershed) if targeted plantings in this area did not begin quickly. Toronto and Area Conservation Authority, Rouge River Watershed Plan (2007), 64, 78. Already in 1993, the Whitchurch Historical Committee warned a new generation of "Whitchurch-Stouffville residents" to be "vigilant to treat trees and forests with respect ... In the 1990s care must be taken so that urbanization and concrete road-building do not repeat the destruction to our forest heritage." Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 33; see also 30f. thumb left 250px Historic Clock Tower and The Lebovic Centre for Arts & Entertainment: Nineteen on the Park (File:The Lebovic Centre for Arts & Entertainment – Nineteen on the Park Whitchurch-Stouffville, ON.jpg) Though growth in the hamlets of Whitchurch–Stouffville was stagnant after the demise of the forest industry, the population began to grow again in the 1970s, with development in Metropolitan Toronto and the consequent arrival of new commuters. These developments led to a reexamination at the provincial level of municipal governance. On January 1, 1971, Whitchurch Township and the Village of Stouffville were merged to create the Town of Whitchurch–Stouffville; the combined population was 11,487. The town's southern boundary was also moved four farm lots south of the original southern boundary of Main Street. This land was formerly a part of Markham Township. Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 99; also A Brief History of Whitchurch-Stouffville (Part 5), Town of Whitchurch–Stouffville (official website). Whitchurch–Stouffville adopted its coat of arms in 1973 (see information box right). The dove of peace, the original seal of Whitchurch Township, is at the crest, recalling the pacifist Quaker and Mennonite settlers who founded many of the town's communities, including Stouffville. The British Union banner of 1707 pays tribute to the United Empire Loyalists. The white church symbolizes Whitchurch, and the star and chalice come from the Stouffer family (Swiss) coat of arms. Cf. Barkey et al., Whitchurch Township, 99. The growth of Toronto brought serious ecological problems to Whitchurch–Stouffville. Between 1962 and 1969, hundreds of thousands of litres per month of sulfuric acid, calcium hydroxide, and oil waste were poured into unlined Whitchurch–Stouffville dumps never designed as landfill sites and situated directly above the town's main aquifer. This was followed by years of solid waste from Toronto (1,100 tons per day in 1982). In the early 1980s, a group initially named "Concerned Mothers" found that the miscarriage rate in Whitchurch–Stouffville was 26% compared to the provincial average of 15%, and that the town had a high rate of cancer and birth defects. ''New Scientist'', Birth Defects Mystery (July 18, 1981), 137; The Sorry Saga of Stouffville's Polluted Water (Mar 18, 1982), 700; Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Proceedings, April 6, 1982; H. Rosenberg, The Kitchen and the Multinational Corporation: An analysis of the links between the household and global corporations, ''Journal of Business Ethics'' 6 (1987), 179f.; ''Globe and Mail'' (May 12, 1982). Though the Ministry of Environment was satisfied that the wells tested in 1974 and 1981 had negligible levels of cancer causing agents (mutagens), the town opposed the expansion of the "York Sanitation Site #4". Only after much grass-roots advocacy at the provincial level was the site ordered to close on June 30, 1983. Cf. Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Proceedings, (April 6, 1982); Proceedings (January 18, 1983). The garbage disposal company made a substantial donation to the governing Progressive Conservative party in 1974 as it was seeking disposal permits (cf. John Swaigan, How to Fight for What's Right (James Lorimer & Company, 1981), 8f.). In 1984 it was reported in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario that PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl) were found in well-water, and that 27,000 gallons of contaminated leachate per day were leaking from the site, threatening ground water quality. Cf. Ministry of the Environment, Whitchurch-Stouffville Mutagenicity Study: Final Report (1982), 46-47; also the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Proceedings: Stouffville Dump (June 18, 1984). With new commuter rail service on the Stouffville Line in the 1990s, the drilling of two deep aquifer (Aquifer#Classification) wells to secure safer water for a large, new development in the hamlet of Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario) Warren Smith, Ballantrae Golf and Country Club - Not always thus .... Between 2001 and 2006, Ballantrae's population mushroomed from a population 295 to 1,278 people (Statistics Canada, Population and dwelling counts, for urban areas, 2006 and 2001). in 1996, and the controversial expansion of the York-Durham Sewage System Big Pipe (Politics of the Oak Ridges Moraine#The Big Pipe) with additional water capacity from Lake Ontario, Whitchurch–Stouffville began a major self-transformation. York Region, Water and Wastewater Masterplan (November 2009); Amendment 6 to the Official Plan for the Regional Municipality of York (1998). Not unlike the late 19th century, responsible land and water stewardship, as well as the positive integration of many new residents annually into the community, define the challenges and opportunities for Whitchurch–Stouffville in the years to come. The most significant challenge facing Whitchurch–Stouffville in the coming years, however, is the federal government's proposed development of an international airport immediately south-east of Whitchurch–Stouffville (the Pickering Airport lands). Under the current plan, approaches for two of the three landing strips would be directly above Whitchurch–Stouffville communities: the first over Ballantrae (Ballantrae, Ontario), Musselman's Lake (Musselman Lake, Ontario) and the north-east corner of urban Stouffville, with planes descending (or ascending) from 535 to 365 metres (with an allowable building height in Stouffville of 43 metres); the second over Gormley (Gormley, Ontario) and the Dickson Hill (Dickson Hill, Ontario) area (near the Walmart and Smart Centre). Cf. Transport Canada, Press Release, June 11, 2013; Plan Showing Pickering Airport Site; also Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Pickering Airport Draft Plan Report, 6.3. By comparison, Toronto Pearson International Airport had 32.3 million passengers in 2008, with an average of 1,179 "aircraft movements" per day (GTTA, Toronto Pearson Fast Facts. A "Needs Assessment Study" was completed by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority for the federal government in May 2010. After a "due diligence review," Transport Canada released the report in July 2011, which identified the most likely time range for the need of the airport to be 2027–2029, and confirmed the site layout proposed in the 2004 Draft Plan Report. See GTAA, "Needs Assessment Study Pickering Lands: Final Report," March 2011, fig. 12.1 & par. 12.4.3; also Transport Canada, News Release: "Transport Canada releases findings of the 2010 Pickering Lands Needs Assessment Study," July 11, 2011; S. Bolan, "Stouffville politicians mixed over airport plan," ''Stouffville Sun-Tribune'', July 13, 2011. Government Municipal Whitchurch–Stouffville is governed by a mayor and six councilors, with one councilor representing each of the six municipal wards. The original ward boundaries created with amalgamation in 1971, and were amended in 2009 for the 2010 municipal elections. M. Kennedy (Town Clerk) and Robert J. Williams, Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville Electoral Ward Review Policy: Final Report, May 2009. The Mayor of Whitchurch–Stouffville (List of Mayors of Whitchurch-stouffville, Ontario) represents the town on the York Regional Council. On October 27, 2014, Justin Altmann was elected Mayor of Whitchurch–Stouffville. S. Bolan, Justin Altmann sick from nerves while watching polls, ''Stouffville Sun-Tribune'', Oct. 27, 2014. Two York Region District School Board trustees are elected to represent Whitchurch–Stouffville and East Gwillimbury (one English language and one French), as well as two trustees for the York Catholic District School Board (one English language and one French). Government & School Representatives, Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville official website. School board trustees are elected at the same time, and on the same ballot, as the mayor and city councilors. In 2008, 94.4% of Whitchurch–Stouffville residents were either satisfied or very satisfied with the overall quality of life in the Town of Whitchurch–Stouffville. In a major community survey, close to 30% of the respondents described the town as fine, good, nice, great, or pleasant; more than half of the respondents like the community or small town feel, while 46.3% enjoyed the friendly neighbourhoods. DPRA Canada, Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville Community Satisfaction Survey (May 27, 2008), 7f. The most important municipal issues indicated by residents in 2008 were the need to improve the road system; traffic issues; increasing urbanization and overcrowding; land use development and sprawl; and the cost of living (including taxes and user fees) in the town. DPRA Canada, Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville Community Satisfaction Survey (May 27, 2008), 8. Environmental

of Toronto Faculty of Medicine . Cf. Looking for a Family Physician? Partnership with UofT will Produce Benefits for our Community, ''Messenger: Markham-Stouffville Hospital Foundation'', (Winter 2009). Economy Stouffville's economy prior to 1900 flourished because of the coming of the railway in 1871, and because of the town's location on the juncture of the Markham-Uxbridge Road and the Town Line. For a detailed

history of Stouffville's early economy activity, see Champion, ed., Markham: 1793–1900, 289-296. Employment In 2013, Whitchurch–Stouffville had an estimated 11,249 jobs (excluding home- and farm-based businesses), 58.5% of which were full-time, 23.7% part-time, and the rest seasonal. While the manufacturing sector represented the largest number of local jobs in 2001, the actual


Anyang

(c. 1600–c. 1050 BC). While some scholars argued that Sima could not possibly have had access to written materials which detailed history a millennium before his age, Needham has another conclusion. The discovery of oracle bones at an excavation of the Shang Dynasty capital at Anyang (Yinxu) matched twenty-three of the thirty Shang kings that Sima listed. Needham writes that this remarkable archaeological find proves that Sima Qian "did have fairly reliable materials


Hamilton, Bermuda

government website * Hamilton Bermuda From Bermuda Attractions * City of Hamilton Bermuda Island.net's detailed History * City of Hamilton * (Category:Hamilton, Bermuda) Category:British


Parkersburg, West Virginia

) * The Parkersburg News (local newspaper) * Parkersburg Police * Parkersburg Fire * Detailed history; 1,000 vintage photos * * City-Data.com * John F. Kennedy in Parkersburg <


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