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defensive


Belgorod

pressure at once. Murray, Williamson & Millet, Allan Reed ''War To Be Won'', Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000 page 390. This was made worse as Manstein's "overconfidence" about the supposed inability of the Soviets to mount major offensive operations after Kursk had led him to place his troops in exposed forward positions instead of their old defensive positions they had held prior to Kursk. Murray, Williamson & Millet, Allan Reed ''War

. Meierdrees' now exhausted abt was ordered into the line near Belgorod, where it was engaged in a ferocious defensive battle in an attempt to stem the tide. The divisions halted the advance of Rumyantsev, and it seemed as if the line would be stabilized. However, strong Soviet forces soon outflanked the two divisions and forced them to fall back to Kharkov. The threat to the divisions' flanks was too great, and on 23 August the ''Totenkopf'' and ''Das Reich'' abandoned the city, narrowly

source by Wilhelm Keitel this operation is referred to as the "Fourth Battle of Kharkov" although it is unrelated to the Third Battle of Kharkov. see The memoirs of Field-Marshal Keitel. Edited with an introd. and epilogue by Walter Gorlitz. Translated by David Irving, William Kimber, London (1965) The operation began in early hours of 3 August 1943, with the objective of following up the defensive success against German Army Group South's northern


Visby city wall

Hejdström first3 Raymond date 1999 title Vägen till kulturen på Gotland trans_title The road to Gotland edition 6th url http: libris.kb.se bib 7768519 location Visby publisher Gotlands fornsal page 110 isbn 91-88036-32-4 language Swedish architect architecture Medieval (Middle Ages) city wall (Defensive wall) governing_body Swedish National Heritage Board

in Northern Europe Europe and North America designation1_free2value http: whc.unesco.org en list 731 designation2 designation2_offname designation2_date designation2_number The '''city wall of Visby''' ( , sometimes ''Visby stadsmur'') is a medieval (Middle Ages) defensive wall surrounding the Swedish town of Visby on the island of Gotland. As the strongest, most extensive and best preserved medieval city wall in Scandinavia

places and some of the towers rebuilt to accommodate cannons. History The oldest part of the city wall is a defensive tower, today called the ''Kruttornet'' (the Gunpowder Tower), which was erected at the harbor entrance in the 12th century, making it the oldest surviving non-religious building in the Nordic countries. It was not until the 1270s and 1280s, that the building of a proper defense for the town of Visby started, with the erection of the land-facing wall


Ston

of Ragusa and the Ottoman Empire. Cultural monuments Walls of Ston Ston was a major fort of the Ragusan Republic (republic of Ragusa) whose defensive walls were regarded as a notable feat of medieval architecture. Ston-www.croatia1.com The town's inner wall measures 890 metres in length, while the ''Great Wall'' outside the town has a circumference of 5 km. The walls

, the first geographical map of the Adriatic from ancient Rome, shows a fort at this locations with the name of Turris Stagni. Approaching from land, Roman walls can be seen near Zamaslina. Part of an Illyrian defensive strategy was the hill-fort at Humac, which controlled all of Malostonski Zaljev (Mali Ston bay). It was the guardfort of this small area, a desired location since ancient times due to its sheltered position and natural features of this basin that include exceptional maritime and cultural

qualities (now a protected preserve). Get in You can book an excursion from Dubrovnik. Get around See thumb A section of the old defensive wall in Ston (File:City walls of Ston0008.jpg) A monumental defensive system, the largest fortification and urban achievements in Europe at the time. Dubrovnik invested huge sums of money and employed the many builders. During the first thirty years, the defensive walls, the longest in Europe, were built from one side of the peninsula


Salla

to concentrate at the Finnish-Soviet border, where they were arranged into defensive formations. Finland mobilised 16 infantry divisions, one cavalry brigade, and two jäger (Jäger (military)) brigades, which were standard infantry brigades, except for an armoured battalion in the 1st Jäger Brigade (Jaeger Brigade). There were separate battalions mostly formed from border guard units and used mainly for reconnaissance. Soviet military plans estimated that Finland would be able to mobilise only 10

of tanks, was outflanked by a Finnish battalion. The 112th retreated, leaving much of its heavy equipment and vehicles behind. Following this success, the Finns shuttled reinforcements down to the defensive line in front of Kemijärvi. The Soviets hammered the defensive line without success. The Finns counterattacked, and the Soviets were pushed back to a new defensive line where they stayed for the rest of the war. #Trotter2002 Trotter (2002


Vyazma

became possible. Richthofen threw all available aircraft into the Battle for Moscow whenever conditions permitted. ''Fliegerkorps VIII'' flew 1,300 sorties from the 15 to 24 November. Bergström 2007, p. 109. Initially, the Soviet forces conducted a strategic defence of the Moscow Oblast by constructing three defensive belt (Defence in depth)s, and deploying newly raised reserve armies (Military reserve force) as well as bringing troops from the Siberian Military

. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new

-line artillery that withstood Beauharnais's counterstrike and forced Davout's troops to take cover in the forest. Davout lost two hours taking a detour to reunite with Ney in Vyazma; at 2 p.m., when Miloradovich ordered a general assault, the French were already unable to resist. By 5 p.m. Miloradovich took control of the city, capturing French supply trains (but only three cannons). In front of Moscow were two elaborate defensive lines, the first


Grosuplje

attacks. Being one of the few fortifications of the kind in Slovenia, it is one of the country's most important historical monuments of the period. Magdalenska gora archaeological site Its exceedingly well preserved prehistoric settlement with man-made terraces and defensive rampart, its great number of family mounds, its lively history of archaeological research and rich archaeological finds put Magdalene mountain among the best known archaeological sites in Slovenia. Most of the finds date

. Cave tours for groups of more than five people guided in Slovenian and English are available all year round by prior appointment. To arrange a time, please call +386 (0)1 786 13 23 or +386 (0)41 407 705. The tour takes about an hour. Little tower (Turenček) The inhabitants of Šmarje defended themselves from the Turks by building strong defensive walls around the church of Mary's birth. The original wall had four towers, of which only one remains standing and is now beautifully renovated

– The Turenček or Little Tower in English. The two-storey tower has a rich history – it was home to the first school as early as 1504 and in more recent times it hosted a library on the first floor and a small hall for theatre productions on the second. The inhabitants of Šmarje defended themselves from the Turks by building strong defensive walls around the church of Mary's birth. The original wall had four towers, of which only one remains standing and is now beautifully renovated


Mersa Matruh

to Mersa Matruh, roughly inside the Egyptian border. Lieutenant-General (Lieutenant-General (United Kingdom)) Neil Ritchie had decided not to hold the defences on the Egyptian border, because the defensive plan there relied on his infantry holding defended localities, while a strong armoured force was held back in reserve to foil any attempts to penetrate or outflank the fixed defenses. Since Ritchie had virtually no armoured units left fit to fight

successful negotiations with the Egyptian government at their summer quarters in Alexandria. The Treaty of 1936 called for the Egyptian army to fight under British command in the event of war and to supplement the limited force then at his disposal — an armoured division then being formed (later to be the 7th Armoured Division (British 7th Armoured Division)) and eight British battalions. He concentrated his defensive forces at Mersa Matruh some 100 miles from the border

of Gazala Rommel not only drove the British out of Libya, and somewhat into Egypt, but he pushed deep into the protectorate. Tobruk fell quickly, and there was no repeat of the epic siege that Rommel's last advance had produced. A prepared defensive line at Mersa Matruh was out flanked, and disaster beckoned. Ritchie was dismissed as Eight Army commander and Claude Auchinleck, the Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command, came forward to take command of it himself. After


El Alamein

for the Mediterranean . On 25 June Auchinleck had assumed direct command of Eighth Army and decided to form his main defensive line at El Alamein, where the proximity to the south of the Qattara Depression created a relatively short line to defend which could not be outflanked to the south because of the impossibility of moving armour into and through the depression. Rommel continued his march eastwards, but with the supply situation steadily worsening and his men exhausted after five weeks

as a stand-alone paragraph jars, and even more so when the library is not covered until the next paragraph. I'd also like something on writers associated with the city: e.g. Lawrence Durrell and Constantine P. Cavafy. Filiocht (User:Filiocht) 12:30, 1 Oct 2004 (UTC) At the beginning of July the Eighth Army had reached their final defensive position before Alexandria at the rail junction of El Alamein. The DAK was understrength from its recent battles, but Rommel attempted

an attack along Ruweisat with the 15th Panzer and the remainder of the DAK. Only minor progress was made, British counterattacks and mounting German losses caused Rommel to call off the attack on July 22. Another attack was attempted on August 30, with Rommel's armoured forces attacking the southern flank. The 15th Panzer Division reached as far as the Alam Halfa ridge on September 1, but failed to break through the British defences. At this point Rommel went on the defensive and began


Kursk

-day sites of Berlin, Warsaw, Kiev, and Kursk, northward through Moscow to the River Berzha, westward in an irregular line to the coast of the Gulf of Riga, north of Riga. In the summer of 1943 the ''Wehrmacht'' launched another combined forces offensive operation – ''Zitadelle'' (Citadel) – against the Soviet salient at Kursk. Soviet defensive tactics were by now hugely improved, particularly in terms of artillery and effective use of air support. All the same

decisive Soviet victory gave the Red Army the strategic initiative for the rest of the war. At the top of the German High Command (Oberkommando des Heeres) (OKH), Colonel General Kurt Zeitzler and others did not approve of Manstein's defensive strategy and instead turned their attention to the obvious bulge at Kursk. Two Red Army Fronts (Front (Soviet Army)), the Voronezh (Voronezh Front) and Central (Central Front (Soviet Union)) Fronts, occupied the ground in and around the salient

late 1941 to May 1942, the corps took part in defensive operations in the Kursk area. Thereafter the corps joined the ''Fall Blau'' offensive towards Stalingrad under Army Group South. During the Battle of Stalingrad the corps was trapped and its major units, 22nd Panzer Division and 1st Armoured Division (Romania), were annhilated. However, it was quickly reformed and used by Field Marshal Erich von Manstein's Operation Winter Storm efforts to relieve General


Tobruk

; Playfair, p. 216. Ritchie's defences in the northern half of the front comprised well dug in mutually supporting Brigade Group positions protected with wire and minefields. To the south of this, in order to extend the front and force any potential enemy flanking force to travel a long distance and also hamper its resupply, the defences consisted of two Brigade group defensive "boxes" linked by thickly sown minefields and wire. The first box, held by British 150th

in British ranks was horrendous as attempts to shore up the position failed time and again. After the Battle of Gazala Rommel not only drove the British out of Libya, and somewhat into Egypt, but he pushed deep into the protectorate. Tobruk fell quickly, and there was no repeat of the epic siege that Rommel's last advance had produced. A prepared defensive line at Mersa Matruh was out flanked, and disaster beckoned. Ritchie was dismissed as Eight Army commander and Claude

Auchinleck , the Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command, came forward to take command of it himself. After Matruh there was only one more defensive position before Cairo itself; El Alamein. In early January 1941, the Western Desert Force was redesignated XIII Corps (XIII Corps (United Kingdom)). On 9 January, the offensive resumed. By 12 January the strategic fortress port of Tobruk was surrounded. On 22 January it fell and another 27,000 Italian POWs were taken along


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