protection, and occupied Sidi Barrani. On December 8, 1940 British, and Indian troops under the command of Major-General O'Connor (Richard O'Connor) attacked against the Italian rear, via a gap in the defense (defense (military))s south of Sidi Barrani. Planning of the operation (and discovery of the gap) is credited to Brigadier Eric Dorman-Smith (Eric Dorman-Smith), who served as an adviser to O'Connor. date 9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941 place Sidi Barrani, Egypt
, Tarin Kowt to the north, and Quetta in neighboring Pakistan to the south. Following the US-led invasion (Operation Enduring Freedom) and the removal of the Taliban government (Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan) in late 2001, the military of Afghanistan is being rebuilt and reformed by NATO military alliance (Collective security#Collective defense), mainly by the United States armed forces. Despite early problems with recruitment and training, it is becoming effective
: '''پرویز ہودبھائی'''; born 11 July 1950), is a Pakistani (People of Pakistan) nuclear physicist, essayist and political-defence (Defense (military)) analyst. He is the professor of nuclear (Nuclear Physics) and high-energy physics (High energy physics), and the head of the Physics Department (Academic department) at the Quaid-e-Azam University (QAU). He graduated and also received PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT
The squadron began flying operational missions on 1 July 1941. As an army cooperation unit its main duties were photographic and tactical reconnaissance and artillery spotting (Artillery observer). From 13 September No. 451 Squadron maintained a detachment of two pilots and two aircraft in the besieged Libyan town of Tobruk to support the Allied garrison; this detachment remained until the siege (Siege of Tobruk) was lifted in December and several Hurricanes were shot down by Axis fighters. Eather (1995), p. 105 The remainder of No. 451 Squadron was attached to XIII Corps (XIII Corps (United Kingdom)) and participated in Operation Crusader during November and December 1941. The squadron frequently operated from airstrips near the front line, and some of its personnel were captured on 26 and 27 November when German forces attacked the airstrip at Sidi Azeiz. RAAF Historical Section (1995), pp. 112–113 All but three of these men were liberated when Bardia fell to the South African 2nd Infantry Division (2nd Infantry Division (South Africa)) on 2 January 1942. Herington (1954), p. 210 Following the conclusion of Operation Crusader No. 451 Squadron was withdrawn from operations on 24 January 1942 and was refitted at Heliopolis (Heliopolis (Cairo suburb)). RAAF Historical Section (1995), p. 113 thumb left No. 451 Squadron Hurricane fighters at Rayak, Syria during 1942 (File:451 Sqn RAAF Hurricanes Syria 1942.jpg) Greece and the Middle East The battalion embarked for overseas service on 10 January 1940 and arrived in Egypt on 13 February. The battalion then moved to Palestine were it concentrated with the rest of the 16th Brigade at Julis near Gaza. The entire brigade remained in Palestine until the end of August, when it moved to Egypt to carry out preparations for active service with the 6th Division. The battalions first campaign of World War II was the advance from Egypt into eastern Libya in January and February 1941. The battalion was involved in the attacks to capture Bardia and Tobruk, and was left to garrison Tobruk as the advance continued. It left Tobruk on 7 March, ultimately bound for Greece with the rest of the 6th Division. North Africa 1941 They arrived in Egypt on 18 May 1940 and undertook a further period of training there and in Palestine before taking part in the fighting against the Italians in Libya in January–February 1941, during which time they were involved in attacks on Bardia and Tobruk.
Zealand. Cook Islands Government Control over both external affairs and defence (Defense (military)) rests entirely with the Cook Islands government (Government of the Cook Islands). It has full legal and executive competence in respect of its own defence and security (JCD).
;Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (Judicial_Committee_of_the_Privy_Council#Overseas_jurisdiction), separate highest court of appeal (court of last resort) for New Zealand. Cook Islands Government Control over both external affairs and defence (Defense (military)) rests entirely with the Cook Islands government (Government of the Cook Islands). It has full legal and executive competence in respect of its
over both external affairs and defence (Defense (military)) rests entirely with the Cook Islands government (Government of the Cook Islands). It has full legal and executive competence in respect of its own defence and security (JCD). Minimal Diplomacy - Niue's careful approach to nationhood by Nicolaus Lange, February 2010; page 4 New Zealand
(court of last resort) for New Zealand. Cook Islands Government Control over both external affairs and defence (Defense (military)) rests entirely with the Cook Islands government (Government of the Cook Islands). It has full legal and executive competence in respect of its own defence and security (JCD). http
forces '''. The term "country" is used in the sense of independent state (Independence); thus, it applies only to sovereign (sovereignty) states (Sovereign state) and not dependencies (List of dependent territories) (e.g., Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Bermuda), whose defense is the responsibility of another country or an army alternative. The term "armed forces" refers to any government-sponsored defense (Defense (military)) used to further
, the National Defence College (National Defence University, Islamabad), Rawalpindi and the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, where he attended the Senior International Defense Management Course. He holds an M.Sc. in Defense (Defense (military)) and Strategic studies. Jetley's mother, Kaushaliya Rani, was the daughter of High Court advocate Shivram Jhingan. Jetley was educated at Quetta, Lansdowne (Lansdowne, Garhwal) and Dehra Dun, followed by higher education at the Gordon Mission College, Rawalpindi. birth_date WikiPedia:Quetta Dmoz:Regional Asia Pakistan Provinces Balochistan Localities Quetta
The dissolution of the Soviet Union posed particular problems for the Ossetian people, which were divided between North Ossetia, which was part of the Russian SFSR, and South Ossetia, part of the Georgian SSR. In December 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Georgia abolished the autonomous Ossetian enclave amid the rising ethnic tensions in the region (Georgian-Ossetian conflict), and much of the population fled across the border to North Ossetia or Georgia proper. Some 70,000 South Ossetian refugees were resettled in North Ossetia, sparking clashes with the predominantly Ingush population in the Prigorodny District (Prigorodny District, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania). That led to Ossetian-Ingush conflict. ** '''Abkhazia''' - Sergei Shamba (1997-2004) ** '''South Ossetia''' - Murat Dzhioyev (1998-present) * '''Germany''' - Joschka Fischer (1998-2005) ** '''Abkhazia''' - Sergei Shamba (1997-2004) ** '''South Ossetia''' - Murat Dzhioyev (1998-present) * '''Germany''' - The Cossacks have actively participated in some of the more abrupt political developments following the dissolution of the Soviet Union (History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)): South Ossetia, Crimea, Kosovo