Places Known For

defense line


Volokolamsk

was posthumously given the tile Hero of the Soviet Union two days after this. (Upon hearing of his death, Marshal Georgi Zhukov is said to have lamented that it was a grievous loss. ) Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk

and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite


Kaluga

–Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th (Fifth Army (Soviet Union)), 16th (16th Army (Soviet Union)), 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17. In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district), Minsk Belarus *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district) in the following Russian cities: Astrakhan, Barnaul, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Grozny, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov (Kirov, Russia), Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Krasnoyarsk, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy Tagil, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Penza, Perm, Rostov-na-Donu, Samara (Samara, Russia), Saransk, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Tambov, Tomsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir (Vladimir, Russia), Vladivostok, Voronezh, Yaroslavl and Yekaterinburg *'''Závody V. I. Lenina''' (V. I. Lenin Works) – now Škoda Plzeň (Škoda Works), Plzeň Czech Republic In 1946 Shukshin left his native village and worked as a metal craftsman at several enterprises in the trust Soyuzprommekhanizatsiya: at the turbine plant in Kaluga, at the tractor plant in Vladimir, etc. In 1949, Shukshin was drafted into the Navy (Soviet Navy). He first served as a sailor in the Baltic Fleet, then a radio operator on the Black Sea. In 1953 he was demobilized due to a stomach ulcer and returned to his native village. Having passed an external exam for high school graduation, he became a teacher of Russian, and later a school principal in Srostki. #Oktyabrsky City District, Izhevsk, a city district of Izhevsk, The 307 remains in production for several countries, especially those that prefer saloon bodies (Sedan_(automobile)) such as Brazil and China.


Oryol Oblast

28,000 (1970). Territory


Jiuquan

Darya and Amu Darya valleys (present-day Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Yü (1986), 409–411. The long walled defense line that now stretched all the way to Dunhuang protected the people, guided caravans and troops to and from Central Asia, and served to separate the Xiongnu from their allies, the Qiang people. Loewe (2009), 71. Early reign Li Gao set his capital at Dunhuang. In 401


Rzhev

the city. The first part, the Rzhev-Vyazma defense setup, was built on the Rzhev–Vyazma–Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. After the reorganization, the ''Großdeutschland'' Division was assigned to XLVIII. Panzerkorps (German XLVIII Panzer Corps) during the opening phases of Fall Blau, the assault on Stalingrad. The division took part in the successful attacks to cross the upper Don river (Don River, Russia) and to capture Voronezh. In August, the division was pulled back to the north bank of the Donets and held as a mobile reserve and ''fire-brigade'' counterattack force. During the combined Soviet winter offensives Operation Uranus and Operation Mars, the Division was involved in heavy winter fighting near Rzhev. The Division sustained heavy losses in the Rzhev salient, effectively making the division combat ineffective. It was pulled out of the lines and refitted. ''Sonderkommando'' 7a ''Sonderkommando'' 7a led by Walter Blume, was attached to the 9th Army (9th Army (Wehrmacht)) under General Adolf Strauß. SK 7a entered Vilna on 27 June and remained there until 3 July. Soon Vilna was in the command sphere of ''Einsatzgruppe'' A, and ''Sonderkommando'' 7a was transferred to Kreva near Minsk. The ''Sonderkommando'' was active in Vilna, Nevel, Gorodoik, Vitebsk, Welish, Rzhev, Vyazma, Kalinin, and Klinzy. It executed 6,788 people. thumb right 300px ''Relief of Smolensk'' by Polish forces, by Juliusz Kossak (Image:Juliusz Kossak Odsiecz Smolenska.jpeg). While both countries were shaken by internal strife, many smaller factions thrived. Polish Lisowczycy mercenaries, who were essential in the defense of Smolensk in 1612, when most of regulars (wojsko kwarciane) mutinied and joined the ''konfederacja rohatynska'', were content to guard the Polish border against the Russian incursions for the next three years. However, in 1615 Aleksander Józef Lisowski gathered many outlaws and invaded Russia with 6 ''chorągiew'' of cavalry. He besieged Bryansk and defeated the relief force of few thousand soldiers under Prince Yuri Shakhovskoy near Karachev. Then Lisowski defeated the front guard of a force several times larger than his own, under the command of knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky, who decided to defend instead of attack and fortified his forces in a camp. Lisowczycy broke contact with his forces, burned Belyov and Likhvin, took Peremyshl (Peremyshl, Russia), turned north, defeated the Russian army at Rzhev, proceeded north towards Kashin, burned Torzhok, and, heavy with loot returned to Poland without any further opposition from Russian forces. Lisowski and his forces remained at the Russo–Polish border until autumn 1616, at which point Lisowski suddenly fell ill and died on 11 October The formation was then known as ''Lisowczycy''. Despite the death of Lisowski, his forces remained a significant threat: in 1616 they captured Kursk and defeated Russian forces at Bolkhov. '''Rzhev Battles''' ( 2.67 16 October 1942, in the days of Battle of Stalingrad the division was assigned to front-line airfields near Andreapol, Tver Oblast and subordinated to Mikhail Gromov (Mikhail Gromov (aviator))'s Third Air Army targeted against Rzhev and Smolensk. The division entered combat 29 October Kamanin's first personal combat sortie in World War II occurred 28 December 1942, against Velikiye Luki railroad station. The division was engaged in the Battle of Velikiye Luki and Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive, which ended in German evacuation of Rzhev bridgeheads at an enormous cost to Red Army. 292nd division, credited with saving Soviet offensive at Bely, Tver Oblast (8 December) and other tactical successes, was slowly bleeding, losing 20 pilots and 35 aircraft in two months, with no replenishments until January 1943. Refit division served against Demyansk Pocket, 15–23 February 1943. 1 March 1943, Kamanin was summoned to Moscow again and passed command of 292nd division to Filipp Agaltsov, future Marshal of Aviation (Military ranks of the Soviet Union). On 15 September 1941 von Thoma was made Army High Command Leader Reserve, his duties being determined by the Commander of Wehrkreis (Military District) III, Berlin. On 14 October 1941 he was made Commander of the 20th Panzer Division (German 20th Panzer Division) on the Eastern Front. Succeeding Generalmajor Horst Stumpff as divisional commander, von Thoma led his new command on the drive on Moscow that began on 15 November 1941. Despite the onset of a brutal winter, the Germans doggedly advanced on Moscow from the north and the south in an attempt to close pincers around the Russian capital. However, the increasing cold, fierce local counter attacks, and lack of reserves slowed the advance. On 6 December, the Russians launched the first of a series of major counter offensives that forced the Germans back from Moscow. By the end of the month, von Thoma had received the coveted Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for organizing and holding a new defensive position on the Ruza River despite being closely pursued by strong Soviet forces. On 15 January 1942, Hitler finally bowed to the inevitable and authorized his freezing and exhausted armies to slowly pull back in measured stages to the Rzhev–Gzhatsk–Orel (Oryol)–Kursk Königsberg Line. After continuing to serve on the Moscow front, von Thoma relinquished command of the 20th Panzer Division to Generalmajor Walther Düvert.


Vyazma

lacked fuel at the beginning of the operation. Guderian, p. 307 The Soviet command began constructing extensive defenses around the city. The first part, the Rzhev-Vyazma defense setup, was built on the Rzhev–Vyazma–Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Gingerbreads are known in Russia. The most famous gingerbreads there are baked in the ancient cities Tula (Tula, Russia) (Tula gingerbread), Vyazma, and Gorodets. Khovansky came from a senior Gediminid family, whose ancestors moved from Podolia to Moscow in 1408. He started his employment under Mikhail I (Michael I of Russia) as a stolnik. In 1650 he was sent to Tula (Tula, Russia) to counter the raids of Crimean Tatar (Tatars#Crimean Tatars)s. In 1651–1654 he was governor in Vyazma, and in 1656 he was governor of Mogilev. The Russian historian A. Lobin tried to calculate the size of the Russian army at Orsha based on the mobilisation capacities of the towns which had to send townspeople for military services. Лобин А. Н. К вопросу о численности вооружённых сил Российского государства в XVI в. Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana 2009 Nr 1-2. pp.45-78 It is known that except for Boyar sons of the sovereign's regiment there were people of 14 towns: Novgorod, Pskov, Velikie Luki, Kostroma, Murom, Borovsk, Tver, Volok (Volokolamsk), Roslavl, Vyazma, Pereyaslavl (Pereslavl-Zalessky), Kolomna, Yaroslavl and Starodub. Лобин А. Н. К вопросу о численности вооружённых сил Российского государства в XVI в. Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana 2009 Nr. 1-2. pp. 63-64 Based on the data of the well-documented Polotsk campaign of 1563 the author gives following numbers: 400–500 Tatars, 200 boyar sons of the sovereign's regiment, 3,000 Novgorodian and Pskovians, and about 3,600 representatives of other towns, altogether about 7,200 noblemen. Complemented with servants the overall number of the Russian army could be 13,000-15,000 men. Considering the losses during the campaign, the abandonment of service which is documented in the sources and the number of soldiers left as garrison in Smolensk the number of Russian troops present at Orsha could be about 12,000 men. align "center" 100px (Image:Borisgodunov.jpg) align "center" c.1551, Vyazma, Russia align "center" Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya 2 children ''Sonderkommando'' 7a ''Sonderkommando'' 7a led by Walter Blume, was attached to the 9th Army (9th Army (Wehrmacht)) under General Adolf Strauß. SK 7a entered Vilna on 27 June and remained there until 3 July. Soon Vilna was in the command sphere of ''Einsatzgruppe'' A, and ''Sonderkommando'' 7a was transferred to Kreva near Minsk. The ''Sonderkommando'' was active in Vilna, Nevel, Gorodoik, Vitebsk, Welish, Rzhev, Vyazma, Kalinin, and Klinzy. It executed 6,788 people. ''Einsatzkommando'' 9 The ''Einsatzkommando'' was active in Vilna, Grodno, Lida, Bielsk-Podlaski, Nevel, Lepel, Surazh, Vyazma, Gzhatsk, Mozhaisk, Vitebsk, Smolensk, and Varena. It executed 41,340 people. **'''Uglich''' - Constantine, Prince of Uglich (1331–1364) **'''Vyazma''' - Fëdor Svyatoslavič, Prince of Vyazma (1326 1343–1346)*'''Meskheti''' (Diakeli Dynasty) - Kwarkware I, King of Meskheti (1334–1361) *'''Mingrelia''' (Dadiani Dynasty) - Mamia I, King of Mingrelia (1323–1345) - 24th Army (24th Army (Soviet Union)) 15 July 1941 1943 The army headquarters, formed from Headquarters Siberian Military District; under General Staff instructions of 25.06.41 arrived on 28.06.41 at Vyazma, accepting on arrival in this area six Siberian rifle divisions of the high command reserve. Involved in the Yelnya Offensive, August-September 1941. HQ disbanded 10 October 1941, having been destroyed in the Vyazma Pocket. Reformed again, then redesignated as HQ 58th Army on August 28, 1942; David Glantz, personal correspondence, December 2007 Soon afterwards reformed again from 9th Reserve Army and ended up in the Stalingrad area. Then redesignated 4th Guards Army on 16 April 1943 (Glantz, 2005, p. 511), or May 1943 (Perechen) - thumb right 200px Hetman (Image:HetmanChodkiewicz.jpg) Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, sketch by Juliusz Kossak. Eventually the Commonwealth Sejm voted to raise the funds necessary to resume large scale military operations. Sigismund's and Władysław's final attempt to gain the throne was a new campaign launched on 6 April 1617. Władysław was the nominal commander, but it was hetman Chodkiewicz who had actual control over the army. In October, the towns of Dorogobuzh (''Дорогобуж'', ''Drohobuż'', ''Drohobycz'') and Vyazma (''Вязьма'', ''Wiaźma'') surrendered quickly, recognizing Władysław as the tsar. However, the Commonwealth forces suffered defeats between Vyazma and Mozhaisk, and Chodkiewicz's plans for a counterattack and an advance to Moscow failed. Władysław did not have enough forces to advance to Moscow again, especially because the Russian support for the Poles was all but gone by that time. In response to Władysław's invasion, the burghers of Smolensk revolted against Polish rule, and the Polish troops had to fight their way back as they retreated from the city. However, in 1617 Polish forces, besieged in Smolensk by Russian forces, were relieved by Lisowczycy, when Russian forces retreated to Biała soon after receiving news that Lisowczycy, then commanded by Stanisław Czapiński, had appeared in the area. In 1618 Petro Sahaidachny's campaign against Muscovy resulted in sacking numerous forts such as Putivl, Kursk, Yelets, and others. Together with Chodkiewicz he laid the siege to Moscow in September 1618. Due to the unclear reasons both Hetmans failed to take the city. Negotiations began and a peace treaty was signed in 1618. '''Rzhev Battles''' (


Tver

wikipedia:Tver commons:Tver


Bryansk

son-in-law Svarn, and his son Vaišvilkas—were assassinated during the next seven years. Stability did not return until the reign of Traidenis, designated Grand Duke ca. 1270. The first blow took the Soviets completely by surprise as 2nd Panzer Army returning from the south took Oryol which was south of the Soviet first main defense line. Three days later the Panzers pushed on Bryansk while 2nd Army attacked from the west

;ndash;Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. birth_date December 31, 1948 birth_place Bryansk, Russian SFSR occupation Pilot (aviator) '''Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev''' page 118, accessed: 14 November 2008 thumb left Aleksey Trubetskoy was the godparent godfather (File:Young peter.jpg) of Peter I of Russia. Young Peter with royal (Regalia) regalia. In 1654 Prince Aleksey Trubetskoy on the side of Alexis I of Russia led the southern flank of the Muscovite army from Bryansk to Ukraine. The territory between the Dniepr and Berezyna was overrun quickly, with Aleksey Trubetskoy taking Mścisław and Rosławl. In 1654 the former Principality of Trubetsk was finally conquered by Aleksey Trubetskoy, Prince of Trubetsk himself, as a result of the Russo-Polish War (1654-1667). In 1656 the second Muscovian (Muscovite Tsardom) army advanced in the north of Swedish Livonia and besieged Tartu. In 1659 a Muscovite army, led by Aleksey Trubetskoy, crossed into Ukraine and was partly defeated by a Ruthenian (Principality of Ruthenia)–Tatar (Crimean Tatars) army led by Ivan Vyhovsky in the Battle of Konotop. In 1659 he negotiated the Second Treaty of Pereiaslav with Yurii Khmelnytsky. In 1659 Aleksey Trubetskoy together with Ivan Sirko, who went to Zaporozhian Sich in 1654, and became a polkovnyk (colonel), fought against the Crimean Khanate.


Sakhalin Oblast

'''Oroks''' (''Ороки'' in Russian (Russian language); self-designation: ''ульта'', ulta, ulcha) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia. The Orok language belongs to the Southern group of the Tungusic language family (Tungusic languages) and is unwritten. According to the 2002 Russian census (Russian Census (2002)), there were 346 Oroks living


Serpukhov

, on the left bank of the Protva River. Population: The battle On October 8, 1480 Akhmat Khan planned to bypass the Oka river from the west and thus avoid Ivan's regiments which were located in Kolomna, Serpukhov and Tarusa. This would allow Akhmat Khan to unite his army with Casimir's. Akhmat Khan's forces approached the Ugra river. The main Russian defense line ran along the Oka from Nizhny Novgorod to Kaluga


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