Places Known For

contemporary life'


New Center, Detroit

Methodist Church * New Center Building * New Center One * New Center Park Culture and contemporary life thumb Hotel St. Regis, Detroit (File:Detroit St regis Hotel New center area.jpg) New Center has a retail section, primarily along the Woodward and Grand Boulevard corridors. The Cadillac Place state office complex and the Fisher Building are National Historic Landmarks in the area. "

Magazine''. Retrieved on January 2, 2009. thumb left 200px Historic homes in the West Canfield Historic District West Canfield (File:West Canfield Historic District 1 - Detroit Michigan.jpg) neighborhood in Midtown (Midtown Detroit). Culture and contemporary life thumb 150px right New Center, Detroit New Center (File:Tastefest Detroit 2006.jpg) summer events with Cadillac Place in the background. Downtown Detroit is growing in its population of young professionals


Durango, Durango

Metropolitan Cathedral Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico City. The altar formed by a Neoclassical (Neoclassical architecture) style cypress, guards the image of the Purisima Concepcion; a polychrome and gilded carving of the 18th century. On the altar there are paintings by duranguense artists Miguel Cabrera and Juan Correa. Culture and Contemporary Life Entertainment and performing arts The city of Durango attracts close to one million visitors each summer for its annual month-long '''Feria Nacional De Durango''' (Durango's National Festival) which has taken place since 1929. It is the most important festival in the history of the state and the city itself, in which Durango celebrates the anniversary of the founding of the city which occurred on July 8, 1563. Durango also offers various cultural venues to host events such as conferences, concerts, theatrical performances, among many others. Such venues include, '''Teatro Ricardo Castro''' (Ricardo Castro Theatre) and '''Auditorio Mercedes Mendoza''' (Mercedes Mendoza Auditorium). Museums thumb left Regional Museum of Durango (File:Museo Regional de Durango.jpg) The city of Durango hosts a variety of museums including '''Museo Regional de Durango''' (Regional Museum of Durango), '''Museo Arqueológico de Durango Ganot-Peschard''' (Ganot-Peschard Museum of Archaeology), '''Museo de Arte Moderno Guillermo Ceniceros''' (Guillermo Ceniceros Art Museum), '''Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Angel Zárraga''' (Angel Zagarra Museum of Contemporary Art), '''Museo Temático de Cine "Museo del Cine"''' (Thematic Film Museum),'''Museo de la Revolución en Durango''' (Museum of the Revolution in Durango), '''Mueseo de Arte Sacro''' (Museum of Sacred Art) and a museum designed especially for children: '''El Bebeleche-Museo Interactivo de Durango''' (Bebeleche-Interactive Museum Durango). El Parque Guadiana El Parque Guadiana (Guadiana Park), is considered an urban forest that provides environmental (ecosystem services) services to the city such as the carbon cycle, temperature control, and psychological benefits to those whom visit the park. Parque Guadiana is also the habitat for many fauna species, especially the avifauna species that are found within the park. El Parque Guadiana also offers kid-friendly infrastructure where children can play, a specialized trail for runners and walkers, fountains, an Olympic pool, and a town hall that was inaugurated in 1960. It also has a small train that goes around the Lago de los Patos "lake of the ducks", and until recently, a recreational bicycle path, ( it currently is being remodeled) in a wooded area that serves as a source of cool air to cyclists. Media Parallel to this highway, in some sections, runs Federal Highway 40D (Mexican Federal Highway 40D), which is a 4-lane restricted access toll road. Hairston played 14 seasons in the majors, mostly with the Chicago White Sox and part of one season with the Pittsburgh Pirates. He also played three years (from 1978 to 1980) with Durango (Durango, Durango) of the Mexican League. While playing in Mexico, Hairston won a batting title and twice represented Mexican League teams at the Caribbean Series. He met his wife, Esperanza, in Hermosillo, Mexico and the couple held a wedding ceremony at Hector Espino Stadium (Estadio De Beisbol Héctor Espino). http: mlb.mlb.com wbc 2009 news article.jsp?ymd 20090303&content_id 3913122&vkey wbc&team &lang 1


Chihuahua City

is employed in mining and industry. In mining, Chihuahua state is the leading producer in the republic of non-ferrous minerals and zinc, and is second nationwide in silver extraction. Agricultural production makes up only 6% of the total GSP, however the state is the leading producer of apples, nuts, cattle and sheep raising nationally, and second in pine and oak trees harvested. Contemporary life thumb The Chihuahua campus of ITESM (File:ITESM Campus Chihuahua.jpg). The city's most


Iquitos

the architecture of Iquitos, and defense against the rain was another prominent feature given for buildings. About 90 buildings are declared architectural heritage of Loreto. Culture and contemporary life thumb The Plaza de Armas and the Iglesia Matriz (nearly the middle of the image) in the Downtown Iquitos. (File:Iquitos-2012-plaza.jpg) File:Iquitos-2012.jpg thumb The Iglesia Matriz de Iquitos

, European motifs and commercial characters, which may be influenced by American pop art, especially MTV. In several works of painters ''iquiteños'' (such as Christian Bendayan, Roldán Pinedo, Elena Valera, Rember Yahuarcani, Brus Rubio and Victor Churay), Amazonian pop art legacy has been a visual reference to create avant-garde works of contemporary life in the city and Amazonian culture. The Dirección Regional de Cultura (formerly known as Instituto Nacional de Cultura del Perú), with headquarters in the city, mainly funded events and arts festivals in the city, although there are also small indie (indie art) or underground (Subculture) groups that conduct their own cultural events. The city has many small festivals; the highlights are Estamos en la Calle, Iquitos Outfest, and other small annual events. The city is known for having a remarkable celebration, called simply ''Carnaval''. During this festival, mainly pagan, celebrants are dedicated to wetting people with ''cabaciñas (Water balloon)'' or other instrument. Many choose to be more extravagant, wetting with various substances such as paint or other object as cause for celebration. The celebration is unique each year in February. The carnival is heavily influenced by myths and rich Amazonian culture. It also celebrates the Day of San Juan, referring to John the Baptist as patron saint in the Peruvian Amazon, whose feast is celebrated on 24 June. The main element is the juane and other own dances as shunto jump. Cinema thumb 220px The first film projection was presented with an Thomas Edison Edison (File:Iquitos Casa de Hierro01.jpg) machine at Casa de Fierro, 1900. WikiPedia:Iquitos commons:Iquitos


Douala

, Cameroon publisher Hong Kong Observatory accessdate December 6, 2012 source 2 Weatherbase (record highs and lows, humidity) Culture and contemporary life


Anosy Region

of the use and knowledge of non-domesticated medicinal plants on conservation among the people of Madagascar. PhD Thesis, Washington State University. Lyon, Linda M. & Hardesty, Linda H. (2005). Traditional healing in the contemporary life of the Antanosy people of Madagascar. ''Ethnobotany Research & Applications, 3'', 287–294. Maps Because of the Europeans which began visiting the Anosy region over 500 years ago, there is a long history of maps of this area. Current NGA Chart 61522: Faradofay (Fort Dauphin) and Approaches are several different maps of the Anosy area, several of them available online courtesy of the University of Texas' (Austin) map collection. US Army Map Service. (1956). '''Anosy''' US Army Map Service. (1967). Fort Dauphin '''Western''' coastal Anosy US Army Map Service. (1967). Manantenina '''Northeastern Anosy''' In terms of maps of Anosy for sale in Madagascar, see FTM's website Foiben-Taosarintanin' i Madagasikara (FTM). l'Institut Geographique et Hydrographique de Madagascar. including maps No. 12 Tolanaro (eastern coast north of Tolagnaro) and No. 11 Ampanihy (which is actually a map of southern Madagascar, from Tolagnaro across to Toliary). These are a part of their collection of 12 Maps of Madagascar. They also have a map of Southern Madagascar across to Toliary. In addition there is a recent map of Tolagnaro Office du Tourisme de Fort Dauphin. (2008). La carte touristique de l'Office du Tourisme. as well as one of the Andohahela National Park. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar (ANGAP). (2007). Parc National Andohahela. Historical Finally, in terms of much older, European maps of the area which are online, for Fort Dauphin, see Flacourt (mid-1650s). Flacourt, S. de. (mid-1650s). Map of Fort Dauphin. For a map of the Anosy region done at the same time, see Flacourt (1656). Flacourt, S. de (1656). Map of Anosy. (There is a second map of Anosy created by Madave (1768).) For Flacourt's map of the community at Tranovato see Map of Trano Vato & surrounding area. For a map of the coastline of eastern Madagascar (Mananjary south to Fort Dauphin), with detail about both the Fort Dauphin harbor as well as St. Luce (Manafiafy), see. Mengaud de la Hage. (1777?). Carte de la cote Orientale de Madagascar. For several other maps of the Fort Dauphin bay, see Plans de la baie du Fort Dauphin by Anonymous (17th century), Eberard, D. (1667), Bellin (1764) and Hage (1776). For an in-depth description of sailing directions (landmarks visible from the ocean for various places to harbor in Anosy), see Great Britain Hydrographic Department. (1891). Great Britain Hydrographic Department. (1891). ''Islands in the southern Indian Ocean, westward of long 80 east, including Madagascar'' (pp. 139-147). Mining Mining has been occurring in Anosy for at least the last 100 years as Mica has been an export since the early 1900s, Uranothorianite was mined from the 1950s to the mid-1960s, for several years being Madagascar's second most valuable export. Sapphires briefly became a major export in the early- to mid-1990s and today QIT Madagascar Minerals (QMM), which is 80 percent Rio Tinto and 20 percent Malagasy government) is exporting 750,000 tons per year of Ilmenite, along with 40,000 tons per year of Rutile and Zircon. There are also major deposits of bauxite and prospecting is ongoing for uranium as well as a variety of rare earth minerals. Carter, J. (2010). The Integration of Ecological Data in a Minerals Assessment in Southeastern Madagascar. Presentation to The 3rd USGS Modeling Conference, 7–11 June 2010, Paper No. 11-7. National Wetlands Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Lafayette, LA 70506 Mihalasky, M.J., Peters, S.G., Carter, J., Dillingham, W.S., Dobbin, J., Hammarstrom, J.M., Lampietti, F.M.J., Mack, T.J., Sutphin, D.M., Verstraeten I.M. & Mihalasky, F.I. (2006). Anosy Region Dynamic Spatial Analysis GIS, Identification of Three Areas Having Future Mineral Potential & Summary of Socioeconomic Planning (Version 1.1e) (DVD-ROM). For the project ''Study of the Future Impact of Minerals, Hydrology & Ecology on the Integrated Economic Development in the Anosy Region, Madagascar''. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report. The Projet de Gouvernance des Ressources Minérales and the World. Stanley, M. & Harris, D. (2007?). ''Dynamic Mineral Resources Management: Anosy Case Study''. World Bank Oil, Gas, and Mining Policy Division. While quite a bit of mining has been done in Anosy over the last 60 years, a paraphrased translation of a 2002 post in Malagasy on the internet shared skepticism of the benefits to Malagasy of the mining which has occurred in Anosy to date: * Is Manantenina, the town near the major Bauxite deposit in Anosy, progressing today? * How many large stone houses are left in Ambatomika where Uranium was mined? * How many schools were built in Sarisambo with funds from the Monazite mined there? * What is left in Andranodambo where Sapphires were mined? Holes are the only souvenirs left here. * What are the benefits left in the Tranomaro area where Mica was and continues to be mined?" Bauxite Bauxite is an aluminium ore which is the main source of Aluminium. There are an estimated 100 million tons of bauxite near Manantenina where it has been found over a 40km2 area. While this deposit has been studied for the last 45 years and in 2008 Rio Tinto (Rio Tinto Madagascar) indicated both a mine and refinery were "development projects," it is not yet being mined, due in large part due to the lack of infrastructure in this part of Madagascar (100 km north of Tolagnaro). Preston Chiaro. (2008, Feb 5). ''Rio Tinto in Africa—A long history and a strong future''. Cape Town, SA: Mining Indaba. US Geological Survey. (2003). ''Minerals Yearbook Volume 3: Area Reports: International Review, Africa and the Middle East''. Aerial view of deposit just west of Manantenina). Aerial view of deposit near Andaza (southwest of Manantenina). Ilmenite Ilmenite is mined for Titanium Dioxide production, which, when finely ground, is a bright white powder which is widely used as a base pigment in paint, paper and plastics. Since 2009, 750,000 tons per year of Ilmenite is being exported by QMM to Canada, with a potential for this to grow to 2 million tons per year. (In addition, 25,000 tons per year of Zircon and 15,000 tons per year of Rutile is also being produced as part of their Ilmenite mining—see below). The estimated life of this mine is 40 years. Almost $1 billion was spent developing this mine, including a new harbor at Port Ehoala. Port d'Ehoala per Book chapters, News reports, Research studies, etc.) Al Jazeera. (?). Rio Tinto Madagascar (YouTube) Al Jazeera. (2009, 10 March). Madagascar mining 'damaging' environment (YouTube). Campbell, Bonnie. (2009). Conclusion: What Development Model? What Government Agenda? From Bonnie Campbell (Ed.). Chapter 6 of ''Mining in Africa: Regulation and Development'', pp. 150–186. Pluto Press IDRC. Collier, Christopher B. (2011, Spring). The Impact of QMM on Social Relations in Fort-Dauphin. ISP Collection. Paper 997. Drouot, Andry. (2010, Nov 2). Entre QMM et Fagnomba: Le dialogue repart sur de nouvelles bases. ''Gazette de la Grande Ile''. Friends of the Earth. (2007). Rio Tinto's Madagascar mining project. Glass, Amy. (2009, May 20). Let them keep their millions: should ‘development’ be refused in Madagascar? ''People & Development'' Glass, Amy. ⋅(2009, October 5). Rio Tinto’s biodiversity accounting comes up short in Madagascar. ''People & Development.'' Glass, Amy. (2010, Jan 28). Voices of Change from Southern Madagascar. ''People & Development''. Navalona, R. (2010, 9 July). Developpement de Taolagnaro: QMM investit plus d'Ar 200 millions pour realiser le programme 'Fagneva' cette annee. ''Midi Madagasikara.'' RANDRIANARISOA Tsiory Radoniaina. (2006). Le Syndrome Hollandais: Est-ce applicable pour l'economie Malgache. Universite d'Antananarivo. Sarrasin, Bruno. (2006). Economie politique du developpement minier a Madagascar: L' Analyse du projet QMM a Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin). ''VertigO – La Revue Electronique en Sciences de l'Environnement, 7''(2). Sarrasin, Bruno (2007). Le projet minier de QIT Madagascar Mineral à Tolagnaro (Fort-Dauphin, Madagascar): Quels enjeux de développement? ''Afrique Contemporaine (Paris), 1''(221), 205–223. Sarrasin, Bruno. (2009). Mining and protection of the environment in Madagascar. From Bonnie Campbell (Ed.). Chapter 4 of ''Mining in Africa: Regulation and Development'', pp. 150–186. Pluto Press IDRC. Also available at http: web.idrc.ca en ev-141153-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html Seagle, Caroline. (2009). Biodiversity for whom? Local experiences and global strategies of land use and access near the Rio Tinto QMM ilmenite mine in Fort Dauphin, SE Madagascar. Masters Thesis. VU University Amsterdam. per the Malagasy government Government of Madagascar. (2007). Amendements au Plan de Réinstallation pour la Mise en Oeuvre du Projet Ilmenite de QMM SA à Tolagnaro. per various NGOs Andrew Lees Trust. (2008?). A scoping of impacts: Rio Tinto in Madagascar. ALT. (n.d.). Project HEPA and the QMM Mine Anosy. ALT. (n.d.). Policy Statement on the QMM MINE, Fort Dauphin, Southern Madagascar. ALT & PANOS. (2009). Madagascar: Voices of Change—Oral Testimony of the Antanosy People. Harbinson, R. (2007). ''Development recast: A review of the impact of the Rio Tinto Ilmenite mine in southern Madagascar''. Friends of the Earth. Harbinson, Rod. (2007). ''A mine of information? Improving communication around the Rio Tinto ilmenite mine in Madagascar''. London: Panos. Hay Zara. (2010). Madagascar: Voices of Change (Andrew Lees Trust). United Nations Madagascar. London Mining Network. (2010, April). Rio Tinto: A Shameful History of Human and Labour Rights Abuses And Environmental Degradation Around the Globe. Nostromo Research. (2001). The case against QMM Rio Tinto in Madagascar. Friends of the Earth. Oxfam. (2009, April). Sodexo Madagascar: Creating linkages between local producers and the mining sector. Porter, Gareth et al. (2001, October). Review of an Ilmenite Project in Southeast Madagascar. Conservation International. PANOS London. (2009). Pushed to the edge. UAE DEV. (2010, September). Voices from Madagascar‘s Forests: Improving Representation and Rights of Malagasy Forest Peoples. WWF. (2005). An Update on the QMM Mining Project in the Anosy Region, Southeastern Madagascar. WWF Review. per Rio Tinto QMM & SODEXHO International Advisory Panel. (2011, August). ''Report of the International Advisory Panel''. Rio Tinto. Preston Chiaro. (2008, Feb 5). Qit Minerals Madagascar. 2008. En Routes vers un Développement Durable: Rapport Annual 2007. QMM. (2009, March). A mine at the rescue of the unique biodiversity of the littoral zone of Fort-Dauphin. QIT Madagascar Minerals SA Press kit. ''Rio Tinto in Africa—A long history and a strong future''. Cape Town, SA: Mining Indaba. SODEXHO Madagascar. (2007). Our corporate responsibility. Vincelette, Manon et al. (2008). The QMM Rio Tinto project history in Tolagnaro and its social and environmental concepts. per the GIZ & World Bank GIZ. (2011). Development Partnership with the Private Sector: Mining Wealth at Work—Making local communities benefit from extractive industries. Stanley, Michael & Harris, DeVerle. (2005?). ''Dynamic mineral resources management: Anosy Case Study''. World Bank Oil, Gas, and Mining Policy Division. World Bank. (2006). A Case Study in Dynamic Mineral Resources Management—Anosy Region, Madagascar. Projet Poles Integres de Croissance. (2007, Juillet). Amendements au plan de reinstallation pour la mise en oeuvre du Projet Ilmenite de QMM s.a. a Tolagnaro. Mica Mica's value is based on its unique physical properties. It has a crystalline structure which forms layers which can be split (delaminated) into very thin sheets (0.125 to 0.025 mm. or thinner), while remaining stable when exposed to electricity). This gives it superior electrical properties as an insulator (insulator (electricity)) and a dielectric, as it can support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat. It also has a high dielectric breakdown and is resistant to corona discharge. It is also stable when exposed to light, moisture and extreme temperatures. Mica is also chemically inert, dielectric, elastic, flexible, hydrophilic, insulating, lightweight, platy, reflective, refractive, resilient, and ranges in opacity from transparent to opaque. The two commercially important micas, used in a variety of applications, are Muscovite, the principal mica used by the electrical industry, thermally stable to 500 °C, is used in high frequency and radio frequency capacitors. The second is Phlogopite, which remains stable up to 900 °C and is used in applications in which a combination of high-heat stability and electrical properties is required. Discovered near Tranomaro in 1912 (though it can be found in crystalline schists from Fort Dauphin up to Ihosy), within 6 years 18 tons yr of phlogopite mica was exported, with over 500 tons yr by 1928. By 1947 there were 50 different companies mining mica, though the majority of the mining was done by just 10 of them. There were still 15 mines operating in 1962, with active exploration going on at 20 other sites. Mining companies included the Etablissements W. Boetschi, Les Fils de O. Jenny, the Societe des Minerals de la Grande Isle at Benato and th Union des Micas. However, in 1963 the US stopped purchasing mica, resulting in the closure of several mines and the production being cut by 2 3rds. The biggest mine was and still is at Ampandandrava, about 250 km from Tolagnaro, which currently is being mined by Groupe Akesson, exporting 1,000 tons yr. Robequain, C. (1947). Le mica de Madagascar. ''Annales de Géographie, 56''(301), 75–76. Le Mica Madagascar Matin. (2011, Aout). SOMIDA – Une production annuelle de 1 000 T de Mica. Monazite Monazite, a reddish-brown phosphate mineral, contains rare earth (rare earth mineral) metals. It was originally mined from beach sands at and near Tolagnaro by Societe d'Exploitation des Monazites, which had a treatment plant which produced 200 tons yr, though in 1964 the plant was moved to Vohibarika. There are still an estimated 310,000 tons of this in the heavy-mineral sands near Tolagnaro. Monazite de Manantenina Monzanite Heavy-mineral sands near Tolagnaro have an estimated 177,000 tons of monzanite, with another 64,000 tons with a high Thorium content located 100 km north of Tolagnaro. Rutile Rutile, a mineral composed primarily of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), is an important constituent of heavy mineral sands ore deposits which typically also include Ilmenite and Zircon. The two main uses of Rutile are either in the manufacture of refractory ceramic (as a white pigment), and for the production of Titanium metal. About 15,000 tons yr are being exported by QMM as a byproduct of its Ilmenite mining in the region. see Ilmenite above Sapphires Sapphires are worn as jewelry. They are also used in several other applications, including infrared optical components (i.e. scientific instruments), high-durability applications (windows, wristwatch crystals and movement bearing (bearing (mechanical))s) and very thin electronic wafers (i.e. used in insulating integrated circuits). The presence of Sapphires in Anosy was first written about by Etienne de Flacourt in 1658, they were most likely also seen by Barthelemy Hugon in 1808; and sapphire crystals were described by a French geologist working in the mica mines near Tranomaro in the 1950s. However, it wasn't until 1991 that very high quality blue sapphires of up to 35 carat (carat (mass))s (similar in quality to those from Kashmir) were purchased by gemologist John Darbellay near the Antandroy villages of Andranondambo and Marohoto (20 km from Tranomaro) in the Manambolo valley, just 80 km northwest of Tolagnaro (though it takes a 6-hour drive of almost 210 km to get there). Thai purchasers arrived in 1993, soon joined by traders from Israel, Sri Lanka and several other countries, and by 1994 almost 10,000 miners had rushed to the area from all parts of Madagascar. However, while the initial finds of sapphires in this area were only 2 to 3 meters below ground, in gravel held by clay, since then most sapphires found are almost randomly embedded in a limestone or marble bedrock. These rocks take extensive work to obtain, requiring sledgehammers, spikes and small fires. Thus, the number of miners was only about 5,000 a year later; today Andranondambo only has about 1,000 residents, many occasionally continue to search for sapphires, though they also farm, are vendors, etc. Foreigners visit only occasionally, as most middlemen are now Malagasy. Three different companies attempted to mine commercially, but only for a brief time. An Environmental Impact Study conducted in 2004 found the area "highly degraded" and the remaining dry spiny and gallery forest, threatened ecosystems, "fragmented." AllAboutGemstones.com (2008). Tranomaro & Andranondambo Gem Mines. GGGems.com (2011). The story of the first Madagascar Sapphire. G. Pocobelli & Co. (2010). Fine Gemstones Madagascar. Tilghman, Laura et al. (2006). Artisinal Sapphire mining in Madagascar: Environmental and social impacts. Tilghman, Laura et al. (2007, Nov). Artisanal Sapphire Mining in Madagascar: Environmental and Social Impacts. Also see http: www.uvm.edu rsenr gemecology madagascar.html, http: www.africafiles.org printableversion.asp?id 16980 and for photos see https: picasaweb.google.com 114110521766775704955 AndranodamboSapphireMiningInMadagascar#5165443619761757490 Andranodambo – Sapphire mining in Madagascar. for views of this area from space see 24°26'11.39"S, 46°34'47.45"E & 24°24'21.60"S, 46°35'21.00"E Uranothorite Thorite is an important ore of Uranium. A variety of Thorite often called "Uranothorite", rich in Uranium, is highly radioactive. By the end of World War II, Madagascar was viewed by France as having a "treasure-trove" of minerals, so several of France's nuclear experts told Charles de Gaulle he needed to keep Madagascar as a colony "regardless of political costs." Multiple deposits of Thorium and Uranium, principally in the form of Uranothorite, were discovered near Tranomaro, in the loop of the Mandrare river, in 1953 by a French Geological Survey, just 80 km northwest of Fort Dauphin. However, getting there by road meant driving west almost to Amboasary and then northeast for a total distance from Tolanaro of about 200 kilometres. The local farmers, who raised cattle and goats, and grew rice, manioc and maize, knew of these deposits, calling these rocks "vatovy" to describe their density and black color. They used them as slingshot ammunition and fishing weights. In 1953, the French Commissariat de l’Energie Atomique (CEA) see what is now called the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives established their center for mining at Ambatomika ("place of Mica rocks") and brought in mining equipment, built a mill, lab, offices, a small clinic, a store as well as housing and a clubhouse for the expatriates living there. What they milled was mined from small, open-pit mines, which had a minimum overburden (for a picture of one of these mines see within a 20 km radius of this site. Some of these sites were mined by colonial concessionaires who sold their ore to the CEA. By 1958, there were 44 Europeans working with 440 Malagasy there, a limited number of mid-level Imerina with many more Antandroy and some Betsileo working as guards, porters and miners. Early, artisanal mining was not recorded, but from 1954 to 1963 almost 4,000 tonnes of highly radioactive Uranothorite was mined and exported to France. By 1962, these exports were worth CFAF 389 million, and by 1964 this was Madagascar's second most valuable export. In 1963, the original Ambindandrakemba mine was exhausted, the site at Ambatomika was lost, and all the equipment was moved north 40 km to Betioky, near the Belafa ore body which was thought to have somewhere between 2,000 and 5,000 tons of uranothorianite, embedded within 100,000 to 300,000 tons of ore. In addition to the CEA, there were 4 private mining companies in 1963 including C.F. Lanouo, Kotovelo (plant at Marovato), Societe des Minerals de la Grand Ile (mine at Ambatoaho, Societe d'Exploitation des Mines d'Andranondambo (mine at Bevalala) and the Societe Miniere et Forestiere at Betanimera. In 1963 these producers were being paid 2,850 to 5,000 CFAF kg for uranium metal content and CFAF 100 to 350 kg of Thorium. However, due to the French having found much larger deposits in both Gabon and Niger, and due to the by then worn out equipment and exhausted mines, mining ended in 1968. While the higher-grade deposits have been exhausted, there is still a considerable amount of lower-grade material in this area. In 2005, the Malagasy Government conducted aerial magnetic and radiometric surveys of the area, finding the amounts of Thorium and Uranium increased as one moves west, though this could be due to "transported cover" on the Easter side of the area. In 2007 drilling by the Canadian firm, Pan African Mining Corporation, at one site found "high-grade uranium mineralisation grading 4,329 ppm uranium”, with deposits as far down as 60 metres below the surface. In 2009–10 LP HILL began ground traverses for Thorium and Uranium in the Marodambo area (in addition they have permits to search for Cordierite, Garnets and Sapphires). London-based Bekitoly Resources Ltd. is also involved in the strategic acquisition, exploration and development of uranium, rare earth deposits and other minerals in Madagascar. Their property occurs within includes 8 of the historical open-pit deposits. Their exploration activities have included airborne radiometrics and hyperspectral surveys, ground radiometrics and magnetics, mapping, grab sampling, trenching and drilling which have identified numerous widespread radiometric anomalies with uranium and thorium scintillometer readings of up to 26,257 and 43,215 ppm respectively, as well as the rare earth elements of Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Gadolinium, Lanthanum, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium and Yttrium. Their data also suggests there are numerous additional areas "with good indications" that remain untested. Arkenstone. (2010). Thorianite specimen from Maromby Commune (near Tranomaro) Girschik, H.F. (2009, Oct.). Mining History and Geology of the [Uranium & Thorium Exploration] Project. Hecht, Gabrielle (2002). Rupture-Talk in the Nuclear Age: Conjugating Colonial power in Africa. ''Social Studies of Science, 32''(5 6), 691–727. Hecht, Gabrielle. (2009). Ambatomika, Southern Madagascar, 1950s–1960s (pp. 903–908). In Africa and the Nuclear World: Labor, Occupational Health, and the Transnational Production of Uranium. ''Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51''(4), 896–926. Vuna Group. (n.d.). Uranium and Rare Earth exploration—Madagascar. Proposed acquisition of Tranomaro Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. by LP Hill Plc Murdock, T.G. (1964). The Mineral industry of the Malagasy Republic. Tourmaline Tourmaline is a semi-precious gemstone which has been found near Ampasimainty, Ianakafy and Iankaroka, all south of Betroka. It has also been found near Behara and Tranomaro, which are both closer to Amboasary. A 7 cm Tourmaline crystal found near Tranomaro was recently sold by Arkenstone Fine Minerals for US$2,250. Zircon Zircon is used in the decorative ceramics industry as a substance which can be added to another material in order to make the ensuing system opaque. It is also the principal precursor to metallic zirconium (fairly uncommon), but also to all compounds of zirconium, including Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2), which is a highly refractory material. About 25,000 tons yr of Zircon are being exported by QMM as a byproduct of its Ilmenite mining in this region see Ilmenite above . Population While the people who have historically lived in Anosy are known as the Antanosy, they may be more accurately described as "those from Anosy" given Anosy's history. In addition there are many Antandroy living in Anosy, primarily Tolagnaro, along with Malagasy from the rest of the island, many of them now working for QMM's mining efforts. There are Asians who own many of the shops in town and there are also a few Europeans living in Tolagnaro working in the area(s) of Conservation, Mining, Tourism or for the Catholic Church. While there were many French living and working in the Anosy region during the French occupation of Madagascar, most had left by the mid-1970s. Tolagnaro was also the center for work by American Lutherans, primarily in southern Madagascar, from the 1890s to the mid-1980s (see '''History of Anosy''' below). Much more recently, there were over 700 Expatriates, primarily from South Africa, who worked on the construction of the new port and mining facilities. Religions The majority of those living in Anosy practice traditional Folk religion. The two largest Christian denominations in the Anosy region are the Roman Catholic and the Malagasy Lutheran churches. There is also a small Muslim community. The Catholic Church was established in what was then still Fort Dauphin in 1896. It currently has 5 parishes, with about 170 congregations and 16 Cures. Congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) (Ed.). (1996). ''Le Christianisme dans le sud de Madagascar. Mélanges à l'occasion du centenaire de la reprise de l'évangélisation du sud de Madagascar par la congrégation de la Mission (Lazaristes) 1896–1996''. Fianarantsoa: Editions Ambozontany. history of Christianity in South Madagascar with chapter on history of American Lutheran missions in the South (1887–1950) by Dr. James B. Vigen, other chapters regarding history of different Catholic congregations and “Bilan du Christianisme dans le Sud de Madagascar” by Mgr Rakotondravahatra, Jean-Guy which describes current context, state and challenges of Christianity in South Madagascar. Galibert, Nivoelisoa. (2007). ''À l’angle de la Grande Maison. Les Lazaristes de Madagascar: Correspondance avec Vincent de Paul (1648–1661), textes établis, introduits et annotés par Paris. Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne. n.a. (?). La fonction Missionnaire: Sur la Mission Lazariste à Fort-Dauphin (1648–1674) From AnthropologieEnLigne.com Of the Protestants in Anosy, the vast majority of them Lutheran. There are approximately 20 Malagasy Lutheran pastors working with 134 churches in the Tolagnaro Synod, meaning each pastor works with between 3 and 12 churches. Burgess, Andrew. (1932). ''Zanahary in south Madagascar''. Minneapolis: Board of Foreign Missions. Vigen, J.B. (1995). The First Norwegian-American Foreign Missionaries: John and Oline Hogstad. From ''Norwegian-American Studies, 34'', see http: www.naha.stolaf.edu In addition to the Malagasy Lutheran Church, the Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar (FJKM) has several congregations in the Anosy region as do several other Protestant denominations. Tourism Given its pleasant climate (average temperature of 20 0 in July to 27 0 Celsius in January), magnificent beaches, natural reserves (including several containing lemurs), variety of hotels and that it's only a one hour flight from Antananarivo, some have given Tolagnaro the title of "la cote d'Azur Malgache." Popular places to visit include Evatraha, Libanona beach, Lokaro, Manafiafy, Nahampoana and Vinanibe. Ranarijaona, Tiana H. (2003?). Etude d’impact des infrastructures touristiques dans la region de Tolagnaro. Mémoire de fin de stage, Universite de Toamasina. RAZAFINDRABE Andrianomenjanahary Manoela. (2007). Developpement economique axe sur le tourisme cas de l'Anosy, region a forte potentialite touristique. Maitrise. Universite d'Antananarivo. General tourism information about Tolagnaro can be found at a variety of sites: Lonely Planet. (2009). Fort Dauphin (Taolagnaro). WildMadagascar. (n.d.). Pictures of Fort Dauphin. '''Tourist Agencies in Antananarivo:''' There are a variety of tourist agencies in Antananarivo one can work with if you'd like to visit Tolagnaro. Authentic Madagascar Tours. Antanosy Region. DiscoverMadagascar.com (n.d.). Places to see in Fort Dauphin and its Surroundings. MadaCamp. (2009). Fort Dauphin. Madagascar National Tourism Board. Fort Dauphin area. TravelMadagascar. Fort Dauphin. '''Tourist Agencies in Tolagnaro:''' There are also several tourist agencies in Tolagnaro one can work with. Weather The average temperature in Tolagnaro ranges from Category:Anosy Region Category:Regions of Madagascar


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