Places Known For

century starting


Khanate of Khiva

. The Kuban Cossacks continued to make an active part in the Russian affairs of the 19th century starting from the finale of the Russian-Circassian War which ceased shortly after the hosts' formation. A small group took part in the 1873 conquest that brought the Khanate of Khiva under Russian control. Their largest military campaign was the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), on both the Balkan and the Caucasus fronts. The latter in particular was a strong contribution as the Kuban Cossacks made 90% of the Russian cavalry. Famous achievements in the numerous Battles of Shipka (Battle of Shipka Pass), the defence of Bayazet (Doğubeyazıt) and finally in decisive and victorious Battle of Kars where the Cossacks were the first to enter. Three Kuban Cossack regiments took part in the storming of Geok Tepe in Turkmenistan in 1881. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the host mobilised six cavalry regiments, five plastun battalions and one battery to the distant region of Russia. He commanded the advanced guard of General Lomakin (Nikolay Lomakin)'s column from Kinderly Bay, in the Caspian Sea, to join General Verevkin, from Orenburg, in the expedition to the Khanate of Khiva in 1874, and, after great suffering on the desert march, took a prominent part in the capture of the Khivan capital. Dressed as a Turkoman (Turkmen people), he intrepidly explored in a hostile country the route from Khiva to Igdy, and also the old bed of the Oxus. In 1875 he was given an important command in the expedition against the Khanate of Kokand under General Konstantin Petrovich Kaufman, showing great capacity in the action of Makram, where he outmanoeuvered a greatly superior force and captured 58 guns, and in a brilliant night attack in the retreat from Andijan, when he routed a large force with a handful of cavalry. * 1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt) appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire. * 1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan. * 1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish (Ottoman Empire) domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria. * 1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman (firman (decree)). * 1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia. * 1876: Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal (Suez Canal) and got involved in Egyptian affairs. * 1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI (Mehmed VI) signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation. * 1920: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia. * 1920-1922: Turkish War of Independence. Central Asia One area where Soviet division of power was not resolved at time of the Treaty's signing, was Soviet Central Asia which contained several problems. A major battleground during the Russian Civil War the region would remain unstable afterwards. Turkestan came under Russian control (Russian Turkestan) fairly recently, between 1867 and 1885. Moreover, unlike other ethnic borders of the former Russian Empire, which were delimited during the Tsarist days (e.g. Transcaucasia lost its feudal administration by the mid-19th century), the Soviet authorities inherited two provinces that were de jure never part of Russia proper, the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva. During the Russian Civil War, these too shared the fate of the other republics, but even here their special status was preserved, and they were established as the Bukharan (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm (Khorezm People's Soviet Republic) ''People's'' Soviet Republics. Despite Mikhail Frunze's victories the conflict was ongoing and whole provinces were under control of the Basmachi movement in 1922. Expansion In 1867 Turkestan was made a separate Governor-Generalship, under its first Governor-General, Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman. Its capital was Tashkent and it consisted initially of three oblasts (Oblasts of the Russian Empire) (provinces): Syr Darya, Semirechye (Zhetysu) and the Zeravshan Okrug (later Samarkand Oblast). To these were added in 1873 the Amu Darya Division ( ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


Landa de Matamoros

Matamoros 840.1 18,905 22.5 0.6606 - The first inhabitants of the region were hunter-gatherers as early as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province of Xilotepec, which encompassed much


Jalpan de Serra

hunter-gatherers as early as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province of Xilotepec, which encompassed much of the land around what is now the Sierra Gorda in Querétaro, but it did not manage to dominate


Peñamiller

at 25,325.Over 93% of residents are Catholic. The first inhabitants of the region were hunter-gatherers as early as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province


Pinal de Amoles

as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province of Xilotepec, which encompassed much of the land around what is now the Sierra Gorda in Querétaro, but it did not manage to dominate this area for centuries


Arroyo Seco, Querétaro

are Catholic. The first inhabitants of the region were hunter-gatherers as early as 6000 BC. Starting from the 13th century groups of Pames and Chichimeca Jonaz came to the area. Communities of these groups were still found in areas such as El Cuervo, Puerto de Vigas, El Rodezno, Tonatico, Escanela and others when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Starting from 1534, the Spanish established the province of Xilotepec, which encompassed much


Polotsk

union of Krivichi. thumb left Principality of Polotsk within Kievan Rus in the 11th century (File:Kievan-rus-1015-1113-(en).png) Starting from the mid-12th century there have been changes in the lands to the west of the principality. The fortress of Riga became the main military basis of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. In 1209 the German crusaders conquered principalities of Jersika and Koknese in the southeast of today's Latvia, which previously was under control of Polotsk, forcing Polotsk to permit free travel to German merchants in 1212 and ending Livonian tributes. In 1227 Smolensk ceded Polotsk by treaty to the city of Riga. thumb left In his colored wax medallion ''People's militia of 1812'' (1816), Tolstoy owes a debt to Jacques-Louis David David (File:612-1.jpg)'s "Oath of the Horatii" and to the ceramics of Josiah Wedgwood. A year later, Fyodor entered the Jesuit college of Gavriil Gruber in Polotsk. Here, he studied painting, as well as the sciences. Upon his accession to the throne, Emperor Paul I (Paul I of Russia) summoned Pyotr Tolstoy to Saint Petersburg, and Fyodor Petrovich returned to his parents. At the same time, his father was fired, and the family's circumstances deteriorated. Wikipedia:Polotsk Commons:Category:Polatsk


Norfolk Island

an Australian external territory) in 1856. Various countries, colonies and states granted restricted women's suffrage in the latter half of the 19th century, starting with South Australia in 1861. The female descendants of the Bounty mutineers (Mutiny on the Bounty) who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838, and this right transferred with their resettlement to Norfolk Island (now

publisher New South Wales Maritime Authority accessdate 2006-12-14 thumb right 250px Oceania (Image:Oceania.jpg) European exploration and settlement of Oceania began in the 16th century, starting with Spanish (Spanish people) landings and shipwrecks in the Marianas Islands, east of the Philippines. Subsequent rivalry between European colonial powers, trade opportunities and Christian missions (Mission (Christian)) drove


Holyoke, Massachusetts

Early life and education Swadesh was born in Holyoke, Massachusetts, to Jewish immigrant parents from Bessarabia. His parents were multilingual, and Yiddish, some Russian, and English were his first languages. DATE OF BIRTH January 22, 1909 PLACE OF BIRTH Holyoke, Massachusetts, United States DATE OF DEATH July 20, 1967 Born on a farm in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Sheehan graduated from Mount Hermon School (later Northfield Mount Hermon) and Harvard University with a B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) in 1958. He served in the U.S. Army from 1959


Antigua and Barbuda

of the 20th century. Starting as itinerant traders, they soon worked their way into the social mix. Although Middle Easterners came from a variety of areas, as a group they are usually referred to as Syrians. Afro-Antiguans and Afro-Barbudans were at the bottom. Forced into slavery, Africans started arriving in Antigua and Barbuda in large numbers during the 1670s. Very quickly, they grew into the largest racial ethnic group. Their entry into the local social structure was marked by a profound


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