Places Known For

centuries major


Ruhr

is to be realised. thumb Saalbau (File:Saalbau Essen 01.jpg) * Museum Folkwang: One of the Ruhr area's major art collections, mainly from the 19th and 20th centuries. Major parts of the museum have recently been rebuilt and expanded according to plans by David Chipperfield & Co. The ''Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation'' is the sole funder of the €55 million project which was completed in early 2010. After its re-opening, it also hosts the collection of the ''Deutsches Plakat (Poster) Museum'' (more than 340 000 exhibits). * Aalto Theatre: Opened in 1988 (according to plans dating back to 1959), the asymmetric (asymmetry) building with its deep indigo interior is home to the acclaimed Essen Opera and Ballet. * 2009:


Norway

brought Norway into contact with European mediaeval learning, hagiography and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Major works of that period include ''Historia Norwegiæ'', ''Þiðrekssaga'' and ''Konungs skuggsjá''. Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union (1387–1814), with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. In his play ''Peer Gynt,'' Ibsen characterised this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness brooded o'er the race of monkeys." The first line of this couplet is frequently quoted. During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the writing of Norwegian literature. thumb left upright Henrik Ibsen (File:Ibsen photography.jpg) Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature: in 1811 a Norwegian university was established in Christiania (Oslo). Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American (American Revolution) and French (French Revolution) revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution (Constitution of Norway) in 1814. Strong authors were inspired who became recognised first in Scandinavia, and then worldwide; among them were Henrik Wergeland, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Jørgen Moe and Camilla Collett. By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Alexander Kielland, and Jonas Lie (Jonas Lie (writer)). Bjørnson's "peasant novels", such as ''En glad gutt'' (A Happy Boy) and ''Synnøve Solbakken'', are typical of the Norwegian romantic nationalism of their day. Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic. Although an important contributor to early romantic nationalism, (especially ''Peer Gynt''), Henrik Ibsen is better known for his pioneering realistic dramas such as ''The Wild Duck'' and ''A Doll's House.'' They caused an uproar because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen. In the 20th century, three Norwegian novelists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1903, Knut Hamsun for the book ''Markens grøde (Growth of the Soil)'' ("Growth of the Soil") in 1920, and Sigrid Undset (known for ''Kristinlavransdatter (Kristin Lavransdatter)'') in 1928. Writers such as the following also made important contributions: Dag Solstad, Jon Fosse, Cora Sandel, Olav Duun, Olav H. Hauge, Gunvor Hofmo, Stein Mehren, Kjell Askildsen, Hans Herbjørnsrud, Aksel Sandemose, Bergljot Hobæk Haff, Jostein Gaarder, Erik Fosnes Hansen, Jens Bjørneboe, Kjartan Fløgstad, Lars Saabye Christensen, Johan Borgen, Herbjørg Wassmo, Jan Erik Vold, Rolf Jacobsen (Rolf Jacobsen (poet)), Olaf Bull, Jan Kjærstad, Georg Johannesen, Tarjei Vesaas, Sigurd Hoel, Arnulf Øverland and Johan Falkberget. Research Internationally recognised Norwegian scientists include the mathematicians Niels Henrik Abel, Sophus Lie and Atle Selberg, physical chemist Lars Onsager, physicist Ivar Giaever, chemists Odd Hassel, Peter Waage, and Cato Maximilian Guldberg. In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences, including criminology, sociology and peace and conflict studies. Prominent academics include Arne Næss, a philosopher and founder of deep ecology; Johan Galtung, the founder of peace studies; Nils Christie and Thomas Mathiesen, criminologists; Fredrik Barth, a social anthropologist; Vilhelm Aubert, Harriet Holter and Erik Grønseth, sociologists; Tove Stang Dahl, a pioneer of women's law; Stein Rokkan, a political scientist; and economists Ragnar Frisch, Trygve Haavelmo, and Finn E. Kydland. In 2014, the two Norwegian scientists May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser won the Nobel Prize of Medicine along with John O'Keefe (John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)). They won the prize for their groundbreaking work identifying the cells that make up a positioning system in the human brain, our "in-built GPS". Commons:Category:Norway Dmoz:Regional Europe Norway Wikipedia:Norway


Lebanon

Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), Federaciones Regionales www.feditalia.org.ar ref>


Syria

Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), Federaciones Regionales www.feditalia.org.ar and Spain (most


Wales

colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), Federaciones Regionales www.feditalia.org.ar and Spain (most are Galicians (Galician people) and Basque people Basques


Switzerland

settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), Federaciones Regionales www.feditalia.org.ar and Spain (most are Galicians (Galician people) and Basques (Basque people), but there are Asturian people


Italy

las masas en Argentina (1951)», en ''La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos'', Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily),

countries of Latin America, apéritifs have been a staple of tapas for centuries. Major Long's 1823 expedition up the Minnesota River (then known as St. Peter's River), to the headwaters of the Red River of the North, down that river to Pembina (Pembina River (Alberta)) and Fort Garry, and thence by canoe across British Canada to Lake Huron is sometimes confused with his initial expedition to the Red River in modern-day Texas and Oklahoma. The expedition to the Red


South Africa

. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en ''La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos'', Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), http


Russia

experiencia argentina y otros ensayos'', Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), Federaciones


Australia

Romero (historiador) José Luis Romero define a la Argentina como un ''«país aluvial» (Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en ''La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos'', Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto


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