with a strong influence of the Kingdom of Pamplona, established in the year 824. However, it would be in 1023 when Sancho VI (Sancho VI William of Gascony) Duke of Gascony would name Guillaume Fort as first Viscount of Soule. His descendants would inherit the title for around two centuries. The Viscounts of Soule had their base in the fortress of Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), a strategic region that controlled the pass from Aquitaine to the Iberian peninsula. The viscounts of Soule take
: «Errolda: zonbat züberotar?» Culture After decades of emigration and demographic, social and cultural decay, the territory is showing a strong determination to recover the lost vitality of centuries ago. Assorted cultural events linked to old traditions bear witness to that dynamism. thumb 250px ''Maskarada'' actors in a melée (File:Jokalariak melean.JPG) There is a tradition
publisher Ethnotempos accessdate 2008-01-28 language French Language The proper language of Soule has been Basque (Basque language) for centuries, with the region featuring its own dialect, the Souletin (Zuberoan). Notwithstanding this fact, the neighbouring Béarnais (Gascon language) has been widely understood, even spoken in recent centuries as a lingua franca. However, both Basque and Béarnese have lost ground to French (French language) with both
in the historic northern Barbara (Barbara (region)) region. The town evolved into an early Islamic center with the arrival of Muslims shortly after the hijra (Hijra (Islam)). By the 9th century, Zeila would be described as the capital of an already-established Adal kingdom (Adal Sultanate), and would attain its height of prosperity a few centuries later in the 1300s. The city subsequently came under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) and British (British Empire) protection. In the post
mentioned that the Adal kingdom had its capital in the city, suggesting that the Adal Sultanate with Zeila as its headquarters dates back to at least the 9th or 10th centuries. According to I.M. Lewis
the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars (Islam in Somalia) in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merka, which were part of the ''Berber'' (the medieval Arab
to the steppe heritage in a campaign which spread from the Tian Shan to the Carpathian Mountains. By around 460, the Uar had taken over much of Central Eurasia from Xinjiang to the Volga River, and founded a capital at the city of Badiyan or Panjakent, near what is now Khujand, though very little is known about the area from the late 5 th to early 6 th centuries. !-- Deleted image removed: File:Muslim Expansions in 13th century
were separated by a narrow wadi with a bridge connecting the two parts of the city. Two ''temples'' in the shakhrestan formed the center of the urban area. The two temples contained statues and mural paintings. During the 5th and 6th centuries, no building in Panjakent was as magnificent as the two temples and even the houses of the wealthiest residents seemed rather humble compared to the two temples. The buildings were made of mud bricks and paksha. The '''residential houses''' ranged
from single room buildings to large estates, reflecting the social status of their inhabitants. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the hoses of the rich dominated the architecture of the city. At the beginning of the 8th century, the spaces between the houses were converted into passageways and often covered with vaults. The houses of the rich became two-story buildings with vaults over the room on the first floor. All residential houses were covered with wall paintings and woodcarvings. The larger
). This was the synagogue called "Shaf we-Yatib," to which there are several references dating from the third and fourth centuries (R. H. 24b; Avodah Zarah 43b; Niddah 13a), and which Abaye asserts (Meg. 29a) was the seat of the Shekhinah in Babylonia. The Aaronic (Kohen) portion of the Jewish population of Nehardea was said to be descended from the slaves of Pashur ben Immer (Pashhur), the contemporary of King Jehoiachin (Kiddushin (Nashim) 70b). Mention by Josephus
Halevy, ''Dorot ha-Rishonim,'' ii. 515 et seq., iii. 68 et seq.). Other scholars of the 4th and 5th centuries who are mentioned in the Talmud as natives of Nehardea are: * Dimi (Rav Dimi) (Ḥul. 113a), who subsequently presided at Pumbedita as second successor to Ḥama (Letter of Sherira Gaon, l.c.) * Zebid (M. Ḳ. 27b) * Nahman (Rav Nachman) (Ḥul. 95b) * Ḥanan (Ḳid. 81b; Niddah 66b) * Simai (Sheb. 12b; Mak. 16a) * Adda b. Minyomi was called
to the academy at Nehardea a high degree of prosperity; in fact, it was at the school of Rav that Jewish learning in Babylonia found its permanent home and center. Rav's activity made Babylonia independent of Palestine, and gave it that predominant position which it was destined to occupy for several centuries. Abbahu made a notable exception with reference to the Tosefta's statement that the Gilionim (Evangels) and other books of the Mineans are not to be saved from a conflagration
accessdate 15 December 2013 Archaeological finds in Jish include two historical synagogues, a unique mausoleum and burial caves from classic era. According to Roman historian Josephus, Gischala was the last city in the Galilee to fall to the Romans (Roman Empire) during the First Jewish–Roman War. Historical sources dating from the 10th-15th centuries describe Jish (''Gush Halav'') as a village
onepage&q&f false ''Excavations at the ancient synagogue of Gush Ḥalav,'' Eric M. Meyers, Carol L. Meyers, James F. Strange In addition to Jewish burial sites and structures dated to 3rd - 6th centuries, Jewish-Christian amulets were discovered nearby.
series BAR International Series 1646 year 2007 publisher Archaeopress place Oxford isbn 978-1-4073-0080-1 Arab, Crusader and Mamluk rule Historical sources from the 10th-15th centuries describe Gush Halav (Jish) as a large Jewish village. It is mentioned in the 10th century by Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi. Jewish life in the 10th and 11th centuries is attested to by documents in the Cairo Geniza.
of Power". Alqush has adorned the Bayhidhra mountains for more than twenty five centuries. The town glowingly reigns over Nineveh's northern plateau known for its fertile soil and extends southward across the other Assyrian towns, such as, Telassqopa (Tel Skuf), Baqofah, Sharafiya, Batnaya, and Tel Keppe. Alqush traces its history back into the ancient Assyrian empire and perhaps even further. The earliest mentioning of Alqosh appears in Sennacherib's era 750
Dman family, and Shabio Mdallow families. It resembles the remains of a monastery that was erected some ten centuries ago. The inhabitants of Alqush knew the orchard as full of fruits and vegetables and water. Up until the 1930s, a man named Jebrail Youhana worked the orchard. The name Besqeen is a plural Syriac word that means water pond. * Galeeya D’Qasha Hanna (Priest Hanna's Valley) to the north. * Tellsha derived from (Toullsha) which is a material used in spreading and covering. This place
AalQoun, father of Nahum, was the son of a Hebrew family among thousands whom the Assyrian king Shelmenassar V, who reigned between 727-722 BC, brought to Alqosh. These Hebrews lived in peace with the Alqoshniye and even became prophets such as Biblical Nahum. The interpretation that seems most logical relies on Marotha, the Alqusheian wise man from three centuries ago who asserted that the name Alqush is derived from Sîn, the god known as Siin, meaning "the greatest god."
: www.livius.org li-ln limmu limmu_1c.html title Assyrian Eponym List publisher accessdate 23 November 2014 Tadmor, H. (1994). ''The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria.''pp.29 did it become a vast empire. The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Middle Assyrian period and Middle Assyrian Empire (14th to 10th centuries BC). Some scholars, such as Richard Nelson Frye, regard the Neo-Assyrian Empire to be the first real empire in human
; Historical context Assyria was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC. The earliest Assyrian kings such as Tudiya were relatively minor rulers, and after the founding of the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from 2334 BC to 2154 BC, these kings became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian and Sumerian (Sumerian language) speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under one rule. The urbanised Akkadian nation of Assyria
in 1894 BC, and often under Kassite rule. During the 20th century BC, it established colonies in Asia Minor, and under the 20th century BC King Ilushuma, Assyria conducted many successful raids against the states of the south. It had experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period. Assyria had a period of empire under Shamshi-Adad I in the late 19th to mid-18th centuries BC, following this it found itself under short periods of Babylonian and Mitanni- Hurrian
mayor '''Sharafat''' ( ) is a Palestinian (Palestinian people) village in East Jerusalem. Cohen, 1993, p. 12. Historically, it was located in Palestine, about 5 km to the south west of Jerusalem. Ephrat, 2008, pp. 158–159. It is mentioned in Jerusalem chronicles from the 13th and 15th centuries, Ottoman tax records (daftar) from
the 16th century, and the travel writings and ethnographies (ethnography) of European and American visitors to Palestine in the 19th and 20th centuries. During the period of Mamluk (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) rule (c. 13th - early 16th centuries), Sharafat was home to the Badriyya a renowned family of ''awliya'' (Muslim saints) to whom the village was dedicated as a ''waqf'' (Islamic trust) by the viceroy of Damascus in the 14th century, and whose family tombs
, housing a population of 963 in 245 dwellings. History Mamluk era During the period of Mamluk (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) rule (c. 13th - early 16th centuries), Sharafat was home to the Badriyya a renowned family of ''awliya'' (Muslim saints) to whom the village was dedicated as a ''waqf'' (Islamic trust) by the viceroy of Damascus in the 14th century, and whose family tombs continue to be venerated to this day. Sharafat