Thomas last Quirke date 1917 publisher University of Chicago Economic history * (Section 14: Business History) *
it appears as '''Chiang-chew''' or '''Chiang Chew''' from the Hokkien name. Dialect
codes led to even more fragmentation and price cutting. Pamela Pennock, "The National Recovery Administration and the Rubber Tire Industry, 1933-1935." ''Business History Review," 1997 71(4): 543-568 in JSTOR Alexander (1997) examines the macaroni industry and concludes that cost heterogeneity was a major source of the "compliance crisis" affecting a number of NRA "codes of fair competition"
of Thompson and near Northern Communities. The staff of R.D. Parker Collegiate is associated with the Steelworkers and the Thompson Teachers' Association. It was named after the at the time Vice President of Inco (VRDC Inco) http: nickel.vale.com business history default.aspx , Ralph D. Parker, also located in Thompson. founded 1962 headquarters Thompson (Thompson, Manitoba), Manitoba, Canada key_people '''Calm Air International LP
Colorado. * September - The Western Railroad (Western Railroad (North Carolina)) from Fayetteville (Fayetteville, North Carolina) to the coalfields of Egypt (Cumnock, North Carolina), North Carolina, is completed. * August ** Construction crews on the Kansas
to release the patent for the good of mankind, which they did in 1911. In 1913 Albright and Wilson also started making red phosphorus at Niagara Falls. Threfall (1951) One
shop, Echigoya. He opened a new branch in 1673; Hall, John. (1970). ''Japan: From Prehistory to Modern Times,'' p. 290. a large gofukuya (kimono shop) in Nihonbashi, a district in the heart of Edo. This genesis of Mitsui's business history began in the ''Enpō'' era, which was a ''nengō'' meaning "Prolonged Wealth". The traditional power base of the Tokugawa clan was Mikawa (Mikawa Province). In 1590, the new ruler of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi enlisted Tokugawa Ieyasu and others in attacking the domain of the Hōjō (late Hōjō clan) in what became known as the Siege of Odawara (1590). Hideyoshi enlisted Ieyasu for this campaign by promising to exchange the five provinces under Ieyasu's control for the eight Kantō provinces, including the city of Edo. In order to keep Ieyasu from defecting to the Hōjō side (since the Hōjō and the Tokugawa were formerly on friendly terms), Hideyoshi took the eleven-year-old Nagamaru as a hostage. In 1592 Hideyoshi presided over Nagamaru's coming of age ceremony; it was then that Ieyasu's son dropped his childhood name, Nagamaru, and assumed the name Hidetada. He was named the heir of the Tokugawa family, being the eldest surviving son of Ieyasu, and his favorite (since Ieyasu's eldest son had been previously executed, and his second son was adopted by Hideyoshi while still an infant). In 1593, Hidetada returned to his father's side. birth_date April 30, 1839 birth_place Edo, Japan death_date June 9, 1892 (aged 53) thumb left ''100 Aspects of the Moon'' #7, "Inaba Mountain Moon" The young Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Image:YoshiClimber.jpg) leads a small group assaulting the castle on Inaba Mountain (1885). Yoshitoshi was born in the Shimbashi district of old Edo, in 1839. His father was a wealthy merchant who had bought his way into samurai status. At three years old, Yoshitoshi left home to live with his uncle, a pharmacist with no son, who was very fond of his nephew. At the age of five, he became interested in art and started to take lessons from his uncle. In 1850, when he was 11 years old, Yoshitoshi was apprenticed to Kuniyoshi (Utagawa Kuniyoshi), one of great masters of the Japanese woodblock print. Kuniyoshi gave his apprentice a new name (he was originally named Owariya Yonejiro). Although he was not seen as Kuniyoshi's successor during his lifetime, he is now recognized as the most important pupil of Kuniyoshi. DATE OF BIRTH April 30, 1839 PLACE OF BIRTH Edo, Japan DATE OF DEATH June 9, 1892 '''Utagawa Toyokuni''' (1769, Edo - February 24, 1825, Edo) (Japanese: 歌川豐國), also often referred to as '''Toyokuni I''', to distinguish him from the members of his school (Utagawa school) who took over his ''gō'' (art-name) after he died, was a great master of ukiyo-e, known in particular for his Kabuki actor prints. He was one of the heads of the renowned Utagawa school of Japanese woodblock artists, and was the person who really moved it to the position of great fame and power it occupied for the rest of the nineteenth century. thumb 350px The public display of Kondō Isami's head after his decapitation. 1868 newspaper. (Image:KondoIsami.jpg) After the Battle of Toba-Fushimi in January 1868, he returned to Edo, and was promoted to the rank of wakadoshiyori (''wakadoshiyori-kaku'' 若年寄格) in the rapidly disintegrating Tokugawa administration. 近藤勇 KONDO He fought with the force dispatched by the Imperial Court (Imperial Court (Japan)) but lost, most notably at the battles of Kōshū-Katsunuma (Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma) and Nagareyama (Nagareyama, Chiba). After surrendering, he was beheaded at Itabashi on May 17 (lunar calendar April 25) 1868. Kojima, p.91 One example is that of the ''miyakodori'', or "birds of the capital", originally referenced in the ''Ise monogatari''. As most ''meisho'' derive from Heian era source, this is among the very few which related to the Edo Tokyo area. The protagonist of the ''monogatari'', having been exiled from Kyoto, finds his way to the Sumidagawa (Sumida River) in what is today Tokyo; at a particular point in the river, he spots a particular type of plovers which he has not seen before. Asking the boatman what kind of bird they are, he receives the reply that they are ''miyakodori'', "capital birds," which makes him long for the capital and weep, asking the birds what they know of events in Kyoto. Life and career Yokoi was a ''samurai'' born in Kumamoto (Kumamoto, Kumamoto), Higo Province (present-day Kumamoto Prefecture), and a distant descendant of Hōjō Takatoki. He was sent by the domain to Edo in 1839 for studies, and developed contacts with pro-reform members of the Mito domain (Mito, Ibaraki). After his return to Kumamoto, he started a group to promote the reform of domain administration along Neo-Confucianism lines, opening a domain school called ''Shōnan-do''. thumb 200px Fukuzawa Yukichi with Theodora Alice in San Francisco, 1860. (File:Fukuzawa Yukichi with the girl of the photo studio.jpg) Although Fukuzawa did travel to Nagasaki, his stay was brief as he quickly began to outshine his host in Nagasaki, Okudaira Iki. Okudaira planned to get rid of Fukuzawa by writing a letter saying that Fukuzawa's mother was ill. Seeing through the fake letter Fukuzawa planned to travel to Edo and continue his studies there because he knew he would not be able to in his home domain, Nakatsu, but upon his return to Osaka, his brother persuaded him to stay and enroll at the Tekijuku (Teki juku) school run by physician and ''rangaku'' scholar Ogata Kōan. Fukuzawa studied at Tekijuku for three years and became fully proficient in the Dutch language. In 1858, he was appointed official Dutch teacher of his family's domain, Nakatsu, and was sent to Edo to teach the family's vassals there. Biography Hakuseki was born in Edo and from a very early age displayed signs of genius. According to one story, at the age of three Hakuseki managed to copy a Confucian book written in Kanji, character by character. Because he was born on the same year as the Great Fire of Meireki and because he was hot tempered and his brow would crease looking like 火 or "fire", he was affectionately called ''Hi no Ko'' (火の子) or ''child of fire''. He was a retainer of Hotta Masatoshi, but after Masatoshi was assassinated by Inaba Masayasu, the Hotta clan was forced to move from Sakura (Sakura province) to Yamagata is a Buddhist (Buddhism) temple in Katsushika (Katsushika, Tokyo), Tokyo, near the Yamamoto House and Mizumoto City Park. This temple is famous for the "Bound Jizo (Ksitigarbha)" discussed in the ''Case of the Bound Jizo'' of Ōoka Tadasuke, a famous judge in Edo (Tokyo) during the Edo period. The next year, in 1709, he was taken to Edo and questioned directly by Japanese politician and Confucian scholar Arai Hakuseki. Hakuseki was impressed by Sidotti's demeanor and his level of scholarship, and developed a great deal of respect for him. The feeling was mutual, and Sidotti grew to trust Arai. Here, for the first time since the beginning of ''sakoku'' in the previous century, was a meeting between two great scholars from the civilizations of Japan and western Europe. Among other things, Sidotti explained to Hakuseki that, contrary to what the Japanese believed at that time, Western missionaries were not the vanguards of Western armies. * '''Nagamochi Kuruma-dansu''' : These coffers on wheels are the oldest documented example of Japanese mobile cabinetry. Diaries from a trade delegation to Edo from the Dutch East India (Dutch East India Company) settlement on Dejima Island, Nagasaki (Dejima ) in March 1657, refer to "big chests on four wheels" that so blocked the roads, people could not escape. What Zacharias Wagenaer and his mission by chance witnessed, has become known as the Great Fire of Meireki in which 107,000 people perished. Heineken, Ty & Kiyoko (1981). Tansu: Traditional Japanese Cabinetry. Pages: 21-23, 42-43, 48. Publisher: Weatherhill Inc., New York Vermeulen, Ton & van der Velde, Paul (1986). The Deshima Dagregisters. Publisher: Leiden Centre for the History of European Expansion, Leiden * '''Hikone Mizuya-dansu''' : Although mizuya (kitchen chests) both of a single section and chest on chest configuration have been crafted to fit into or adjacent to home kitchen alcoves since at least the mid Edo Period, the mizuya produced in the town of Hikone (Hikone, Shiga) on Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture deserve particular note. Though copied from Nagoya to Kyoto, the Hikone design, as a uniting of house storage needs and traditional architecture based upon the shaku (Shaku (unit)) measurement as standardized in 1891 is to be praised. Using mortise and tenon construction with Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) for primary framing, craftsmen cleverly lightened the visual mass of the case by using kijiro nuri (translucent lacquered) finishing for the door and drawer face woods. For the hardware, copper rather than iron was preferred. Heineken, Ty & Kiyoko (1981). Tansu: Traditional Japanese Cabinetry. Pages: 145, 157. Publisher: Weatherhill Inc., New York *Santo (List of Firefly planets and moons), a planet on the ''Firefly'' science fiction franchise *''santo'', the "three capitals" of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate in the Edo period: the cities of Edo, Kyōto and Ōsaka History Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope (''Hojō''). It found use on both on and off the battlefield in up to 125 individual martial arts schools. It was used in particular by the various police-forces (police) of the Edo-period and remains in use to this day with the Tokyo police force. In the warring-era (1467-1615) it was not uncommon for warriors carrying a rope for use as a tool or as a restraint for prisoners of war when on campaign. The rope is to be used on an opponent after he or she has been subdued using restraining methods (''torite'') such as the methods found in the ''Ikkaku-ryū juttejutsu'' system. In 1694, Yasubei came to the aid of his dojo mate and pledged uncle in a duel at Takadanobaba in Edo, killing three opponents. He received acclaim for his role, and Horibe Yahei of the Akō Domain asked Yasubei to marry his daughter and become the heir to Yahei's family. Yahei was so impressed with Yasubei that he pleaded to his liege, Asano Naganori, to allow Yasubei to keep his Nakayama surname while marrying into the Horibe family. Yasubei eventually took on the Horibe surname and became a successful retainer of the Akō Domain.
thumb right 600px Map of the World showing the participants in World War I (File:WWI-re.png). Those fighting on the Entente (Triple Entente)'s side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. Origins Following the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke of Austria-Este, Franz Ferdinand (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria) by Bosnian Serbs, the Kaiser offered Emperor
; ref * 1904 - Benjamin Holt of the Holt Manufacturing Company invents one of the first practical continuous tracks for use in tractors. While the date of invention was reportedly November 24, 1904, Holt would not receive a patent until December, 1907. "Agricultural Machinery, Business History of Machinery Manufacturers" The war's end triggered the abdication of aging monarchy monarchies
in 1986. It was set up to challenge Titan Distribution (Titan Books)'s monopoly on the UK (United Kingdom) comic distribution business. History In 1793, an Act was passed for the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal: this was intended to link the Soar Navigation near Leicester to the River Nene near Northampton, and thus to the Grand Junction Canal via the latter's Northampton Arm. ref>