Places Known For

bringing great


Roman Kingdom

, doubling the size of Rome and bringing great treasures to the city. One of his first reforms was to add 100 new members to the Senate from the conquered Etruscan tribes, bringing the total number of senators to 200. He used the treasures Rome had acquired from the conquests to build great monuments for Rome. Among these were Rome’s great sewer systems, the Cloaca Maxima, which he used to drain the swamp-like area between the Seven Hills of Rome. In its place, he began construction on the Roman Forum. He also founded the Roman games. The most famous of his great building projects is the Circus Maximus, a giant stadium used for chariot races. Priscus followed up the Circus Maximus with the construction of the temple-fortress to the god Jupiter upon the Capitoline Hill. Unfortunately, he was killed after 38 years as king at the hands of one of Ancus Marcius' sons before it could be completed. His reign is best remembered for introducing the Roman symbols of military and civil offices as well as the introduction of the Roman Triumph, being the first Roman to celebrate one. Servius Tullius thumb The City of the Four Regions, roughly corresponding to the city limits during the later kingdom. The division is traditionally, though probably incorrectly, attributed to Roman Kingdom#Reign of Servius Tullius Servius Tullius (File:Las cuatro regiones de Roma.gif). Following Priscus’s death, his son-in-law Servius Tullius succeeded him to the throne, the second king of Etruscan birth to rule Rome. He was the son of a slave. Like his father-in-law before him, Servius fought successful wars against the Etruscans. He used the treasure from the campaigns to build the first walls to encircle fully the Seven Hills of Rome, the pomerium. He also made organizational changes to the Roman army. He was renowned for implementing a new constitution for the Romans, further developing the citizen classes (Social class in ancient Rome). Servius Tullius instituted Rome's first census which divided the people into five economic classes, and formed the Century Assembly (Roman assemblies). He also used his census to divide the people within Rome into four urban tribes based upon location within the city, establishing the Tribal Assembly (Roman assemblies). He also oversaw the construction of the temple to Diana (Diana (goddess)) on the Aventine Hill. Servius’ reforms brought about a major change in Roman life: voting rights were now based on socio-economic status, transferring much of the power into the hands of the Roman elite. However, as time passed, Servius increasingly favored the poor in order to obtain support among the plebs. His appeal to the plebs often resulted in legislation unfavorable to the patricians. The 44-year reign of Servius came to an abrupt end when he was assassinated in a conspiracy led by his own daughter, Tullia (Tullia Minor), and her husband, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus The seventh and final king of Rome was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. He was the son of Priscus and the son-in-law of Servius. Together with his wife, he overthrew his predecessor. In power, Tarquinius conducted a number of wars against Rome's neighbours, including in particular the Volsci, Gabii and the Rutuli. He also secured Rome's position as head of the Latin (Latin League) cities. Tarquin also engaged in a series of public works, notably the completion of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, and works on the Cloaca Maxima and the Circus Maximus. However Tarquin's reign is best remembered for his use of violence and intimidation to attempt to maintain control over Rome, and disrespect of Roman custom and the Roman Senate. Tensions came to a head when the king's son, Sextus Tarquinius, raped Lucretia, wife and daughter to powerful Roman nobles. Lucretia then told her relatives about the attack, and subsequently committed suicide to avoid the dishonour of the episode. Four men, led by Lucius Junius Brutus, and including also Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Publius Valerius Poplicola, and Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus incited a revolution, and as a result Tarquinius and his family were deposed and expelled (Overthrow of the Roman monarchy) from Rome in 509 B.C. Because of his actions and the way they were viewed by the people, the word for King, Rex (Rex (king)), held a negative connotation in the Latin language until the fall of the Roman Empire. Brutus and Collatinus became Rome's first consul (Roman consul)s, marking the beginning of the Roman Republic. This new government would survive for the next 500 years until the rise of Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus, and would cover a period during which Rome's authority and area of control extended to cover great areas of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Public offices after the monarchy (Roman Empire) 350px thumb (Image:Latium Provinces.png) '''Gaius Cluilius''' was the king of Alba Longa during the reign of the Roman (Roman Kingdom) king Tullus Hostilius in the middle of the seventh century B.C. Alba Longa was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy southeast of Rome. * ''Stilicone (Stilicho): La Crisi Imperiale dopo Teodosio (Theodosius I)'' (1942) * ''Dalla monarchia (Roman Kingdom) allo Stato repubblicano (Roman Republic). Ricerche di storia romana arcaica'' (1945) * ''Fra Oriente e Occidente. Ricerche di storia greca (History of Greece) arcaica'' (1947)


CityRail

Hunter Line (Hunter railway line) regional service from Newcastle (Newcastle, New South Wales), and it is a stopping point for countryLink services. It serves the town of Singleton, New South Wales. It opened in 1863 as a terminus for the Main Northern Line from Newcastle (Newcastle, New South Wales), bringing great prosperity to the town before the line was extended further north in 1869. Historically, the next inbound is Belford (Belford railway station), however this station was closed on 4 September 2005. The '''Newcastle and Central Coast Line''' is an intercity railway line of Sydney's CityRail network. It runs from Sydney's Central Station (Central railway station, Sydney) via the Central Coast (Central Coast (New South Wales)) along an inland route, and ends in the Central Business District of Newcastle (Newcastle, New South Wales). It is coloured red on a grey background on CityRail maps and other promotional material. The town is home to the Mittagong railway station (Mittagong railway station, New South Wales) on CityRail's Southern Highlands line (Southern Highlands railway line, New South Wales) with regular services to and from Central Station (Central railway station, Sydney) in Sydney, Goulburn (Goulburn, New South Wales) as well as CountryLink services to Canberra and Melbourne. '''Yagoona''' is the next station west of Bankstown (Bankstown railway station) on the CityRail Bankstown line (Bankstown railway line) and is situated virtually next to the Hume Highway in Yagoona (Yagoona, New South Wales). The station opened in 1928 when the Bankstown line was extended from Bankstown to join the Main South (Main Southern railway line, New South Wales) at Regents Park, and the track was electrified in 1939 Brady, I. ''Sydney Electric Trains From 1926 to 1960''. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, Vol 52, no 762. April 2001. . It has a simple island platform and does not retain its original station buildings. '''Ashfield railway station''' is a station located on the Main Suburban railway line of the CityRail network. It is located in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield (Ashfield, New South Wales) and features five platforms (two city bound, two outward bound, and one used as a turnback to the city). It is currently serviced by the South Line (South railway line, Sydney), the Inner West Line (Inner West railway line), and up until 2001, the Western Line (Western railway line, Sydney). '''Kirrawee''' is a railway station on the Cronulla (Cronulla, New South Wales) branch of the CityRail Illawarra line (Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra railway line). Located in the Sydney suburb of Kirrawee (Kirrawee, New South Wales), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, it serves a residential area and a light industrial area nearby. It is located beside a strip of 25 shops. '''Hurstville railway station''' is a major station on Australia's CityRail suburban Illawarra (Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra railway line) and interurban South Coast Line (South Coast railway line, New South Wales). It is located in the southern (Southern Sydney) suburb of Hurstville (Hurstville, New South Wales), serving a residential and large commercial district. The station marks the end of the four track section from Illawarra Junction at Redfern (Redfern, New South Wales); the line continues as two tracks south from this point. Several sidings to the south of the station allow stabling of passenger trains during off-peak periods. '''St Peters railway station''' is part of the CityRail network. Straddling the border of the Sydney suburbs of St Peters (St Peters, New South Wales) and Newtown (Newtown, New South Wales), it services a residential and industrial area. This station does not have easy access (Easy Access) for wheelchairs. St Peters is used by an average of 5180 daily weekday commuters. Robins, R. ''An uphill battle at the busy railway stations''. Sydney Morning Herald, July 4–5, 2009. '''Campsie railway station''' is a railway station on the Bankstown line (Bankstown railway line) of Sydney's (Sydney) CityRail rail network in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the Sydney suburb of Campsie (Campsie, New South Wales). '''Wondabyne railway station''' is a railway station (List of Sydney railway stations) on the Newcastle and Central Coast Line (Newcastle and Central Coast railway line) in the CityRail network in New South Wales, Australia. The station is noted for its remoteness and having an extraordinarily short platform, which is less than a train carriage long. '''North Warnervale''' is a proposed all stops station on the Newcastle and Central Coast (Newcastle and Central Coast railway line, New South Wales) intercity line of the CityRail network in New South Wales, Australia. It will serve the new town centre of Northern Warnervale (Warnervale, New South Wales) (Woongarrah (Woongarrah, New South Wales)). The plans were put forward to council in March 2006 but no construction has begun as yet. The notable information from the above nominated pages are in the CityRail article, thus all pages are redundant. So '''Delete All''' --Arnzy (User:Arnzy) (Talk (User talk:Arnzy)) 02:00, 25 April 2006 (UTC) *'''Delete''' as per nom. redundant duplication.Bridesmill (User:Bridesmill) 02:57, 25 April 2006 (UTC) *'''Comment''' - With great respect to everyone, I wish Americans and Canadians would keep out of debates like this. I don't think you guys know much about CityRail (if you do I am very sorry), but I wouldn't just jump on US and Canadian votes and randomly vote for their deletion for reasons that I may not know anything about. Anyway, the train types which the Sectors determine are listed on CityRail's webpage and the sectors are not obscure as people have suggested. However, I will agree that the five articles don't warrant their own page each - one page will suffice when the CityRail article is improved and that information doesn't need to be on the front page. I have merged all the information in the articles onto the front page so you are now welcome to delete them. ::That's a '''Delete all''' from me. (JROBBO (User:JROBBO) 13:17, 25 April 2006 (UTC)) Design origins The VLocity is an evolution Rail Technical Society of Australasia, South Australian Branch, July 2007 Newsletter, page 6, http: rtsa.com.au assets 2008 03 rtsa-sa-nl-jul-2007.pdf, accessed 8th February 2011 of the Xplorer (CountryLink Xplorer) Endeavour (CityRail Endeavour railcar) railcars built by ABB Transportation (now Bombardier Transportation) for CountryLink and CityRail, respectively, in New South Wales, themselves being derivatives of Transwa Australind railcars. National Express Group specified the NSW design as part of its bid to operate V Line under the public transport privatisation scheme of the Kennett (Jeff Kennett) government in the late 1990s. The train was originally known as a '''V Locity''' (with the slash character). * GG20B (Railpower GG20B) ''Green Goat'' hybrid shunting locomotive with Railpower Technologies. * CityRail Tangara (CityRail T and G sets) EMU * CityRail Hunter Railcar (CityRail Hunter railcar) DMU * CityRail Tangara (CityRail T and G sets) EMU * CityRail Hunter Railcar (CityRail Hunter railcar) DMU


Mauritania

of trade occurs after the Portuguese reach this region in 1446, bringing great wealth to several local slave trading tribes. The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo. They then traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba river, for black slaves captured by other black peoples in local African wars and raids. The slaves were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas. The Company of Guinea was a Portuguese governative institution whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods. It was called ''Casa da Guiné'', ''Casa da Guiné e Mina'' from 1482 to 1483 and ''Casa da Índia e da Guiné'' in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prosper greatly from the slave trade, have no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading takes place. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau. The giraffe species as a whole is assessed as Least Concern from a conservation perspective by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), as it is still numerous. However, giraffes have been extirpated from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, Guinea, Malawi, Mauritania and Senegal. They may also have disappeared from Angola, Mali, and Nigeria, but have been introduced to Rwanda and Swaziland. Two subspecies, the West African giraffe and the Rothschild giraffe, have been classified as Endangered (Endangered species), as wild populations of each of them number in the hundreds. In 1997, Jonathan Kingdon suggested that the Nubian giraffe was the most threatened of all giraffes; Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


Cape Verde

as porters on the trans-Saharan routes, and for sale in the Islamic Empire. The Portuguese found Muslim merchants entrenched along the African coast as far as the Bight of Benin. H. Miner, The City in Modern Africa - 1967 Before the arrival of the Europeans, the African slave trade, centuries old in Africa, was not yet the major feature of the coastal economy of Guinea. The expansion of trade occurs after the Portuguese reach this region in 1446, bringing great wealth to several local slave trading tribes. The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo. They then traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba river, for black slaves captured by other black peoples in local African wars and raids. The slaves were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas. The Company of Guinea was a Portuguese governative institution whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods. It was called ''Casa da Guiné'', ''Casa da Guiné e Mina'' from 1482 to 1483 and ''Casa da Índia e da Guiné'' in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prosper greatly from the slave trade, have no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading takes place. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau. Alvise Cadamosto explored the Atlantic coast of Africa and discovered several islands of the Cape Verde archipelago between 1455 and 1456. In his first voyage, which started on 22 March 1455, he visited the Madeira Islands and the Canary Islands. On the second voyage, in 1456, Cadamosto became the first European to reach the Cape Verde Islands. António Noli later claimed the credit. By 1462, the Portuguese had explored the coast of Africa as far as the present-day nation Sierra Leone. Twenty-eight years later, Bartolomeu Dias proved that Africa could be circumnavigated when he reached the southern tip of the continent, now known as the "Cape of Good Hope." In 1498, Vasco da Gama was the first sailor to travel from Portugal to India. Of these, the Cook Islands and Niue are not UN members, and have limited sovereignty due to their free association (associated state) with New Zealand. In addition, most of the states with limited recognition (List of states with limited recognition) (i.e., those that are not UN members (List of United Nations member states)) are not Member States of the IAEA. Cape Verde, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, and Togo as non-member states, have been approved for membership, and will each become a Member State once it deposits the necessary legal instrument. The Portuguese Inquisition held its first ''auto-da-fé'' in 1540. It concentrated its efforts on rooting out converts from other faiths (overwhelmingly Judaism) who did not adhere to the observances of Catholic orthodoxy; the Portuguese inquisitors mostly targeted the Jewish "New Christians" (i.e. conversos or marranos). The Portuguese Inquisition expanded its scope of operations from Portugal to Portugal's colonial (colony) possessions, including Brazil, Cape Verde, and Goa, where it continued as a religious court, investigating and trying cases of breaches of the tenets of orthodox Roman Catholicism until 1821. King João III (John III of Portugal) (reigned 1521–57) extended the activity of the courts to cover censorship, divination, witchcraft and bigamy. Originally oriented for a religious action, the Inquisition had an influence in almost every aspect of Portuguese society: politically, culturally and socially. The Goa Inquisition, an inquisition largely aimed at Catholic converts from Hinduism or Islam who were thought to have returned to their original ways, started in Goa in 1560. In addition, the Inquisition prosecuted non-converts who broke prohibitions against the observance of Hindu or Muslim rites or interfered with Portuguese attempts to convert non-Christians to Catholicism. Salomon, H. P. and Sassoon, I. S. D., in Saraiva, Antonio Jose. ''The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536-1765'' (Brill, 2001), pgs. 345-7 Aleixo Dias Falcão and Francisco Marques set it up in the palace of the Sabaio Adil Khan. *1975 – Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon (The Championships, Wimbledon) singles title. * 1975 – Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal. *1977 – Military coup in Pakistan: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown. *Independence Day, celebrate the independence of Algeria from France in 1962. *Independence Day, celebrate the independence of Cape Verde from Portugal in 1975. *Independence Day, celebrate the independence of Venezuela from Spain in 1811. The '''lavenders''' (botanic name '''''Lavandula''''') are a genus of 39 species of flowering plants in the mint family, ''Lamiaceae''. It is an Old World genus, found from Cape Verde and Canary Islands, southern Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, south-west Asia to south-east India. Many members of the genus are cultivated extensively in temperate climates as ornamental plants for garden and landscape use, and also commercially for the extraction of essential oils. * Fernão Lopes (c. 1385 – after 1459) was a chronicler appointed by King Edward of Portugal. Fernão Lopes wrote the history of Portugal, but only a part of his work remained. His way of writing was based on oral discourse, and, on every page, it revealed his roots among the common people. He is one of the fathers of the European historiography, or a precursor of the scientific historiography, basing his works always on the documental proof, and, has he said, on his pages "one cannot find the beauty of words but the nudity of the truth." He was an autodidact; * Duarte Pacheco Pereira, called "the Great", was a 15th century sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer (cartography). He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, around northern Brazil, in 1498 and before; also along the coast of West Africa and to India. His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, he was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arc with a margin of error of only 4%; * Francisco de Almeida, (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a nobleman, soldier and explorer, counsellor to King John II of Portugal and the first Viceroy of Portuguese India. Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean, with his decisive victory at the naval Battle of Diu in 1509; languages ethnic_groups 96.87% '''Portuguese (Portuguese people)''' 3.13% other ethnicities (Cape Verdeans, Brazilians, Goans (Goan Catholics), Angolans, Ukrainians, etc.) ethnic_groups_year 2007 Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the 1890 British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Angola (Portuguese Angola) (most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia), which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its "Pink Map," which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway. The Portuguese territories in Africa were Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Portuguese Guinea, Angola (Angola (Portugal)), and Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)). The tiny fortress of São João Baptista de Ajudá on the coast of Dahomey, was also under Portuguese rule. In addition, the country still ruled the Asian territories of Portuguese India, Portuguese Timor and Macau. '''Portuguese''' (


Mecca

as the Bight of Benin. H. Miner, The City in Modern Africa - 1967 Before the arrival of the Europeans, the African slave trade, centuries old in Africa, was not yet the major feature of the coastal economy of Guinea. The expansion of trade occurs after the Portuguese reach this region in 1446, bringing great wealth to several local slave trading tribes. The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo. They then traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba river, for black slaves captured by other black peoples in local African wars and raids. The slaves were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas. The Company of Guinea was a Portuguese governative institution whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods. It was called ''Casa da Guiné'', ''Casa da Guiné e Mina'' from 1482 to 1483 and ''Casa da Índia e da Guiné'' in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prosper greatly from the slave trade, have no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading takes place. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau. The Mali Empire in Africa was famed throughout the old world (Old World) for its large amounts of gold. Mansa Musa, ruler of the empire (1312–1337) became famous throughout the old world for his great hajj to Mecca in 1324. When he passed through Cairo in July 1324, he was reportedly accompanied by a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels. He gave away so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade. Mansa Musa – Black History Pages A contemporary Arab historian remarked: Pre-Islamic Arabia In pre-Islamic Mecca the goddesses Uzza, al-Manāt (Manah) and al-Lāt (Allat) were known as "the daughters of god". Uzzā was worshipped by the Nabataeans, who equated her with the Graeco-Roman goddesses Aphrodite, Urania, Venus (Venus (mythology)) and Caelestis. Each of the three goddesses had a separate shrine near Mecca. Uzzā, was called upon for protection by the pre-Islamic Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)). "In 624 at the battle called "Uhud", the war cry of the Qurayshites was, "O people of Uzzā, people of Hubal!" (Tawil 1993). Pre-Islamic Arabia In pre-Islamic Mecca the goddesses Uzza, al-Manāt (Manah) and al-Lāt (Allat) were known as "the daughters of god". Uzzā was worshipped by the Nabataeans, who equated her with the Graeco-Roman goddesses Aphrodite, Urania, Venus (Venus (mythology)) and Caelestis. Each of the three goddesses had a separate shrine near Mecca. Uzzā, was called upon for protection by the pre-Islamic Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)). "In 624 at the battle called "Uhud", the war cry of the Qurayshites was, "O people of Uzzā, people of Hubal!" (Tawil 1993).


Democratic Republic of the Congo

villages faced with unrealistic rubber quotas would raid neighboring villages to collect hands to present to the FP in order to avoid the same fate. Rubber prices boomed in the 1890s, bringing great wealth to Leopold and the whites of Congo, but eventually low-cost rubber from the Americas and Asia decreased prices and the operation in the CFS became unprofitable. By the turn of the century, reports of these atrocities reached Europe. After a few years of successfully convincing the public that these reports were isolated incidents and slander, other European nations began investigating the activities of Leopold in the Congo Free State. Publications by noteworthy journalists and authors (like Conrad's ''Heart of Darkness'' and Doyle's ''The Crime of the Congo'') brought the issue to the European public. Embarrassed, the government of Belgium finally annexed the Congo Free State, took over Leopold's holdings, and renamed the state '''Belgian Congo''' (to differentiate from French Congo, now Republic of the Congo). No census was ever taken, but historians estimate around half of the Congo's population, up to 10 million people, was killed between 1885-1908. Belgian Congo Aside from eliminating forced labor and the associated punishments, the Belgian government didn't make significant changes at first. To exploit the Congo's vast mineral wealth, the Belgians began construction of roads and railroads across the country (most of which remains, with little upkeep over the century, today). The Belgians also worked to give the Congolese access to education and health care. During WWII, the Congo remained loyal to the Belgian government in exile in London and sent troops to engage Italians in Ethiopia and Germans in East Africa. The Congo also became the one of the world's main suppliers of rubber & ores. Uranium mined in Belgian Congo was sent to the U.S. and used in the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After WWII, the Belgian Congo prospered and the 1950s were some of the most peaceful years in the Congo's history. The Belgian government invested in health care facilities, infrastructure, and housing. Congolese gained the right to buy sell property and segregation nearly vanished. A small middle class even developed in the larger cities. The one thing the Belgians did not do was prepare an educated class of black leaders and public servants. The first elections open to black voters and candidates were held in 1957 in the larger cities. By 1959, the successful independence movements of other African countries inspired the Congolese and calls for independence grew louder and louder. Belgium did not want a colonial war to retain control of the Congo and invited a handful of Congolese political leaders for talks in Brussels in January 1960. The Belgians had in mind a 5-6 year transition plan to hold parliamentary elections in 1960 and gradually give administrative responsibility over to the Congolese with independence in the mid-1960. The carefully crafted plan was rejected by the Congolese representative and the Belgians eventually conceded to hold elections in May and grant a hasty independence on 30 June. Regional and national political parties emerged with once-jailed leader Patrice Lumumba elected Prime Minister and head of the government. Independence was granted June 30, 1960 to the "Republic of the Congo" (the same name neighboring French colony Middle Congo adopted). The day was marked by a sneer and verbal assault directed at the Belgian king after praising the genius of King Leopold II. Within weeks of independence, the army rebelled against white officers and increasing violence directed at remaining whites forced nearly all 80,000 Belgians to leave the country. Congo Crisis After independence on 30 June 1960, the country quickly fell apart. The region of South Kasai declared independence on 14 June and the region of Katanga declared independence on 11 July under strongman Moise Tshombe. While not a puppet of Belgium, Tshombe was greatly helped by Belgian financial and military aid. Katanga was essentially a neo-colonial state backed by Belgium and the interests of Belgian mining companies. On 14 July, the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing a UN peacekeeping force, and for Belgium to withdraw remaining troops from the Congo. The Belgian troops left, but many officers stayed as paid mercenaries and were key in warding off the Congolese army's attacks (which were poorly-organized and were guilty of mass killings and rape). President Lumumba turned to the USSR for help, receiving military aid and 1,000 Soviet advisers. A UN force arrived to keep the peace, but did little initially. South Kasai was recaptured after a bloody campaign in December 1961. European mercenaries arrived from all around Africa and even from Europe to help the Katangan army. The UN force attempted to round up and repatriate mercenaries, but didn't make an impact. The UN mission was eventually changed to reintegrate Katanga into Congo with force. For over a year UN & Katanga forces fought in various clashes. UN forces surrounded and captured the Katanga capital Elisabethville (Lubumbashi) in December 1962. By January 1963, Tshombe was defeated, the last of the foreign mercenaries fled to Angola, and Katanga was reintegrated into the Congo. Meanwhile, in Leopoldville (Kinshasa), relations between Prime Minister Lumumba and President Kasa-Vubu, of opposing parties, grew increasingly tense. In September 1960, Kasa-Vubu dismissed Lumumba from his Prime Minister position. Lumumba challenged the legality of this and dismissed Kasa-Vubu as President. Lumumba, who wanted a socialist state, turned to the USSR to ask for help. On September 14—just two and a half months after independence—Congolese Army Chief of Staff General Mobutu was pressured to intervene, launching a coup and placing Lumumba under house arrest. Mobutu had received money from the Belgian and US embassies to pay his soldiers and win their loyalty. Lumumba escaped and fled to Stanleyville (Kisangani) before being captured and taken to Elizabethville (Lubumbashi) where he was publicly beaten, disappeared, and was announced dead 3 weeks later. It was later revealed that he was executed in January 1961 in the presence of Belgian & US officials (who had both tried to kill him covertly ever since he asked the USSR for aid) and that the CIA and Belgium were complicit in his execution. President Kasa-Vubu remained in power and Katanga's Tshombe eventually became Prime Minister. Lumumbist and Maoist Pierre Mulele led a rebellion in 1964, successfully occupying two thirds of the country, and turned to Maoist China for help. The US and Belgium once again got involved, this time with a small military force. Mulele fled to Congo-Brazzaville (Republic of the Congo), but would later be lured back to Kinshasa by a promise of amnesty by Mobutu. Mobutu reneged on his promise, and Mulele was publicly tortured, his eyes gouged out, genitals cut off, and limbs amputated one by one while still alive; his body was then dumped in the Congo River. The whole country saw widespread conflict and rebellion between 1960-1965, leading to the naming of this period the "Congo Crisis" Mobutu General Mobutu, a sworn anti-communist, befriended the US and Belgium in the height of the Cold War and continued to receive money to buy his soldiers' loyalty. In November 1965, Mobutu launched a coup, with U.S. & Belgian support behind the scenes, during yet another power struggle between the President and Prime Minister. Claiming that "politicians" had taken five years to ruin the country, he proclaimed "For five years, there will be no more political party activity in the country." The country was placed in a state of emergency, Parliament was weakened and soon eliminated, and independent trade unions abolished. In 1967, Mobutu established the only permitted political party (until 1990), the Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR), which soon merged with the government so that the government effectively became a function of the party. By 1970, all threats to Mobutu's power were eliminated and in the presidential election he was the only candidate and voters were given the choice of green for hope or red for chaos (Mobutu... green... won with 10,131,699 to 157). A new constitution drafted by Mobutu and his cronies was approved by 97%. In the early 1970s, Mobutu began a campaign known as '''''Authenticité''''', which continued the nationalist ideology begun in his ''Manifesto of N’Sele'' in 1967. Under Authenticité, Congolese were ordered to adopt African names, men gave up Western suits for the traditional abacost, and geographical names were changed from colonial to African ones. The country became '''Zaire''' in 1972, Leopoldville became Kinshasa, Elisabethville became Lubumbashi, and Stanleyville became Kisangani. Most impressive of all, Joseph Mobuto became ''Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga'' ("The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake."), or simply ''Mobutu Sese Seko''. Among other changes, all Congolese were declared equal and hierarchical forms of address were eliminated, with Congolese required to address others as "citizen" and foreign dignitaries were met with African singing and dancing rather than a Western-style 21-gun salute. Throughout the 1970s and 80s, the government remained under the tight grip of Mobutu, who constantly shuffled political and military leaders to avoid competition, while the enforcement of Authenticité precepts waned. Mobutu gradually shifted in methods from torturing and killing rivals to buying them off. Little attention was paid to improving the life of Congolese. The single-party state essentially functioned to serve Mobutu and his friends, who grew disgustingly wealthy. Among Mobutu's excesses included a runway in his hometown long enough to handle Concorde planes which he occasionally rented for official trips abroad and shopping trips in Europe; he was estimated to have over US$5 billion in foreign accounts when he left office. He also attempted to build a cult of personality, with his image everywhere, a ban on media from saying any other government official by name (only title), and introduced titles like "Father of the Nation," "Saviour of the People," and "Supreme Combatant." Despite his Soviet-style single party state and authoritarian governance, Mobutu was vocally anti-Soviet, and with the fear of Soviet puppet governments rising in Africa (such as neighbouring Angola) the US and other Western powers continued providing economic aid and political support to the Mobutu regime. When the Cold War waned, international support for Mobutu gave way criticism of his rule. Covertly, domestic opposition groups began to grow and the Congolese people began to protest the government and the failing economy. In 1990, the first multi-party elections were held, but did little to effect change. Unpaid soldiers began rioting and looting Kinshasa in 1991 and most foreigners were evacuated. Eventually, a rival government arose from talks with the opposition, leading to a stalemate and dysfunctional government. First and Second Congo Wars By the mid-1990s, it was clear Mobutu's rule was nearing an end. No longer influenced by Cold War politics, the international community turned against him. Meanwhile, the economy of Zaire was in shambles (and remains little improved to this day). The central government had a weak control of the country and numerous opposition groups formed and found refuge in Eastern Zaire—far from Kinshasa. The Kivu region was long home to ethnic strife between the various 'native' tribes and the Tutsis who were brought by the Belgians from Rwanda in the late 19th century. Several small conflicts had occurred since independence, resulting in thousands of deaths. But when the 1994 Rwandan genocide took place in neighbouring Rwanda, over 1.5 million ethnic Tutsi and Hutu refugees flowed into Eastern Zaire. Militant Hutus—the main aggressors in the genocide—began attacking both Tutsi refugees and the Congolese Tutsi population (the ''Banyamulenge'') and also formed militias to launch attacks into Rwanda in hopes of returning to power there. Not only did Mobutu fail to stop the violence, but supported the Hutus for an invasion of Rwanda. In 1995, the Zairian Parliament ordered the return of all people of Rwandan or Burundian descent to return to be repatriated. The Tutsi-led Rwandan government, meanwhile, began to train and support Tutsi militias in Zaire. In August 1996, fighting broke out and the Tutsis residing in the Kivu provinces began a rebellion with the goal of gaining control of North & South Kivu and fighting Hutu militias still attacking them. The rebellion soon gained support of the locals and collected many Zairian opposition groups, which eventually united as the ''Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo'' (AFDL) with the goal of ousting Mobutu. By the end of the year, with help from Rwanda & Uganda, the rebels had managed to control a large section of Eastern Zaire that protected Rwanda & Uganda from Hutu attacks. The Zairian army was weak and when Angola sent troops in early 1997, the rebels gained the confidence to capture the rest of the country and oust Mobutu. By May, the rebels were close to Kinshasa and captured Lubumbashi. When peace talks between sides broke down, Mobutu fled and AFDL leader Laurent-Desire Kabila marched into Kinshasa. Kabila changed the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, attempted to restore order, and expelled foreign troops in 1998. A mutiny broke out in Goma in August 1998 among Tutsi soldiers and a new rebel group formed, taking control of much of the Eastern DRC. Kabila turned to Hutu militias to help suppress the new rebels. Rwanda saw this as an attack on the Tutsi population and sent troops across the border for their protection. By the end of the month, the rebels held much of the Eastern DRC along with a small area near the capital, including the Inga Dam which allowed them to shut off electricity to Kinshasa. When it looked certain Kabila's government and the capital Kinshasa would fall to the rebels, Angola, Namibia, & Zimbabwe agreed to defend Kabila and troops from Zimbabwe arrived just in time to protect the capital from a rebel attack; Chad, Libya, & Sudan also sent troops to help Kabila. As a stalemate approached, the foreign governments involved in fighting in the DRC agreed to a ceasefire in January 1999, but since the rebels weren't a signatory, fighting continued. In 1999, the rebels broke up into numerous factions aligned along ethic or pro-Uganda pro-Rwanda lines. A peace treaty among the six warring states (DRC, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Uganda) and one rebel group was signed in July and all agreed to end fighting and track down and disarm all rebel groups, especially ones associated with the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Fighting continued as pro-Rwanda & pro-Uganda factions turned on each other and the UN authorized a peacekeeping mission (MONUC) in early 2000. In January 2001, President Laurent Kabila was shot by a bodyguard and later died. He was replaced by his son Joseph Kabila. The rebels continued to break up into smaller factions and fought each other in addition to the DRC & foreign armies. Many rebels managed to gain funds through the smuggling of diamonds and other "conflict minerals" (like copper, zinc, & coltan) from the regions they occupied, many times through forced and child labor in dangerous conditions. The DRC signed peace treaties with Rwanda & Uganda in 2002. In December 2002, the main factions signed the ''Global and All-Inclusive Agreement'' to end the fighting. The agreement established a Transitional DRC government that would reunify the country, integrate & disarm rebel factions, and hold elections in 2005 for a new constitution & politicians with Joseph Kabila remaining president. The UN peacekeeping force grew much larger and was tasked with disarming rebels, many of which retained their own militias long after 2003. Conflict remains in North & South Kivu, Ituri, & northern Katanga provinces. During the course of fighting, the First Congo War resulted in 250,000-800,000 dead. The Second Congo War resulted in over 350,000 violent deaths (1998-2001) and 2.7-5.4 million "excess deaths" as a result of starvation and disease among refugees due to the war (1998-2008), making it the deadliest conflict in the world since the end of World War Two. Modern DRC Joseph Kabila remained president of a transitional government until nationwide elections were held in 2006 for a new Constitution, Parliament, & President with major financial and technical support from the international community. Kabila won (and was re-elected in 2011). While corruption has been greatly reduced and politics have become more inclusive of minority political views, the country remains little improved from its condition at the end of Mobutu's rule. The DRC has the dubious distinction of having the lowest or second-lowest GDP per capita in the world (only Somalia ranks lower) and the economy remains poor. China has sought a number of mining claims, many of which are paid for by building infrastructure (railroads, roads) and facilities like schools & hospitals. The UN and many NGOs have a very large presence in the Kivu provinces, but despite a large amount of aid money, many still live in refugee camps and survive on foreign UN aid. Fighting in Kivu & Ituri waned by the end of the decade, although many former militia members remain militant. Few have been tried and convicted for war crimes, although many former rebels leaders are accused of crimes against humanity & the use of child soldiers. Soldiers formerly members of a militia that fought in Kivu from 2006 until a peace agreement in 2009 mutinied in April 2012 and a new wave of violence followed as they took control of a large area along the Uganda Rwanda borders. Rwanda has been accused of backing this M23 movement and the UN is investigating their possible involvement. Climate The country straddles the Equator, with one-third to the North and two-thirds to the South. As a result of this equatorial location, the Congo experiences large amounts of precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 80 inches (2,032 mm) in some places, and the area sustains the second largest rain forest in the world (after that of the Amazon). This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Atlantic Ocean in the West. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the south and southwest, by mountainous terraces in the west, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Congo River in the north. High, glaciated mountains are found in the extreme eastern region. Read *''Heart of Darkness'' by Joseph Conrad. A short novel published in 1903 based on the experiences of Conrad while working in the Congo Free State. *''Through the Dark Continent'' by Henry Morton Stanley. An 1878 book documenting his trip down the Congo River. *''King Leopold's Ghost'' by Adam Hochschild. A non-fiction popular history book which examines the activities of Leopold and the men who ran the Congo Free State. A best-seller with 400,000 copies printed since publication in 1998. It is the basis of a 2006 documentary of the same name. *''Blood River:A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart'' by Tim Butcher. The author carefully retraces the route of Stanley's expedition in ''Through the Dark Continent'' and describes the challenges he faces. *''Dancing in the Glory of Monsters'' by Jason Stearns. Written by a member of the UN panel investigating Congolese rebels, this is a meticulously researched yet accessible account of the Congo wars. People Over 200 ethnic groups populate the Democratic Republic of Congo, including the '''Kongo''', '''Mongo''', '''Mangbetu Azande''', and '''Luba''' who constitute 45% percent of the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Regions thumb right 475px Map of Democratic Republic of the Congo with regions colour coded (Image:Congo Dem Rep Regions Map.png) Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the


Peru

Commons:Category:Peru


Australia

America is predicted to have shifted slightly west and Eurasia would shift to the east, and possibly even to the south, bringing Great Britain closer to the North Pole and Siberia southward towards warm, subtropical latitudes. Africa is predicted to collide with Europe and Arabia, closing the Mediterranean Sea (completely closing the Tethys Ocean (or Neotethys) and the Red Sea). A long mountain range would then extend from Iberia, across Southern Europe

the town of Singleton, New South Wales. It opened in 1863 as a terminus for the Main Northern Line from Newcastle (Newcastle, New South Wales), bringing great prosperity to the town before the line was extended further north in 1869. Historically, the next inbound is Belford (Belford railway station), however this station was closed on 4 September 2005. '''Zhang Nan''' ( Commons:Category:Australia Wikipedia:Australia Dmoz:Regional Oceania Australia


India

The explosion killed Rajiv Gandhi and many others. The assassination was caught on film through the lens of a local photographer, whose camera and film were found at the site. The cameraman himself died in the blast but the camera remained intact. thumb upright Khomeini (Image:خمینی با وضو.JPG) The Khomeini family originated from Nishapur, Iran. Towards the end of the 18th century, the ancestors of Ruhollah Khomeini migrated from their original home in Nishapur to the kingdom of Oudh (Padshah-i-Oudh) in northern India, whose rulers (Awadh#Under the Nawabs of Awadh) were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian (Persian people) origin; Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam by Juan Ricardo Cole


Canada

Street Journal date March 10, 2010 page A5 first Stephen last Miller He later headed that office and was a long time friend of Mies van der Rohe. He was deeply involved with many aspects of developing the city of Chicago, from city planning, bringing great public art to the city and involvement in individual projects. Bruce Graham built extensively all over the world from his home in Chicago, to Guatemala, Hong Kong, London, Cairo, and many other cities


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