buildings. Today, the Kansas City Riverfront Bicycle Trail, a 20-mile bicycle route along the Missouri River around downtown Kansas City, also runs through the park and along the bluff. ''Porgy and Bess'', the WPA, ''The Swing Mikado'', and ''Carmen Jones'' George Gershwin's ''Porgy and Bess'' (1935) – starring Will Marion Cook's wife Abbie Mitchell among many others – is the most famous black musical of the 1930s. It is called a black musical because of the African American cast, even though neither the music or plot is of the “Negro inspiration” like the creators proclaim. "''Porgy and Bess'' marked the nadir in the history of black musical comedy, symbolizing the end of tradition and experimentation in black musical theater on Broadway". Woll, 175. This also led the Works Progress Administration to start the Federal Theater Project that established the Negro Unit with programs in twenty-two cities. This gave a new break to the struggling artists. The Negro Unit avoided musical comedies, but had a few musicals with black cast including Eubie Blake’s ''Swing It'', which closed in 1937 and lessened hope for the Federal Theater Project. right thumb Bill Robinson (File:HotmikadoBill.jpg) in ''The Hot Mikado'''''''The Hot Mikado''''' was a 1939 musical theatre adaptation of Gilbert and Sullivan's ''The Mikado'' with an African-American cast. Mike Todd originally produced it after the Federal Theatre Project turned down his offer to manage the WPA (Works Progress Administration) production of ''The Swing Mikado'' (another all-black adaptation of ''The Mikado''). The school's main hallway features a large Works Progress Administration mural entitled "Community Life in the 19th Century," by Ralph (Ralf) Henricksen and Emmanuel Jacobson, probably completed in 1936. The school also includes a library and a technology center. Horace Mann owns a large property called Field Park, which includes a blacktop, three playgrounds, and a center at which students play football (American football) and other after-school activities. * Reporting (Pulitzer Prize for Reporting): ** Thomas Lunsford Stokes of Scripps-Howard (E.W. Scripps Company) Newspaper Alliance for his series of articles on alleged intimidation of workers for the Works Progress Administration in Pennsylvania and Kentucky during an election. The articles were published in ''The New York World-Telegram''. * Correspondence (Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence): History The Savannah Arts Academy building is located on a site that was originally planned as a luxury tourist hotel called the Hotel Georgia. The Works Progress Administration, in the midst of the Great Depression, expressed interest in the site for use as the new Savannah High School, which was dedicated on June 15, 1937. After 61 years on Washington Avenue, Savannah High School (Savannah High School (Georgia)) classes were moved to a new building on Pennsylvania Avenue, leaving the structure available for the newly formed Savannah Arts Academy for the school year beginning August 1998. Natrona County High School was originally known as Casper High School in its early days. The current building was constructed between 1924 and 1941 in Collegiate Gothic (Gothic Revival architecture) style. It was partially built under the authority of the Works Progress Administration; the crest of the WPA visible in the sidewalks on the front campus. In exchange for the federal assistance, male student participation in the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps was mandatory until a few years after Kelly Walsh High School opened in 1965. The JROTC at NCHS is the second oldest unit in the nation and will be celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2014. The 1933 programs, called "the First New Deal" by historians, represented a broad consensus; Roosevelt tried to reach out to business and labor, farmers and consumers, cities and countryside. By 1934, however, he was moving toward a more confrontational policy. After making gains in state governorships and in Congress, in 1934 Roosevelt embarked on an ambitious legislative program that came to be called "The Second New Deal." It was characterized by building up labor unions, nationalizing welfare by the WPA (Works Progress Administration), setting up Social Security (Social Security (United States)), imposing more regulations on business (especially transportation and communications), and raising taxes on business profits. Roosevelt's New Deal programs focused on job creation through public works projects as well as on social welfare programs such as Social Security (Social Security (United States)). It also included sweeping reforms to the banking system, work regulation, transportation, communications, and stock markets, as well as attempts to regulate prices. His policies soon paid off by uniting a diverse coalition of Democratic voters called the New Deal Coalition, which included labor unions, southerners, minorities (most significantly, Catholics and Jews), and liberals (political liberalism). This united voter base allowed Democrats to be elected to Congress and the presidency for much of the next 30 years. What distinguished Wheatraw’s recordings most of all is the quality of his lyrics. Like other successful performers, he sang of the concerns of urban African Americans removed from their rural roots. Some of his most memorable songs deal with the Repeal of Prohibition, a New Deal WPA (Works Progress Administration) Project, and slum clearance for urban renewal. His “stomps” project a unique personality, boastful and demonic. His songs on more mundane themes are extraordinarily varied. His lyrics, though seeming at times slap-dash or improvised, are at their best direct and vivid evocations of the black experience. Wheatstraw's significance as a poet is discussed at length by Paul Garon. Garon (ibid) Early life and career Crichlow was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1914 to Caribbean immigrants. He studied art at the School of Commercial Illustrating and Advertising Art in New York and New York University. Crichlow started work as an artist in a studio sponsored by Works Progress Administration's (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project. Augusta Savage was an early patron of his work as was the case for many of the artists of the Harlem Renaissance. It was built from 1939–42 (despite emergency building restrictions during World War II) on the farmland of the Catholic Protectory, a home for orphaned and troubled boys conducted by the Brothers of the Christian Schools, which relocated to Lincolndale (and still exists in) Westchester County. In 1974, approximately one-third of the complex was converted (Condo conversion) to condominiums, with the remaining portion, now ''Parkchester South Condominium'' converted later, in 1986. The complex is best known for its broad, tree-lined walkways between the distinctive red-brown buildings, and for its Works Progress Administration-style terracotta decorations on the buildings, that represent animal and human figures of many types. Many of these are the work of sculptor Joseph Kiselewski. thumb In 1919, Mora created this plaque memorial to Bret Harte (File:Detail of Bret Harte sculpture.jpg), mounted on the external wall of the Bohemian Club In 1907, Mora returned to California and married Grace Needham. Their son, Joseph Needham Mora, was born on March 8, 1908. The Moras moved to San Jose, California, where Mora continued his work. By 1919, he was sculpting for the Bohemian Club, including a memorial plaque dedicated to Bret Harte, completed in August 1919 and mounted on the outside of the private men's club building in San Francisco. In 1925, he designed the commemorative half dollar for the California Diamond Jubilee. During this period he also illustrated a number of books, made large murals, and published charts, maps (cartes) and diagrams of the West and Western themes. Beginning in 1937, Mora wrote and illustrated children's books about the West. In 1939, a Works Progress Administration project was completed, with Mora bas-relief sculpture adorning the King City High School theater building. Mora died October 10, 1947 in Monterey, California. thumb alt Poppy Girl, 1915 (File:J Mora - Poppy Girl.jpg) thumb The facade of the Robert Stanton Theater at King City High School (File:KingCityHS-RobertStantonTheater.jpg) in King City, California. Completed in 1939, this Works Progress Administration project featured bas-relief sculpture by Jo Mora Construction and history The building was opened in 1937 to replace the original library building (the "Old Libe," Fenton Hall, completed in 1907), which the University's collections had outgrown. Construction of the library was financed as a Depression-era (Great Depression) Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, spearheaded by Oregon senator (United States Senate) Frederick Steiwer and took more than two years to complete. "The New Libe" as the ''Oregon Daily Emerald'' student newspaper had christened the building, was designed by Ellis F. Lawrence of the Oregon-based architectural firm Lawrence, Holford, and Allyn. Lawrence was also a driving force in much of the core architecture of the UO campus and was the first Dean of the School of Architecture and Allied Arts (University of Oregon School of Architecture and Allied Arts). The rich architecture of the building reflects an Art Deco aesthetic with "modernized Lombardy and Greco-Roman" elements as well as many integrated artistic embellishments including "the fifteen stone heads by Edna Dunberg and Louise Utter Pritchard, ornamental memorial gates by O. B. Dawson, carved wooden panels by Arthur Clough, and two large murals painted by Albert and Arthur Runquist." http: libweb.uoregon.edu knight history.html ...that the '''Nivelle Offensive''' during World War I involved around 1.2 million French (France) troops and over 7,000 guns? ...that American (United States) comics writer and artist '''Don Rico''' started his creative career in the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project during the Great Depression? History The first building to house Lake Orion students was built in 1893 and served grades K-12. It was demolished in the 1930s by a Works Progress Administration project as part of the program designed by the Franklin Roosevelt administration as a way to provide jobs. In 1927 a new building was constructed that would house students for the next 30 years. Located within the Village of Lake Orion (Lake Orion), that building is still in use today as the Ehman Center, and is used by various businesses. In 1938, the WPA (Works Progress Administration) photographer Marion Post Wolcott took a photo of Geneva Varner Clark of Varnertown, the only area resident who at the time identified as Native American, and her three children. Theirs is the only photo of Lowcountry Indians in the Library of Congress. Its caption is "Indian (mixed breed -- 'brass ankles (Brass Ankles)') family near Summerville, South Carolina." She stands, her arms wrapped around her in the cold, with three children and a dog in the dirt and rocks in front of a pine-board house with a roof of tattered wooden shingles and thin stick porch columns that lean in on each other holding it up. Marion Post Wolcott, "Indian (mixed breed - brass ankle) family near Summerville, South Carolina", Library of Congress History Initially built in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, over old tennis courts. It has undergone many renovations. In 1951 a lunchroom and 2 classrooms were added. In 2001 a renovation of Clairemont was completed. Improvements included new heating and air conditioning, a new media center, new classrooms and paving over most of the athletic field to expand the parking lot. In 2005, four new classrooms were added. Currently the school enrolls students in kindergarten through the third grade. History The area around Roxana began offering education in 1802 with the construction of '''Gilham's Pasture School''' on the northeast corner of what is now 13th Street and Edwardsville Road in Wood River, the current site of a Dairy Queen. Other general schools opened and closed throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century; these include '''Brushy Grove School''' (not to be confused with its later incarnation, '''Brushey Grove School''') from 1858 to 1969, '''Roxana School''' from 1918 to 1926, '''Edison School''' from 1926 to 1936, and '''Burbank School''' starting in 1936. Burbank was built as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project, and was named after botanist Luther Burbank. thumb 250px right Saint Paul Central High School, Marshall Ave and Lexington Parkway, 1912–1980 (Image:CHS-Marshall-Lexington-1912-1980-2-Approx-1912-opt10.jpg) A new school, designed by Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was built in 1912 on the corner of Marshall Avenue and Lexington Parkway, and was attempted to be renamed Lexington High School; alumni, however, wanted to keep the moniker '''Central High School'''. A compromise was reached when the Minuteman (Minutemen) was adopted as a logo and mascot. In other words, the name of the school was retained, but for those who wanted the school to be named "Lexington," its logo and mascot were named after the colonial militia men of 1775 at Lexington, Massachusetts, who fought against the British in the first skirmishes of the War of Independence, and were required to be ready at a minute's notice. The adjacent stadium was built in the early 1940s by the WPA (Works Progress Administration), as denoted by a plaque on the brick facade of the stands. It was renamed James Griffin Stadium in 1998. Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. *1928: A home economics building is added to the campus. *1934: Depression-era WPA (Works Progress Administration) funding allows Chamblee High School to add eight new classrooms, a new gymnasium, a canning plant and a machine shop. The school becomes the first in DeKalb County to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. *December 8, 1941: the entire campus burns to the ground after fire breaks out. Classes are relocated to the area hospitals and Baptist and Methodist churches. In January 1937, Voorhis's first legislative initiative was to propose a dramatic increase in spending for the Works Progress Administration in order to increase employment. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.
Bordowitz first Hank title Turning Points in Rock and Roll year 2004 publisher Citadel Press location New York, New York isbn 978-0-80652-631-7 page 63 WikiPedia:Cleveland Dmoz:Regional North America United States Ohio Localities C Cleveland commons:Cleveland
black musical life by the 1860s. Baltimore's African American heritage to the turn of the 20th century including ragtime and gospel music. By the end of that century, Baltimore jazz had become a well-recognized scene among jazz fans, and produced a number of local performers to gain national reputations. The city was a major stop on the African American East Coast touring circuit, and it remains a popular regional draw for live performances. Baltimore has produced a wide range of modern rock (rock (music)), punk (punk rock) and metal (heavy metal music) bands and several indie labels catering to a variety of audiences. '''''Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant''''' is a 1982 novel by Anne Tyler set in Baltimore, Maryland. Ormandy and Rachmaninoff played the revised Fourth, with the Second Symphony (Symphony No. 2 (Rachmaninoff)), in Washington (Washington, D.C.), Baltimore, and eventually New York (New York City), as well as recording the work for RCA. Still, Rachmaninoff was never fully satisfied with the work, continuing to tinker with the orchestration even in the days immediately before his recording session with Ormandy, and lamenting that he did not find the time to reorchestrate the piece to his satisfaction. Many of these changes never found their way into the printed score; however, they have made it onto recordings by other pianists who have studied the composer's own recording, including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Stephen Hough, Leonard Pennario and Earl Wild. Later career After ''Pawnee'' decommissioned at Portsmouth on 26 July 1865, Balch received shore service at the Washington Navy Yard, where he was promoted to captain (Captain (United States)) on 25 July 1866. He commanded the flagship Commons:Category:Baltimore WikiPedia:Baltimore Dmoz:Regional North America United States Maryland Localities B Baltimore
and joining the company of Bill Robinson, better known as Mr. Bojangles. As '''Jimmie Baskette''', he appeared on Broadway with Louis Armstrong in the all-black musical revue ''Hot Chocolates'' in 1929, and was announced for ''Hummin' Sam'' in 1933, although it failed to open. Baskett also acted in several all-black films made in the New York area, including ''Harlem is Heaven'' (1932) starring Bill Robinson. He went to Los Angeles, California and had a supporting role in ''Straight
, the latter of which combined country (country music) influences and became a major influence on grunge. Other prominent rock bands of the time include Flotsam and Jetsam (Flotsam and Jetsam (band)), Sun City Girls, Sacred Reich, Caterwaul (Caterwaul (band)), and Mighty Sphincter. CeCe Peniston is among the best-known Black (African-American) musical performers from this area. The largest city in the Sonoran Desert is Phoenix, Arizona, with a 2008 metropolitan
lenazavaroni.htm#obit Fuller Up Obituary. Retrieved 21 April 2006 The 1940s and 1950s In 1940 the group signed a new contract with Columbia Records' subsidiary Okeh label, and shortened their name to the Golden Gate Quartet. They soon had a nationwide radio program and the opportunity to sing at Franklin Delano Roosevelt's inauguration in 1941, becoming the first black musical group to sing at Constitution Hall and later performing several times at the White House. They continued to be popular during World War Two (World War II), making several appearances in Hollywood films and singing secular music, including some unique popular front (Popular Front) songs such as "Stalin Wasn't Stallin'" that mixed humor with political commentary. The Quartet appeared in films such as ''Star Spangled Rhythm'' (1942), ''Hit Parade of 1943'' (1943), ''Hollywood Canteen (Hollywood Canteen (1944 film))'' (1944), and the Danny Kaye film ''A Song Is Born'' (1948). In the latter film, they performed the songs "Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho" and part of "A Song Is Born" with Louis Armstrong and Virginia Mayo. White was a staunch advocate of the belief that lifestyle affected coronary artery disease. He was one of the first authorities to recognize that coronary artery disease could occur in young men, writing several papers on the subject. In keeping with his beliefs, he was a vigorous walker and bicycle rider and walked, on one occasion, from Washington National Airport (Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport) to the White House to consult with President Eisenhower. Reportedly, his positive approach inspired Lyndon B. Johnson to return to the Senate (United States Senate) in 1955 after his heart attack and later to become Vice President (Vice President of the United States). At a White House reception on October 27, 1982, President Ronald Reagan welcomed her with the thought that :"no one in that marathon showed more heart and more courage. Linda, the victim of cerebral palsy, is more familiar with the word 'victory' than 'victim'. She did the 26 miles of the marathon in 11 hours -- the first person ever to attempt to do that with the aid of crutches. And, Linda, if all of those people out there wouldn't say I was being political, I'd say you truly 'stayed the course.'" http: www.reagan.utexas.edu archives speeches 1982 102782a.htm During Akerson's tenure of office the White House experienced increasing difficulties in its relations with the press corps. In 1931 Hoover decided to replace Akerson with Theodore Goldsmith Joslin. Huntsman worked as a White House staff assistant for Ronald Reagan, and he was appointed by George H.W. Bush as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce (United States Department of Commerce) and later as United States Ambassador to Singapore from 1992 to 1993. Huntsman served as Deputy United States Trade Representative under George W. Bush, launching global trade negotiations in Doha, Qatar in 2001 and guiding the accession of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China into the World Trade Organization. Reagan administration From 1987 to 1988, Huntsman and his family lived and worked in Taipei. After college, Huntsman worked as a White House staff assistant in President Ronald Reagan's administration (Reagan Administration). In the 1988 presidential election (United States presidential election, 1988), he was a state delegate at the 1988 Republican National Convention. WikiPedia:White House, Tennessee Dmoz:Regional North_America United_States Tennessee Localities W White_House
, and converted into a trendy 400-seat French restaurant, Taverne Louis. As an innovation to attract customers away from another restaurant opened by his brothers, Bustanoby hired a black musical group, Louis Mitchell and his Southern Symphony Quintette, to play dance tunes at the Taverne and the Café. Irving Berlin heard the group at the Taverne and suggested that they should try to get work in London, which they did. Mitchell would later become a headliner and nightclub owner
José Lima (w:José Lima), a former baseball (w:baseball) pitcher for Major League Baseball (w:Major League Baseball)'s Houston Astros (w:Houston Astros), Detroit Tigers (w:Detroit Tigers), Los Angeles Dodgers (w:Los Angeles Dodgers), New York Mets (w:New York Mets), and Kansas City Royals (w:Kansas City Royals) (all in the United States (w:United States)) died suddenly at his Los Angeles home this morning of a heart attack (w:heart attack). He was 37 years old. His death was confirmed by the Los Angeles Dodgers organization and his family.