Places Known For

ancient political


, about 60 miles (95 km) southeast of the ancient Yoruba city of Ilorin and about 120 miles (190 km) northwest of Benin City (more correctly Bini or Ibini) capital of the Benin (Benin City) Edo Empire. The Park takes its name from Oyo-lle (Old Oyo), the ancient political capital of Oyo Empire of the Yoruba people, and contains the ruins of this city. Oyo Ile was destroyed in the late 18th century by Ilorin and Hausa (Hausa people) Fulani (Fula people) warriors at the culmination of the rebellion of Afonja, commander of Oyo Empire's provincial army for which he allied himself with Hausa Fulani muslim jihadists. Stanbrook was born in Willesden, North London, the son of a laundry manager within the family business, the Sunlight Laundry. He was educated at Willesden High School, leaving at age 15, and became a legal assistant at Wembley Council (Metropolitan Borough of Wembley), while taking a part-time degree in economics and law at Birkbeck College (Birkbeck, University of London), University of London. He qualified as a pilot in 1943 and served with the RAF between 1943 and 1946. He completed postgraduate study at Pembroke College, Oxford then left for Nigeria in 1950 where he worked for ten years in the Colonial Service as District Officer in various regions of Northern and Western Nigeria, including Ilorin, Western Region (Western Region, Nigeria). On his return, he was called to the bar at Inner Temple in 1960 and practised criminal law, and was also was a night lawyer for the ''Daily Express''.


Category:Prefecture-level divisions of Gansu Category:Cities in Gansu Category:Tianshui Category:National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities in China Origins and early development Feizi, a descendant of the ancient political advisor Gao Yao (Gao Yao (Xia Dynasty)), was granted rule over Qin City. The modern city of Tianshui stands where this city once was. During the rule of King Xiao of Zhou, the eighth king

Achaean League

Corinth Corinth (243–224 BC, again 197 BC) *Stymphalos *Tenea From Argolis *Troezen (243 BC) *Epidaurus (243 BC) *Cleonae (Cleonae (Argolis)) (235 BC) *Argos (229 BC) *Hermione (Ermioni) (229 BC) *Phlius (229 BC) *Alea (Alea, Argolis) *Asine From Arcadia ''From the ancient political geography of Arcadia, not totally compatible with modern Arcadia'' *Megalopolis (Megalopolis, Greece) (235 BC) *Mantineia (235 227 BC) *Orchomenus (Orchomenus (Arcadia)) (235 BC) *Heraea (Heraea, Arcadia) (captured 236 BC) *Caphyae (captured 228 BC) *Alipheira *Asea (Asea, Greece) *Callista (Callista, Greece) *Cleitor *Dipaea *Gortys (Gortyna, Arcadia) *Lusi (Lusi, Greece) *Methydrium *Pallantium (Pallantium (Greece)) *Pheneus *Phigaleia *Tegea *Teuthis *Theisoa (Theisoa, Greece) *Thelpusa From other regions *Megara (243-223 BC) *Aegina (228 BC) *Kydonia (after 219 BC) List of ''Strategoi'' (Generals) *Margos of Keryneia (Margos) 256 - 255 BC *Aratus of Sicyon I 245 - 244 BC *Aratus of Sicyon II 243 - 242 BC *Aegialeas 242 - 241 BC (?) *Aratus of Sicyon III 241 - 240 BC *Aratus of Sicyon IV 239 - 238 BC *Aratus of Sicyon V 237 - 236 BC *Dioedas 236 - 235 BC (or 244 - 243 BC) *Aratus of Sicyon VI 235 - 234 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis I 234 - 233 BC *Aratus of Sicyon VII 233 - 232 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis II 232 - 231 BC *Aratus of Sicyon VIII 231 - 230 BC *Lydiadas of Megalopolis III 230 - 229 BC *Aratus of Sicyon IX 229 - 228 BC *Aristomachos of Argos 228 - 227 BC *Aratus of Sicyon X 227 - 226 BC *Hyperbatas 226 - 225 BC *Aratus of Sicyon in 225 224 BC held the exceptional office of ''strategos autokrator'' *Timoxenos 225 - 224 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XI 224 - 223 BC *Timoxenos 223 - 222 BC (?) *Aratus of Sicyon XII 222 - 221 BC *Timoxenos 221 - 220 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XIII 220 - 219 BC *Aratus the Younger of Sicyon 219 - 218 BC *Epiratos of Pharae (Eperatus) 218 - 217 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XIV 217 - 216 BC *Timoxenos 216 - 215 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XV 215 - 214 BC *Aratus of Sicyon XVI 213 - 212 BC *Cycliadas of Pharae (Cycliadas) 210 - 209 BC (Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) was Hipparch) *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 209 - 208 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 207 - 206 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 201 - 200 BC *Cycliadas of Pharae (Cycliadas) 200 - 199 BC *Aristaenos of Megalopolis 199 - 198 BC *Nicostratus of Acaia 198 - 197 BC *Aristaenos of Megalopolis 195 - 194 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 193 - 192 BC *Diophanes of Megalopolis 192 - 191 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 191 - 190 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 189 - 188 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) 187 - 186 BC *Aristaenos of Megalopolis 186 - 185 BC *Lycortas of Megalopolis (Lycortas) 185 - 184 BC *Archon (Archon,leader of Achaean League) 184 - 183 BC *Philopoemen of Megalopolis (Philopoemen) VIII 183 - 182 BC The '''Battle of Gythium''' was fought in 195 BC between Sparta and the coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium was an important Spartan base the allies decided to capture it before they advanced inland to Sparta. The Romans and the Achaeans (Achaean League) were joined outside the city by the Pergamese and Rhodian fleets. The Spartans held out but one of the joint commanders, Dexagoridas, decided to surrender the city to the Roman legate (legatus). When Gorgopas (Gorgopas (2nd Century BC)), the other commander, found out he killed Dexagoridas and took solo command of the city. After Dexagoridas' murder the Spartans held out more vigorously. However, Flaminius of the allied forces arrived with 4,000 more men and the Spartans decided to surrender the city on the condition that the garrison could leave unharmed. The result of this battle forced Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, to abandon the surrounding land and withdraw to the city of Sparta. Later that year, Sparta capitulated to the allies. The '''Battle of Mantinea''' was fought in 207 BC between Sparta led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. The Achaeans were victorious, and Machanidas was slain. Historical usage Not all states gave their naval commanders such a title. Athens, for instance, placed its fleet under the command of generals (''strategoi (strategos)'') holding the same title as those who commanded its land forces. Such command structures reflected the fact that, especially early in the Classical period, fleets operated in close conjunction with land forces, and indeed, the title of navarch did not begin to appear until the time of the Peloponnesian War, when fleets began to operate more independently. This separate title was originally used in cities that lacked an established naval tradition, Sparta being the most prominent, but entered broader use later, being adopted by the navies of the Hellenistic era states such as Macedon, Syracuse (Syracuse, Italy), Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic Empire) and Seleucid Empire, Achaean League, and Rhodes. Based on the design of the defense towers, Ober proposes that the site was fortified after 370 BCE. Lawrence opts for a date in the late 4th century BCE, on the assumption that Demetrios Poliorcetes (Demetrius I of Macedon) built the fortress rather than simply occupying it. The site was under the control of the Achaean League in 243-224 BCE, and in 224 - 146 BCE it joined the Boeotian League. Shrines of Melampos (Melampus) and Heracles are known to have existed by inscriptions recovered on the site. The town and its warehouses operated down into Roman times. An inscription of c. 420 CE listed Aigosthena as a free city. A five-aisled Christian basilica was erected in the lower fortified area in the medieval period, and there was a monastery complex within the citadel. In politics after the death of Alexander the Great it was briefly ruled by Cassander. It gained some attention in 280 BC for being a part of the effort to revive the Achaean League. A battle took place at Dyme in 226 BC between the Spartans under King Cleomenes III and the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon and ended in a Spartan victory. It was ransacked by Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus during the First Macedonian War. There was a rebellion in 115 BC. Pompey settled some pirates there and Caesar later installed a Roman colony at Dyme. The '''Battle of Dyme''' or Dymae was a battle that was fought by the Achaean League under the command of their Strategos, Aratus (Aratus of Sicyon) and a Spartan army under the command of King Cleomenes III and was part of the Cleomenean War. The battle took in place near Dyme in north-west Achaea and was fought in 226 BC. In the spring of 198 BC, Attalus returned to Greece with twenty-three quinqueremes joining a fleet of twenty Rhodian decked warships at Andros, to complete the conquest of Euboea begun the previous year. Soon joined by the Romans, the combined fleets took Eretria and later Carystus. Thus, the allies controlled all of Euboea except for Chalcis. Livy, 32.16,17; Hansen, pp. 63–64. The allied fleet then sailed for Cenchreae in preparation for an attack on Corinth. Meanwhile, the new Roman consul for that year, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, had learned that the Achaean League, allies of Macedon, had had a change in leadership which favored Rome. With the hope of inducing the Achaeans to abandon Philip and join the allies, envoys were sent, including Attalus himself, to Sicyon, where they offered the incorporation of Corinth into the Achaean League. Attalus apparently so impressed the Sicyonians, that they erected a colossal statue of him in their market place and instituted sacrifices in his honor. A meeting of the League was convened and after a heated debate and the withdrawal of some of delegates the rest agreed to join the alliance. Attalus led his army from Cenchreae (now controlled by the allies) through the Isthmus and attached Corinth from the north, controlling the access to Lechaeum, the Corinthian port on the Gulf of Corinth, the Romans attacked from the east controlling the approaches to Cenchreae, with the Achaeans attacking from the west controlling the access to the city via the Sicyonian gate. However the city held, and when Macedonian reinforcements arrived, the siege was abandoned. The Achaeans were dismissed, the Romans left for Corcyra, while Attalus sailed for Piraeus. Livy, 32.19–23; Polybius, 18.16; Hansen, p. 64. Gruen (1986), pp. 179, 181.


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exiled by Afghanistan's army to India. Punjab during Buddhist times The Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya Anguttara Nikaya I. 213; IV. 252, 256, 260, 261. mentions Gandhara and Kamboja among the sixteen great countries (''Solas Mahajanapadas'') which had evolved in and around Jambudvipa prior to Buddha's times. Pali literature further endorses that only Kamboja and Gandhara of the sixteen ancient political powers belonged to the Uttarapatha


prominent bands from Europe's late-1980s early-1990s ska boom include Mr. Review and Mark Foggo's Skasters (Mark Foggo) from Amsterdam, and Skarface from France. In the latter part of 19th century, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States all claimed parts of the kingdom of Samoa, and established trade posts. The rivalry between these powers exacerbated the indigenous factions that were struggling to preserve their ancient political system. Change from right

United States

to preserve their ancient political system. The Second Samoan Civil War was a conflict that reached a head in 1898 when Germany (German Empire), the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), and the United States were locked in dispute over who should have control over the Samoa Islands. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899; including the USS ''Philadelphia'' (USS Philadelphia (C-4)). German Empire

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