Places Known For

ancient period


Strumica

right 310px thumb Strumica at the end of the 19th century. Ancient period According to archeological research, the beginning of continuous life in Strumica dates back to 6th millennium B.C., a fact proved by the neolith settlement Stranata near the village Angelci, as well as by the findings from the Czar’s Towers site nearby Strumica, where traces of a prehistoric culture which existed from the late a neolith until early Bronze Age (early 4th to mid 3rd millennium B.C.) were discovered. The area was populated later by the Paionians. The first mention of the city under the name Astraion is in the writings of the Roman historian Titus Livius in 181 B.C. regarding the execution of Demetrius, brother of the Macedonian king Perseus (179-168 B.C.), son of Philip V of Macedon (221-179 B.C.). The name Astraion came from the Paionian tribe called Astrai. In 168 B.C. Macedonia became a Roman protectorate and was subsequently divided into four regions (meridas). Astraion fell into the second merida. In 148 B.C. Macedonia became a Roman province. In the Roman period the city changed its name to Tiveriopolis, which is evidenced by a marble statue base dedicated to the patron Tiberius Claudius Menon, who lived between the late 2nd and early 3rd century. During the reign of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363 A.D.), the fifteen holy hieromartyrs of Tiveriopolis were killed. In 395 A.D., the Roman Empire split, and Macedonia fell under the Eastern Empire. After that, Tiveriopolis became part of the province Macedonia Salutaris in the late 4th century and part of Macedonia Secunda in the late 5th century. The urban mansion Machuk dating from the late ancient period today stands witness for the existence of a city settlement from that time. Byzantine and Slavic periods The Roman town suffered major destruction after the Slavic migration in the 6th and 7th centuries. The Strymonites, a Sclaveni tribe, adopted their name after the Strymon river (Struma). The Strymonites were independent until the 9th century, following a Byzantine reconquest. From 845 to 855, the Byzantine military administrator of the Bregalnica-Strumica region was Methodius. Later on, the Strumica region was conquered by Bulgarian Khan Boris I (852-889). The Strumica region remained part of the Bulgar state until 1014, when it was retaken by the Byzantines. In the 11th century, written sources begin to refer to the town as Slavic ''Strumica''. By the end of the 12th century, the Byzantine central power had weakened and, as a result, many feudal lords broke away and became independent; Dobromir Chrysos (1185-1202) and later Strez (1208-1214) held the region until the Serbian Kingdom (Kingdom of Serbia (medieval)) eventually conquered the region. Serbian magnate Hrelja ruled Strumica and the nearby region until 1334, when it was put under the direct rule of Serbian King Stefan Dušan who continued his conquest to the south. During the Fall of the Serbian Empire, the Strumica region was first ruled by Uglješa Mrnjavčević, the brother of magnate Vukašin Mrnjavčević. Strumica itself was then governed by Dabiživ Spandulj, who served the Dejanović brothers. The Ottomans finally conquered Strumica in 1383. Ottoman period Throughout the Ottoman period, the Turkish administration used the name Üstrümce for Strumica. The city was added to the Kyustendil sanjak, and the timar-spahi system was established. Nomads and livestock breeders of Turkish origin were settled, which altered the general look of the city making it more oriental. According to the census of 1519, Strumica had a population of 2,780, of which 1,450 were Christians and 1,330 were Muslims. These were times when conversion to Islam was at its peak in the region, which accounts for the increased number of Muslims (2,200) compared to Christians (1,230) according to the census of 1570. In the 17th Century, Strumica became seat of a kadilik. At about this time, Strumica was visited by the Turkish travel writers Haji Kalfa (1665) and Evliya Çelebi (1670), who gave a description of the city making note of all Muslim buildings that were then found in Strumica. In the late 18th and early 19th Century, Strumica was part of the Solun sanjak. During the 19th Century the patriarchy movement picked up, and the number of pro-Greek citizens soared. This resulted in a strong anti-patriarchy movement during the 60s of the 19th Century. The first Bulgarian school in the Strumica region was opened in Robovo in 1860, and its first teacher was Arseni Kostencev from Stip. This period coincided with the work of the great masters of fresco painting from Strumica – Vasil Gjorgiev and Grigorij Petsanov. They worked on the frescos and icons of many churches that were built in the Strumica region at the time. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Strumica was part of the Salonica Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Following the Berlin Congress of 1878, when Turkey lost a sizable portion of its territory on the Balkans, a stream of refugees flowed into the area; some of them ending up in Strumica. These people were called muhajirs. The Bulgarian Macedonian Adrianople Revolutionary Committee for the Ograzden county was formed and operated in these parts. One of the most prominent leaders of the revolutionary organization in Strumica was Hristo Chernopeev, who took part in the Young Turk Revolution of 1908-1909. The outcome of this effort did not bring freedom to the local people who still remained under Turkish rule. 20th Century In the First Balkan War of 1912 the Turks were defeated by the joint effort of the Balkan allies Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro, and driven out of Macedonia, including Strumica. Bulgaria annexed the town of Strumica. In the Second Balkan War (1913), which was among the Balkan allies for partition of Macedonia, Bulgaria was defeated. However, according to the Bucharest Peace Treaty (28 July 1913) Strumica stayed under the rule of Bulgaria. The Greek armies, stationed in Strumica, were revolted by the decision for withdrawal and set the town on fire. It burned from 8 until 15 August 1913, when more than 1900 public buildings, private houses and other constructions were burnt. Strumica stayed under the rule of Bulgaria until 1919 (when with the Versailles Peace Treaty the First World War was over) then entered the Kingdom of SHS (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; from 1929, Kingdom Yugoslavia). From 1929 to 1941, Strumica was part of the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On 6 April 1941, the first day of the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia in World War II), Strumica was captured by the German Army (Wehrmacht) and, as Bulgaria was allied with Germany, Strumica was turned over under occupation of the Bulgarian armies on 18 April 1941. From 1941 to 1944, Strumica, as most of Vardar Macedonia, was annexed by the Kingdom of Bulgaria. On 11 September 1944 the Bulgarian army withdraw from Strumica and on 5 November 1944, the town was left by the German army. After the war Macedonian people entered the Federation Yugoslavia as egalitarian people. However, with the referendum on 8 September 1991, Macedonia became an independent country. Population Strumica's population is 54,676. Државен завод за статистика: Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Македонија, 2002: Дефинитивни податоци (PDF)


Široki Brijeg

and during major precipitation formed a periodic watercourse Ugrovača that going deeply carved canyon Brin, receiving side stream, and in the village of Trn (Trn, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Kočerin water fields, and on the road to Blato Mostarskog, in Siroki Brijeg center connects with the river Lištica. History Ancient period The ruins from the Illyrian (Illyrians) period confirm that the area of Široki Brijeg had a large population in pre-historic times

date January 2012 . The evidence can be seen on the hill Gradina on the frontier of Mokri and Čerigaj. There is also evidence on the walls of the forts where they had been in past. During the ancient period there was plenty of life in that region. From the (Roman empire) period there are remains of the Roman fort (''refugium'') in the village of Biogradci and a basilica in Mokri; there are remain of the forts and roads there. Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos (Constantine VII) mentions that Mokriskik was in that area Wikipedia:Široki Brijeg Commons:Category:Široki Brijeg


Narsinghpur

of mountains. In the northern part, river Narmada flows from east to west. It is a sacred river, as holy as river Ganges. Narsinghpur district has received many natural gifts as Narmada Kachhar. In the ancient period, this area was ruled by many Rajvansh, including the great historical warrior Rani Durgawati, who was known by various names in that period. In the 18th century, Jat Sardars had constructed a large temple, in which an idol of Lord Narsimha was placed and worshiped. So, in the name of Lord


Tubas

, kardala and more than this. History Ancient period The city's name ''Tubas'' derives from the Canaanite word (Canaanite language) ''Tuba Syoys'' or "illuminating star". Palmer, 1881, p. 209 Tubas was identified by Edward Robinson (Edward Robinson (scholar)) to be the Canaanite town of "Thebez" mentioned in the Bible. ref


Kerman

" "Armenia-Ancient Period" - ''US Library of Congress Country Studies'' (retrieved 23 June 2006) Strabo, "Geography" - ''Perseus Digital Library'', Tufts University (retrieved 24 June 2006). Caucasian Albanians established

. Following the decline of the Seleucids in Persia in 247 BCE, an Armenian Kingdom (Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)) exercised control over parts of modern Azerbaijan between 190 BCE to 428 CE. "Armenia-Ancient Period" – ''US Library of Congress Country Studies'' (retrieved 23 June 2006) http


Mymensingh

Sunamganj is derived from its founder, Sipahi Sunamuddin, who established a bazaar on the bank of the river Surma. In the ancient period, Sunamganj was part of the Rarh Kingdom that included western part of Sylhet, Habiganj, Netrokona, Kishoreganj (Kishoreganj District) and the northern part of Mymensingh. After the conquest of Sylhet in 1303 by Muslims under the spiritual guidance of Hazrat Shah Jalal, Hazrat Shah Kamal Qahafan brought the entire Kingdom of Rarh under his control with aid of his twelve disciples and Shah Moazzamuddin, administered the entire district from Shaharpara. Between the latter part of 1300 CE and 1765 CE, the present-day Sunamganj district was a part of Iqlim-e-Moazzamabad, i.e. the state of Moazzamabad, which was independent state until 1612 and, thereafter, it was conquered by the mighty Mughal of Delhi. Ali, Syed Murtaja, Hazrat Shah Jalal and Sylheter Itihas, 66: 1988 Bangladesh has some thirty-two public universities providing education to the bulk of higher studies students. These universities are funded by the government while managed as self-governed organizations. In Dhaka division there are twelve public universities. Amongst them seven are in Dhaka City (Dhaka), two universities in Gazipur (Gazipur, Dhaka Division), one in Savar. In Mymensingh District there are two universities located in Mymensingh Town (Mymensingh) and Trishal. In Tangail District there is also a university locating on Sontoss. In Rajshahi division there are three universities, two in Rajshahi and one in Pabna (Pabna District). There are two public universities in Rangpur division. One is in Rangpur (Rangpur, Bangladesh) and another one in Dinajpur (Dinajpur District, Bangladesh). In Khulna division there are four public universities; two are in Khulna, one in Jessore and another in Kushtia. The university in Kushtia is the only public university in Bangladesh specializing in Islamic studies. Five public universities are in Chittagong division including three are in Chittagong and one each in Comilla and Noakhali. One of them specializes in Veterinary Sciences. There are two public universities in Barisal division which are located in Patuakhali and Barisal. Two public universities are in Sylhet division. Both are in Sylhet, one specialized in science & technology and the other in agricultural sciences. Dmoz:Regional Asia Bangladesh Localities Mymensingh WikiPedia:Mymensingh Commons:Mymensingh District


Amur Oblast

. The kurgans of Bronze culture across Europe and Asia were similar to housing; the methods of house construction applied to the construction of the tombs. Margulan A.N., "Architecture of the ancient period" in the "Architecture of Kazakhstan", 1956, Alma-Ata, (pp 9-95) Kurgan ''Ak-su - Aüly'' (12th - 11th centuries BC) with a tomb covered by a pyramidal timber roof under a kurgan has space surrounded by double walls serving as a bypass corridor. This design has analogies with Begazy, Sanguyr, Begasar, and Dandybay kurgans. These building traditions survived into the early Middle Ages, to the 8th-10th centuries AD. The Bronze Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian culture developed in close similarity with the cultures of Yenisei, Altai (Altay people), Kazakhstan, southern, and southeast Amur (Amur Oblast) regions. In the second millennium BC appeared so-called "kurgans-maidans". On a prepared platform were made earthen images of a swan, a turtle, a snake, or other image, with and without burials. Similar structures were found in Ukraine, in South America, and in India. '''Native''' :''Senecio vulgaris'' is considered to be native to Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Republic of Adygea, Karachay–Cherkess Republic (Karachay–Cherkessia), Kabardino-Balkaria Republic (Kabardino-Balkaria), Republic of North Ossetia–Alania (North Ossetia–Alania), Republic of Ingushetia (Ingushetia), Chechen Republic (Chechnya), Republic of Dagestan, Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast, Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Sakha Republic), Sakhalin Oblast, South Korea, North Korea, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Central Federal District (Central Federal District), Russian Southern Federal District (Southern Federal District), Ukraine, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia, France and Portugal. ::'''Siberia''': Altai Krai, Buryatia (Republic of Buryatia), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Chita Oblast, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, parts of Kurgan Oblast, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tomsk Oblast, Tuva, Tyumen Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Yamal-Nenets, ::'''Soviet Far East''': Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast, Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Sakha Republic), Sakhalin Oblast ::'''China''': Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei and Beijing When used on clothing, the fur of the raccoon dog is called "murmansky" fur. Generally, the quality of the pelt is based on the silkiness of the fur, as its physical appeal depends upon the guard hairs being erect, which is only possible in silkier furs. A small raccoon dog pelt with silky fur commands higher prices than large coarse furred ones. Due to their long and coarse guard hairs and their woolly fur fibre which has a tendency to felt or mat, raccoon dog pelts are used almost exclusively for fur trimmings. Japanese raccoon dog peltries, though smaller than other geographic variants, are the most valued variety, with specimens from Amur (Amur Oblast) and northern Manchuria coming close behind, while Korean and southern Chinese are the least valued. ''Fur: a practical treatise'' by Max Bachrach, 3rd ed. published by New York : Prentice-Hall, 1953 When raised in captivity, raccoon dogs can produce 100 grams of wool of slightly lesser quality than that of goats. Leopard cats are the most widely distributed Asian small cats. Their range extends from the Amur (Amur Oblast) region in the Russian Far East over the Korean Peninsula, China, Indochina, the Indian Subcontinent, to the West in northern Pakistan, and to the south in the Philippines and the Sunda islands of Indonesia. They are found in agriculturally used areas but prefer forested habitats. They live in tropical evergreen rainforests and plantations at sea level, in subtropical deciduous (Deciduous forest) and coniferous forests in the foothills of the Himalayas at altitudes above wikipedia:Amur Oblast Commons:Category:Amur Oblast


Bitola

158 url http: books.google.com books?ei 60c5TsQFiKfxA8eqsZYD&ct result&hl el&id eW0iAQAAIAAJ&dq lyncestae+epirotes&q %22the+Lyncestae+in+the+region+of+Fiorina%2C+the+Orestae+in+the+region+of+Kastoria%2C+and+the+Elimeotae+in+the+region+of+Kozani.+These+tribes+were+all+Epirotic+tribes+and+they+talked+the+Greek+language+but+with+a+different+dialect%22#search_anchor There are important metal artifacts from the ancient period at the necropolis of Crkvishte near the village of Beranci. A golden earring dating from the 4th century BC is depicted on the obverse (Obverse and reverse) of the Macedonian 10 denar (Macedonian denar) banknote, issued in 1996. National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian currency. Banknotes in circulation: 10 Denars. – Retrieved on 30 March 2009. Heraclea Lyncestis ( Wikipedia:Bitola Commons:Category:Bitola


Cetinje

thumb A panorama of Cetinje skyline (File:CetinjePanorama.jpg) in 1853 and in the Battle of Grahovac in 1858. On January 12, 1855 at Njegoš he married Darinka Kvekić, who was born in a wealthy Serbian merchant family in Trieste on December 31, 1837 and died on February 14, 1892), daughter of Marko Kvekić and wife Jelisaveta Mirković. They had one daughter, Olga (Cetinje, March 19, 1859 - Venice, September 21, 1896), who never married and died young. In the period of peace which followed he carried out a series of military, administrative and educational reforms. The country was embroiled in a series of wars with the Ottoman Empire between 1862 and 1878. In 1867 he met the emperor Napoleon III at Paris, and in 1868 he undertook a journey to Russia, where he received an affectionate welcome from the tsar, Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia). He afterwards visited the courts of Berlin and Vienna. His efforts to enlist the sympathies of the Russian imperial family were productive of important results for Montenegro; considerable subventions were granted by the tsar and tsaritsa for educational and other purposes, and supplies of arms and ammunition were sent to Cetinje. In 1871 Prince Dolgorukov arrived at Montenegro on a special mission from the tsar, and distributed large sums of money among the people. In 1869 Prince Nikola, whose authority was now firmly established, succeeded in preventing the impetuous highlanders from aiding the Krivosians in their revolt against the Austrian government; similarly in 1897 he checked the martial excitement caused by the outbreak of the Greco-Turkish War (Greco-Turkish War (1897)). Five of his daughters were married, each to princes and kings, giving Nikola the nickname "the father-in-law of Europe", a sobriquet he shared with the contemporary King of Denmark (Monarchy of Denmark). * Princess Ljubica, known as Zorka (Zorka of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, December 23, 1864 - Cetinje, March 28, 1890) married Petar Karađorđević (Peter I of Serbia) (who after her death would become King Peter I, King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia), annexing Montenegro from Nikola himself); * Princess Milica (Milica of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, July 26, 1866 - Alexandria, Egypt, September 5, 1951) was married to Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich Romanov of Russia (Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich of Russia), brother of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich; Five of his daughters were married, each to princes and kings, giving Nikola the nickname "the father-in-law of Europe", a sobriquet he shared with the contemporary King of Denmark (Monarchy of Denmark). * Princess Ljubica, known as Zorka (Zorka of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, December 23, 1864 - Cetinje, March 28, 1890) married Petar Karađorđević (Peter I of Serbia) (who after her death would become King Peter I, King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia), annexing Montenegro from Nikola himself); * Princess Milica (Milica of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, July 26, 1866 - Alexandria, Egypt, September 5, 1951) was married to Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich Romanov of Russia (Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich of Russia), brother of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich; * Princess Ljubica, known as Zorka (Zorka of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, December 23, 1864 - Cetinje, March 28, 1890) married Petar Karađorđević (Peter I of Serbia) (who after her death would become King Peter I, King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia), annexing Montenegro from Nikola himself); * Princess Milica (Milica of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, July 26, 1866 - Alexandria, Egypt, September 5, 1951) was married to Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich Romanov of Russia (Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich of Russia), brother of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich; * Princess Anastasija (Princess Anastasia of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, January 4, 1868 - Antibes, France, November 15, 1935) (also known as Princess Stana) was married first with George, Duke of Leuchtenberg and after divorce secondly to the World War I general Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia, the younger (Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich); both her husbands were grandsons of Emperor Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia) and she had two children by her first marriage; * Princess Milica (Milica of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, July 26, 1866 - Alexandria, Egypt, September 5, 1951) was married to Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich Romanov of Russia (Grand Duke Peter Nicolaievich of Russia), brother of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich; * Princess Anastasija (Princess Anastasia of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, January 4, 1868 - Antibes, France, November 15, 1935) (also known as Princess Stana) was married first with George, Duke of Leuchtenberg and after divorce secondly to the World War I general Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia, the younger (Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich); both her husbands were grandsons of Emperor Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia) and she had two children by her first marriage; * Princess Marica (Cetinje, Montenegro, March 29, 1869 - St. Petersburg, Russia, May 7, 1885); * Princess Anastasija (Princess Anastasia of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, January 4, 1868 - Antibes, France, November 15, 1935) (also known as Princess Stana) was married first with George, Duke of Leuchtenberg and after divorce secondly to the World War I general Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia, the younger (Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich); both her husbands were grandsons of Emperor Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia) and she had two children by her first marriage; * Princess Marica (Cetinje, Montenegro, March 29, 1869 - St. Petersburg, Russia, May 7, 1885); * Crown Prince Danilo Aleksandar (Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, June 29, 1871 - Vienna, Austria, September 24, 1939) married Duchess Jutta (later known as Militza) of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Jutta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz), they had no children; * Princess Marica (Cetinje, Montenegro, March 29, 1869 - St. Petersburg, Russia, May 7, 1885); * Crown Prince Danilo Aleksandar (Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro) (Cetinje, Montenegro, June 29, 1871


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