; Ancient history The Phoenicians of Carthage settled at Cherchell in the 4th century BC and named the town '''Iol''' or '''Jol'''. The town became a part of the kingdom of Numidia under Jugurtha, who died in 104 BC. The town became very significant to the Berber (Berber people) monarchy and generals of Numidia. The Berber Kings Bocchus I and Bocchus II lived there, as occasionally did other Kings of Numidia. Iol was situated in an area
and emphasized her role as the monarch who would continue the Ptolemaic dynasty. She by-passed the ancestral names of her husband. By naming her son Ptolemy instead of a Berber ancestral name, she offers an example rare in ancient history, especially in the case of a son who is the primary male heir, of reaching into the mother's family instead of the father's for a name. This emphasized the idea that his mother was the heiress of the Ptolemies and the leader of a Ptolemaic government in exile. Life Drusilla was named in honor of the Roman Empress Livia Drusilla or her late son the Roman (Roman Empire) General Nero Claudius Drusus. Drusilla was most probably born in Caesaria, the capital of the Kingdom of Mauretania (modern Cherchell, Algeria) in the Roman Empire in 5 and she was most probably raised there. Her mother died in 6. Drusilla received a Roman education and became Romanized (Romanization (cultural)). However, little is known on the life of Drusilla. The details of Priscian's life are largely unknown. Priscian was of Greek descent, and was born and raised in Caesarea (modern Cherchell, Algeria) the capital of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis. According to Cassiodorus, he taught Latin at Constantinople. Keil, ''Gr. Lat.'' vii. 207 Priscian's minor works include a panegyric to Anastasius (Roman Emperor Anastasius I) (491—518), written about 512, birth_place Cherchell, Algeria death_date Early life Djebar was born in Cherchell, a coastal town near Algiers from Berber (Berber people) descent. Her family lived in a little village nearby called Mouzaïaville. There, she attended the primary school where her father taught French (French language). She later attended a boarding school in Blida. In 1955, Djebar became the first Algerian woman to be accepted at the École Normale Supérieure, an elite Parisian college. DATE OF BIRTH 30 June 1936 PLACE OF BIRTH Cherchell, Algeria DATE OF DEATH death_date 5 BC to 6 death_place Caesarea (Cherchell), Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania) place of burial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Juba and Cleopatra could not return to Numidia as it had been provincialized in 46 BC. The couple was sent to Mauretania, an unorganized territory that needed Roman supervision. They renamed their new capital ''Caesarea'' (modern Cherchell, Algeria), in honor of the Emperor. Roller, ''The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene'' p. 98–100 Cleopatra is said to have exercised great influence on policies that Juba created. Through her influence, the Mauretanian Kingdom flourished. Mauretania exported and traded well throughout the Mediterranean. The construction and sculptural projects at Caesarea and at another city Volubilis, were built and display a rich mixture of Ancient Egyptian (Ancient Egypt), Greek and Roman (Architecture of ancient Rome) architectural styles. Roller, ''The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene'' p. 91–162 '''Find Images (Wikipedia:Requested_pictures):''' Cherchell, Algerian Civil War '''Translate (Wikipedia:Translation into English):''' :ar:ولاية الجلفة, :fr:Timimoun There they built three more galliots and a gunpowder production facility. In 1513 they captured four English ships on their way to France, raided Valencia (Valencia, Spain) where they captured four more ships, and then headed for Alicante and captured a Spanish galley near Málaga. In 1513 and 1514 the three brothers engaged Spanish squadrons on several other occasions and moved to their new base in Cherchell, east of Algiers. In 1514, with 12 galliots and 1,000 Turks, they destroyed two Spanish fortresses at Bougie (Béjaïa), and when a Spanish fleet under the command of Miguel de Gurrea, viceroy of Majorca, arrived for assistance, they headed towards Ceuta and raided that city before capturing Jijel in Algeria, which was under Genoese control. They later captured Mahdiya in Tunisia. Afterwards they raided the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, the Balearic Islands and the Spanish mainland, capturing three large ships there. In 1515 they captured several galleons, a galley and three barques at Majorca. Still in 1515 Aruj sent precious gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I who, in return, sent him two galleys and two swords embellished with diamonds. In 1516, joined by Kurtoğlu (Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis), the brothers besieged the Castle of Elba, before heading once more towards Liguria where they captured 12 ships and damaged 28 others. Urania is only known through a funeral inscription of her Freedwoman Julia Bodina found at Cherchell, Algeria. Ptolemaic Genealogy: Cleopatra Selene, Footnote 10 Cherchell was then known as Caesaria, the capital of the Roman Client Kingdom of Mauretania in the Roman Empire. In Bodina’s funeral inscription, Bodina ascribes Urania as ''Queen Julia Urania''. She was ascribed as ''Queen ''as a local courtesy or probably a posthumus honor as a dedication to the memory of the former ruling monarch. The inscription reveals that Bodina was a loyal former slave to Urania. date September 7, 1937 place Mediterranean Sea, off Cherchell, present-day Algeria result Republican tactical victory Republican convoy lost The '''Battle of Cape Cherchell''' was a naval battle between the Nationalist (Nationalist Spain) heavy cruiser ''Baleares'' (Spanish cruiser Baleares) and the Republican (Second Spanish Republic) light cruisers ''Libertad'' (Almirante Cervera class cruiser) and ''Méndez Núñez'' (Blas de Lezo class cruiser) in the Spanish Civil War, several miles north of the Algerian (French Algeria) city of Cherchell. In the early morning hours of September 7, 1937, ''Baleares'' unexpectedly met a Republican convoy consisting of two merchant ships escorted by Republican cruisers and destroyers. ''Baleares'' was beaten off and badly damaged in the engagement, but the merchantmen were lost when they tried to slip away along the Algerine shoreline.
In addition, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and Lahore also have sizeable Pashtun populations. 300 Pashtuns held in crackdown, The Nation. 8 April 2009. Dari dominates in the northern, western and central areas of Afghanistan, and is the common language spoken in cities such as Kabul, Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif, Fayzabad (Fayzabad, Badakhshan), Panjshir, and Bamiyan. Smaller Dari-speaking communities also exist in southern Pashtun-dominated
. This provided opportunity for semi-independent Seleucid client states such as Judea to revolt. Lectures on ancient history, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Marcus
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reached by Hellenistic navigators is to be found, that is the harbour of Kattigara mentioned by Ptolemy”. George Coedès, “Some Problems in the Ancient History of the Hinduized States of South-East Asia”, ''Journal of Southeast Asian History,'' vol.5, no.2, September 1964, pp.1-14. Coedès clarified what he meant in his book, ''Les Peuples de la Péninsule Indochinoise: Histoire - Civilisations'' (Paris, Dunod, 1962, pp.62, translated by H.M. Wright, ''The Making of South East Asia,'' Berkeley, University of California Press, 1966, p.58-59): “Now Fu-nan occupied a key position with regard to the maritime trade routes, and was inevitably a port of call both for the navigators who went through the Straits of Malacca and for those – probably more numerous – who made the transit over one of the isthmuses of the Malay Peninsula. Fu-nan may even have been the terminus of voyages from the Eastern Mediterranean, if it is the case that the Kattigara mentioned by Ptolemy was situated on the western coast of Indochina on the Gulf of Siam”. A.H. Christie said in 1979 that “the presence of objects, however few in number, from the Roman Orient” added some weight to the conjecture that Óc-eo was the Ptolemaic Kattigara. A.H. Christie, “Lin-i, Fu-nan, Java”, in R. B. Smith and W. Watson (eds.), ''Early South East Asia: Essays in Archaeology, History, and Historical Geography,'' New York, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp.281-7, see p. 286. The distinguished German classical scholar, Albrecht Dihle, supported this view, saying: From the account of the voyage of Alexander referred to by Ptolemy, Kattigara can actually be located only in the Mekong delta, because Alexander went first along the east coast of the Malacca peninsula, northward to Bangkok, from thence likewise only along the coast toward the south east, and so came to Kattigara. We hear nothing of any further change of course. In addition, at Oc Eo, an emporium excavated in the western Mekong delta, in the ancient kingdom of Fu-nan, Roman finds from the 2nd century after Christ have come to light. Albrecht Dihle, ''Umstrittene Daten: Untersuchenen zum Auftreten der Griechen an Roten Meer,'' Köln und Opladen, Westdeutsch Verlag, 1964, S.30. Columbus' search for Ciamba Guided by Ptolemy, the discoverers of the New World were initially trying to find their way to Kattigara. On the 1489 map of the world made by Henricus Martellus Germanus, based on Ptolemy’s work, Asia terminated in its southeastern point in a cape, the Cape of Cattigara. Writing of his 1499 voyage, Amerigo Vespucci said he had hoped to reach Malacca (Melaka) by sailing westward from Spain across the Western Ocean (the Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean)) around the Cape of Cattigara into the Sinus Magnus, the Great Gulf that lay to the East of the Golden Chersonese (Malay Peninsula), of which the Cape of Cattigara formed the southeastern point. The Sinus Magnus, or Great Gulf, was the actual Gulf of Thailand. Albert Herrmann, “Der Magnus Sinus und Cattigara nach Ptolemaeus”, ''Comptes Rendus du 15me Congrès International de Géographie, Amsterdam, 1938,'' Leiden, Brill, 1938, tome II, sect. IV, ''Géographie Historique et Histoire de la Géographie,'' pp. 123-8 Christopher Columbus, on his fourth and last voyage of 1502–1503, planned to follow the coast of Champa southward around the Cape of Cattigara and sail through the strait separating Cattigara from the New World, into the Sinus Magnus to Malacca. This was the route he thought Marco Polo had gone from China to India in 1292. George E. Nunn, ‘The Three Maplets attributed to Bartholomew Columbus’, ''Imago Mundi,'' vol.9, 1952, 12-22, p.15; Helen Wallis, ‘What Columbus Knew’, ''History Today,'' vol.42, May 1992, pp.17-23; Edmundo O'Gorman, ''The Invention of America: An Inquiry into the Historical Nature of the New World and the Meaning of its History,'' Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1961, pp.106-122. Columbus planned to meet up with the expedition sent at the same time from Portugal around the Cape of Good Hope under Vasco da Gama, and carried letters of credence from the Spanish monarchs to present to da Gama. The letter, dated 14 March 1502, is published in Martin Fernandez de Navarrete, ''Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos,'' 2nd. edn., Madrid, Imprenta Nacional, 1858, p.430; the covering letter to Columbus is published in A. Millares Carlo (ed.), ''Historia de las Indias por Fray Bartólome de las Casas,'' México, Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1951, Lib.2, cap.iv, pp.219-20. On reaching Cariay on the coast of Costa Rica, Columbus thought he was close to the gold mines of Champa. On July 7, 1503, he wrote from Jamaica: “I reached the land of Cariay…Here I received news of the gold mines of Ciamba Champa which I was seeking”. Letter dated 7 July 1503; quoted in J.M. Cohen (ed.), ''The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus,'' Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1969, p.287. References Category:Kingdom of Funan Category:Ancient Vietnam Category:Buildings and structures in An Giang Province Category:Archaeology of Vietnam Category:1st millennium Category:1st-century establishments Category:7th-century disestablishments Category:History of Cambodia Category:Communes of An Giang Province thumb left 300px Cam Mountains (File:Núi ở An Giang.jpg) An Giang first became a province in 1832, having been settled by ethnically Vietnamese migrants moving southwards in search of new land. It is believed that An Giang was once an important centre of the vanished Óc Eo culture, presumably owing to its position on the river. Traditionally, An Giang has been known for its silk industry. A maritime route opened up with the Chinese-controlled Jiaozhi (centred in modern Vietnam) and the Khmer (Khmer people) kingdom of Funan (Kingdom of Funan) by the 2nd century CE, if not earlier. Hill (2009), p. 291. At the formerly coastal site of Óc Eo in the Mekong Delta, Roman coins were among the vestiges of long-distance trade discovered by the French archaeologist Louis Malleret in the 1940s. Milton Osborne, ''The Mekong: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future'' (2001:25). Óc Eo may have been the port known to the geographer Ptolemy and the Romans as Kattigara or Cattigara, though most modern scholars place it at Jiaozhi, near modern Hanoi. Hill 2004 - see: and Appendix F. Zürcher (2002), pp. 30-31. The trade connection extended, via ports on the coasts of India and Sri Lanka , all the way to Roman-controlled ports in Egypt and the Nabataean territories on the northeastern coast of the Red Sea. The trading area of the Pyu states spanned across the present-day Southeast Asia, South Asia and China. Artifacts from the 2nd century northwest India to Java and the Philippines have been found at Beikthano. Likewise, Pyu artifacts have been found along the coasts of Arakan (Rakhine State), Lower Burma, and as far east as Óc Eo (in present-day southern Vietnam). Aung-Thwin (2005), p. 18 The Pyu also conducted trade and diplomatic relations with China. In 800 and 801–802, Sri Ksetra sent a formal embassy, along with 35 musicians to the Tang court. According to the Chinese, the Pyu used gold and silver coinage. But only silver coins have survived. Htin Aung, p. 13
discoveries made in recent years in the country such as the Golden Tara of Butuan and 14th century pottery and gold jewellery artifacts found in Cebu, is highly important in revising the ancient history of the Philippines (History of the Philippines (900–1521)), which prior to the LCI discovery was considered by some western historians to be culturally isolated from the rest of Asia, as no evident pre-Hispanic written records were found at the time. Noted Philippines historian William Henry Scott (William Henry Scott (historian)) debunked these theories in 1968 with his ''Prehispanic Source materials for the Study of Philippine History'' which was subsequently published in 1984.
of the Sutlej. The ancient history of the district is obscure. The populated areas in ancient times was restricted to the banks of the river Sutlej where seasonal inundation permitted some cultivation (Tillage). The rest of the area was a vast sandy scrap-land at best affording pastures itinerant herdsmen. The riparian tract formed the state of Fatehpur during the time of Akbar the Great (Akbar). This was ruled by Fateh Khan of Joya family who founded and gave his name to the town of Fatehpur. Fatehpur is still in existence about 15 kilometres to the south of Mailsi and is the oldest town of Mailsi subdivision. It has some remains of archaeological value. '''Burewala''' ( wikipedia:Pakpattan
(''Idassa''), probably a vulgar Greek form of the original Liburnian name. The people of Zadar, the ''Iadasinoi'', were first mentioned in 384 BC as the allies of the natives of Hvar and the leaders of an eastern Adriatic coast coalition in the fight against the Greek colonizers. An expedition of 10,000 men in 300 ships sailed out from Zadar and laid siege to the Greek colony Pharos (Stari Grad, Croatia) in the island of Hvar, but the Syracusan (Syracuse, Sicily) fleet of ''Dionysus'' was alerted and attacked the siege fleet. The naval victory went to the Greeks which allowed them relatively safer further colonization in the southern Adriatic (Adriatic Sea). M. Suić, Prošlost Zadra I, Zadar u starom vijeku, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1981, pages 127-130 The names of many Central and Eastern European cities hark back to their past as gords. Some
cities in what was to become Västergötland, the other being Lödöse. Skara was the location for the regional assembly, the ''Thing of all Geats''. With the Christianization of Sweden (Christianization of Scandinavia), around 1000 AD, Alexandra Sanmark: ''Power and conversion : a comparative study of Christianization in Scandinavia''; Uppsala : Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, Occasional papers in archaeology