(Ishimbay and Krasnokamsk areas) and potassium salts. Both slopes are rich in bituminous coal and lignite, and the largest deposit of bituminous coal is in the north (Pechora field). The specialty of Urals is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emerald, amethyst, aquamarine, jasper, rhodonite, malachite and diamond. Some of the deposits, such as the magnetite ores at Magnitogorsk are already nearly depleted. Mishars Mişär-Tatars (or Mishars) are a group of Tatars speaking a dialect of the Tatar language. They are descendants of Burtas in the Middle Oka River area and Meschiora where they mixed with the Cuman-Kipchaks tribes. Nowadays they live in Chelyabinsk (Chelyabinsk Oblast), Tambov (Tambov Oblast), Penza (Penza Oblast), Ryazan (Ryazan Oblast), Nizhegorodskaya (Nizhny Novgorod Oblast) oblasts of Russia and in Bashkortostan and Mordovia. They lived near and along the Volga River, in Tatarstan. Keräşen Tatars live all over Tatarstan and in Udmurtia, Bashkiria (Bashkortostan) and Chelyabinsk Oblast. Some of them did assimilate among Chuvash (Chuvash people) and Tatars with Sunni Muslim self-identification. Eighty years of Atheist (Atheism)ic Soviet rule made Tatars of both confessions not as religious as they were. As such, differences between Tatars and Keräşen Tatars now is only that Keräşens have Russian names. The settlement and district centre of Varna (Varna, Chelyabinsk Oblast) in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia is named in commemoration of the taking of Varna by the Russian army during the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War (Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)). Places around the world with the name of Varna. Varna Info. The Soviet Union In 1925 the Omsk governorship was dissolved into the newly formed Siberian Krai and again reorganized, this time as an Oblast by order of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee on the 7th of December, 1934. Parts of the Obsko-Irtysh Oblast and the West Siberian Krai as well as the southern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast were given over to Omsk. In 1943, Kurgan Oblast was created from a portion of the territory of Omsk. In 1944, several districts were transferred to the newly created Tyumen Oblast. The '''Bashkirs''' ( commons:category:Chelyabinsk Oblast wikipedia:Chelyabinsk Oblast
a short time Nong Samet's market attracted thousands of traders and black marketeers, and the guides and guards needed to transport goods and cash in this nearly lawless region. Gold and precious stones often substituted for currency on the border, and In-Sakhan's soldiers frequently served as security escorts. In-Sakhan initially reported to International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) that the camp's population was at least 200,000 and aid agencies provided food and water
exhibits of precious stones, minerals, and fossils *Museo Etnográfico Minero (Ethnographical Mining Museum): housed in a mine tunnel, depicts methods of Bolivian mining *Museo Nacional Antropológico Eduardo López Rivas(National Anthropological Museum): displays tools and information on the Chipayas and Urus tribes and Carnaval de Oruro. *Churches: Catedral Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Oruro Cathedral), Santuario de la Virgen del Socavón, Iglesia de Cunchupata *Inti Raymi, a mine Twin Cities * .
in the town of Pahuatlán proper. The municipality is Mexico’s main producer of amate bark paper (amate), with its production concentrated in the community of San Pablito. Other handcrafts include hats, necklaces, embroidered clothing, baskets, semi precious stones and the weaving of wool. The Museo de Arte Popular (Museo de Arte Popular, Mexico City) has sponsored a different craft for the area, the creation of beaded bands. The production and sale of these bands is not only to help support the artisan community of Pahuatlan but also to earn money for other museum projects. Category:Municipalities of Puebla Category:Populated places in Puebla Category:Pueblos Mágicos San Pablito While amate is made in a few small villages in northern Puebla, northern Veracruz and southern Hidalgo state (Hidalgo (state)), only San Pablito in Puebla (San Pablito, Puebla) manufactures the paper commercially. San Pablito is a village in the municipality of Pahuatlán located in the Sierra Norte de Puebla. Tulancingo, Hidalgo is the closest urban center. The area is very mountainous and the village itself is on the side of a mountain called the Cerro del Brujo. The making of the paper is the primary economic activity of the community and has alleviated poverty in the village. Before the villagers only had very small houses made of wood, but now they have much larger houses made of block. The paper makers here guard the process greatly and will sever contact with anyone seeking to replicate their work. López Binnqüist, page 148 In addition to providing income to the paper makers themselves the craft has been employing an increasing number of people to harvest bark, over an area which now extends over 1,500km2 in the Sierra Norte de Puebla region. López Binnqüist, pages 2-7 The village manufactures large quantities of paper, still using mostly pre-Hispanic technology and various tree species for raw material. About half of this paper production is still sold to Nahua painters in Guerrero. López Binnqüist, page 10
Of those working in the municipality, less than ten percent of the population is employed in agriculture with the rest evenly split between industry and commerce. Population growth has been significantly slower than in other parts of the Mexico City area. In 2008, Moody's assigned a classification of A3.mx (Mexico scale) and Ba3 (global scale) to the municipality of Acolman. The reasons behind the grades are that while the municipality has a moderate amount of debt and adequate financial development, there have been some management issues in recent years. It also reflects the limited economic base of the area and the need for infrastructure. The municipality needs between 12.5 and 25 million pesos worth of roadwork, which it cannot finance and needs help from the State of Mexico. Unlike other municipalities in the Greater Mexico City area, water supply is based on a system of nineteen water suppliers, with only three owned by the municipality. The main tourist attractions are the archaeological zone of Tepexpan, where the fossilized bones of the Tepexpan man were found, and the former monastery of San Agustin de Acolman. The Tepexpan Museum is located in the community of the same name, famous due to the discovery of the "Tepexpan Man"
With its fame for silversmithing, tourism became a major economic force for the town. Commerce in silver here is both regional and international. Just under half of the municipality’s population is involved in the tourism trade. Streets in the town are filled with silvershops selling jewelry, silverware and other goods. Parish of Santa Prisca y San Sebastián 290px thumbnail right View towards the Santa Prisca Church (Taxco) Santa Prisca Church (File:2013-12-25 Taxco Straßenszene 03 anagoria.JPG). thumb Main altar of the Santa Prisca Church (File:AltarPriscaTaxco.JPG) The Parish of Santa Prisca y San Sebastían (Santa Prisca Church (Taxco)), commonly referred to as the Santa Prisca Church, is located on the east side of the main plaza of Taxco, and is one of the few Baroque buildings in the state of Guerrero. It was built between 1751 and 1758 by José de la Borda (ca. 1700–1778), who had made a great fortune in the silver mines surrounding the town. Despite his wealth, however, the opulence of the church nearly bankrupted him. The church is narrower than most due to the lack of flat land on which to build in the area. It is built with pink stone, flanked by two towers which are plain in the lower half but highly decorated in the upper bell portions. The crown overlooking the main portal has a representation of the Assumption of Mary. The cupola is covered in colored tile. Inside, there are a number of floor-to-ceiling altarpieces, all covered in gold. The main altarpiece is dedicated to the church’s two patron saints. Vibrations from blasts in nearby mining operations, earthquakes, and automobile traffic caused cracks in Santa Prisca’s vaults, and a restoration project began in 1997. To help the restoration project be carried to completion, the World Monuments Fund listed the church in the 2000 World Monuments Watch and provided funding from American Express and the Robert W. Wilson Challenge to Conserve Our Heritage for the conservation of walls, vaults, and the sacristy of the church. World Monuments Fund - Santa Prisca Parish Church Legend of Santa Prisca There is a legend associated with the Santa Prisca Church. While it was in construction, José de la Borda left Taxco on business to Guanajuato, leaving construction work to the builders. Soon after Borda left, the sky filled with black clouds and cold winds struck the streets, whistling through the towers of the unfinished church. The dark and cold terrified the workmen as the large storm approached. Suddenly a large bolt of lightning struck showing an undefined black silhouette that was swooping down on the church. Then it struck the cupola of the church, lighting it brilliantly. All of the tile covering the cupola began to shine with strange lights, allowing the inscription “Gloria a Dios en las alturas y paz en la tierra a los hombres de buena voluntad” (Glory to God in the Highest and peace on earth for men with good will) to be seen clearly. The whole town got down on their knees to pray, fearing that angry demons would destroy the church. Floating around the church were flashes of light and above the church appeared a beautiful woman who, smiling and with a peaceful face, caught the following lightning bolts in her hands. Other attractions thumb Back of the Casa Borda (File:BordaTaxco.JPG) They say that “everything Borda comes first in Taxco.” The main plaza of the town has the official name of “Plaza Borda” but it is commonly referred to as the Zócalo. On the north side of this plaza is the Casa Borda (Borda House) and is the most important non-religious construction in the city. The front facing the Zócalo has two stories, but the back, facing the Plaza de Bernal, has five. This is due to the uneven ground on which the house was built. Much of the house is now dedicated to the Casa de Cultura (Cultural Center) where classes in languages, fine arts and sports such as judo are taught. The rest of the main plaza is surrounded by silver shops, restaurants and bars. Near the main plaza are two museums, the William Spratling Museum and the Museum of Viceregal Art. The Spratling Museum contains 293 archeological pieces that were part of William Spratling’s personal collection. There are bone and shell pieces, objects made with semi-precious stones, as well as jars and figurines, all from various parts of Mesoamerica. The most outstanding pieces are a skull covered in jade and a stele. There is a collection of counterfeit artifacts as well. Another area is devoted to the silverwork designs and the workshops that Spratling created in Taxco and Taxco el Viejo. The Museum of Viceregal Art is located in the “Humboldt House,” named
; ref The Tehuantepec area in the very early Pre Classic period was on the periphery of the zone where the Olmecs had influence as is noted by artifacts. Prem, p.127. The area’s initial importance was not as a center of a dominion but rather as part of a trade route which connected Central America with what is now central Mexico. Through its trade routes passed manta rays, jade, other precious stones, shells, sponges, gold
and a coiled snake form, in other worlds, a Feathered Serpent picture, the Mesoamerica divine power, known as Quetzalcoatl in Nahuatl. The People's Heart - say Burgoa - represented the Mixtec people lineage founder: :''Making sacrifices and worshiped its first founder said he was the People´s Heart and kept it in a safe place and sacrificed to it valuables things as gold and precious stones. Front of the Heart always burned wood, where they burned ''copal'' or incense too.'' :This People's Heart also appears in the ''Ñuu Dzaui'' pictorial manuscripts, specifically in the Codex ''Añute (Selden)'', page 6-III, where it's painted as a precious stone with " The People of the Rain Heart" name (''Ini Ñuu Dzavui''), in other words, "The Mixtec People’s Heart”. It's situated in a large cave on top of a river. thumb Ñuu Ndecu path to and site, the City in Flames, Achiutla, colonial and pre-Columbian archaeological site (File:03 Sitio Achiutla.jpg) Pérez Ortiz quotes the historian and Dominican Francisco de Burgoa (Francisco Burgoa)'s description made about this piece in 1674, more than one hundred years after its destruction: :'':…and between their infamous altars, they had one devoted to an idol, called The People´s Heart, that was great veneration object, and a greatly appreciated matter, because it was an emerald as large as a big chili pepper from this earth, had carved above a little bird, with great gracefulness, and top to bottom coiled a little snake did with the same art, the stone was transparent. It shined from the bottom, where it seemed like a candle burning flame; it was a very ancient jewel, that there was no memory of the commencement of its worship and adoration .'': :These historical references--continues Lejarazu - aren't sufficient to identify The People’s Heart worship exact place, nor their accurate relationship with the Achiutla’s Oracle. It's clear the river represents the ''Ñuu Ndecu'' deep valley. It appears in the 15th century, Achiutla was conquered by the Aztecs, who destroyed and burned their main temple, in 1462 the temple and the city suffered the fire, to this fact is due to carry the Mixtec name of ''Ñuu Nducu'' in one of their etymologies meaning burned town or city in flames. Achiutla, ''Ñuu Ndecu'', is waiting for its historical and archaeological recovery, relevant to the Mixtec culture, the State of Oaxaca and Mexico; as well as claim linguistic and ethnic indigenous, of the Mixtec Indian, object sometimes of denial, rejection and self-destruction of the maternal ethnic, language and culture, effects of colonialism and racism, to supplant the dignity and wealth that involve to belong to this ancient culture, even alive. San Juan Achiutla's Colonial period traces thumb San Juan Achiutla's Baptismal font. Colonial period (File:05 Pila bautismal periodo hispano.jpg) When in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, took news of Hernán Cortés and his troops arrival to Veracruz - concerns Alfonso Pérez Ortiz citing José Antonio Gay – ''Moctecuhzoma'' (Moctezuma (Moctezuma II)) sent an embassy with some gifts for "The People’s Heart" deity and consult the Oracle "to know the fate that was reserved for his people", the Ñuu Ndecu "Pontiff" came to the shrine and "The people that had been left to the party from outside"", they heard between confusing noise of voices" the fateful announcement that "the Moctezuma lordship is over...¨." The Lord 2 Vulture, Snake of Fire-Sun and Mrs. 13 House, Flower of Bat, ruled ''Ñuu Ndecu'' when in the Land of the Rain, were known these dire first news concerning the Spaniards. From 1522 to 1528 Achiutla, what would be San Miguel and San Juan, was subjected unduly by the conquer Martín Vázquez who would be prosecuted for mistreating and threatening death to the people's chiefs by not delivering extraordinary tributes and pretended to be the legitimate ''encomendero''. In 1528 Achiutla became part Francisco Maldonado's encomienda its real owner, ''Ñuu Ndecu'' contributed to him 48 gold dust "tejuelos". In 1550 his ''encomienda'' and "Achiotla" (Achutla) passed to doña Isabel Roxas (Rojas) his wife. In 1555 the viceroy don Luis de Velasco ordered to allow entering Santo Domingo religious order to Achiutla, since the encomendero's cleric of the place prevented. The Dominicans settled finally in 1557 in ''Ñuu Ndecu'' founded their community, at the time they would build the "doctrine-convent". thumb Explosion chamber. In a large number were used in San Juan Achiutla from the colony until the early 20th century rather than rockets, it was filled with gunpowder and detonated by the hole in the side. Iron. 10 Cms high, wide at the base 4.5 cms. (File:Cámara_de_explosión.jpg) Among the Dominican religious who came to Achiutla was Fray Benito Hernández who wrote his ''Christian catechism written in Mixtec'', Fray Benito Hernández took the Dominican order habit in the San Esteban convent in Salamanca. Reached Mexico by Fray Vicente de las Casas. So they went to the Mixtec region where he learned the Mixtec language in a short time. He was sent to evangelize Achiutla because the father who was there didn’t know the language and therefore had not achieved good communication with the place inhabitants. Friar hadn’t a good reception and the people abandoned him almost to death by starvation, cause he intended to put end to the idolatry and destroyed the Chalcatongo's graveyard, situated in one La Mixteca highest hills. His Christian doctrine in Mixtec language was an attempt to understand indigenous people and teach them the new faith. Unfortunately, the single original in the world which is incomplete in the Burgoa Library in Oaxaca, lacks front cover and colophon. The work is written in the Teposcolula’s Mixtec variant. and to whom is attributed the evangelization of the Mixtecs of ''Ñuu Ndecu''; people that continued practicing their ancient religious customs in a hidden form in the caves and hills close to the place making worship to "The People’s Heart" deity . Fray Benito heard about the existence of this image and rose to the summit in question, where destroyed the ceremonial center. :'':…an immensity of several figures of idols, which were in niches, on stones stained foolishly of human blood and smoke of incense which sacrificed them.'' (Burgoa) And he got done in The People’s Heart” deity. :'':…and have a solemn day prevented, and together many towns, pulled the stone and he broke it with great difficulty, through instruments, because its hardness, sent grind it into powder there … and mixed with ground, he threw and stepped on, in front of the eyes of a huge crowd that attended the event, and then made them a big sermon''…(Burgoa) So the pulverizing of this jewel, would be a little after 1557 (Pérez Ortiz, 2009). 1580 There were few Spaniard settlers in the Mixtec communities in the mountains, because they avoided visit them for fear of its inhabitants. '''In 1584 San Juan Achiutla land titles were issued by the colonial government, that in 1748 issued communal titles.''' From this last period, the San Juan Evangelista's Church in San Juan Achiutla retains the following historical trail: an oil painting approximately 1.4 for 1.2 m whose lower part said ''"Don Juan Ortiz and his wife doña María Daniel devotion year 1749".'' The work has several levels; the top appears the Holy Trinity, in the central part an Archangel, then Saint Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi. At the next level the purgatory image: a man with the papal tiara, another with the bishop tiara, one cleric, a woman and a man, all burn between the flames; below represents a solemn mass attended by men on the right and women on the left. On the deteriorated work lower place we can read: ''"F. García Ruiz and José Isidro Ruiz, José de la Luz..."'', and more illegible words in red. It could be inferred that at that time there was sufficient financial capacity of some people as to order to do oil paintings possibly out of the town, probably in the San Miguel convent or Teposcolula, make solemn Eucharistic celebrations, and the existence of sufficient population and economic activity could be inferred to generate at least medium-sized wealth. The colonial period, the 19th century and the Mexican Revolution at San Juan Achiutla are pending of being researched and counted. At this point we know that in: * 1825, San Juan Achutla Nusuñe (it was its name then) was part of the constituency of the called ''Partido'' Partido in this case means, according to the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language Dictionary: district or territory of jurisdiction or body that has a main town per head de Tlaxiaco. * 1844 was a village of the Achutla's ''Partido'', sub-prefecture of Tlaxiaco, Teposcolula district. * 1858 again belonged to the Tlaxiaco's District. * 1891 was a municipality in the Tlaxiaco's District. Contemporary period San Juan Achiutla has no municipal archive so it's virtually impossible to do an history based on the documentary source. If we compare with people, we could say that the municipality works verbally; it would seem that municipality is in illiteracy in the absence of documentary collections. In 2010, Mexican Independence bicentennial and Mexican Revolution centennial year, appeared the book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca'' Raúl Ruiz Bautista memoirs. Partially this book without being or pretending to be a site history, came to partially remedy the documents absence about San Juan Achiutla. For it we can retrieve some people and town events after the Mexican Revolution until 21st century first decade. San Juan history and the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec construction are inseparable, Raúl Ruiz Bautista released his proclamation for their construction and San Juan Achiutla led the project and this road construction with Rutilio Ruiz Hernández to the head. The following are the relevant facts from the 20th century. '''1920''' * In the decade beginning in 1920, due to resources scarcity for families livelihood in San Juan Achiutla, peasants migrated to Río Blanco, Orizaba, Córdoba, Potrero Viejo, Santa Rosa and other places in Veracruz State, Mexico, to find work in the field and in factories, they got job in fabrics and yarns factories and Cervecería Moctezuma, brewery, or in the field collecting coffee, cutting cane or other agricultural work. Returning to the village especially to be on December 27 at the town's feast. Many of them were rooted in those populations for many years, some permanently. * In 1929 it was built and established the first primary school where taught the teacher Rutilio Ruiz Hernández. One of the homes the school occupied was the premise and building called "La sala" owned by Bartolo Ruiz, who provided it for that purpose. This building no longer exists. '''1930''' * In 1935 the elementary school was converted into Rural Federal School Francisco I. Madero, being substituted Rutilio Ruiz Hernández as teacher by the professor Pedro Hernández, graduated from the Normal Rural School. At school existed only until the fourth grade. * In 1936 the young Eliseo Ruiz López was carried by her father Tranquilino Ruiz to Normal Rural School of Cuilapan, near Oaxaca City to study for rural teacher, being the first to come out of San Juan Achiutla to study. So the San Juan Achiutla’s Mayor, in arbitrary way, decided to imprison and submit to penal labour Tranqulino his father with the claim that the boy did not was lose to the Catholic faith and return to the village to serve the municipality and to abandon his studies, which failed. * In 1938 Raúl Ruiz Bautista and Natalio Ramírez Pérez left the town with the same goal, they were followed by many young people who would be teachers and professionals, employees in other parts of the country or in the United States of America. '''1940''' * On October 17, 1942 the municipality of San Juan Achiutla was established by presidential resolution. * '''On October 28, 1942 the communal property of the community of San Juan Achiutla, of the San Juan Achiutla municipality, were titled by presidential resolution published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on March 3, 1943.''' * The Municipal Palace was built in 1947 being Mayor Mr. Teodoro José. * In August 1949 from San Juan Achiutla Raúl Ruiz Bautista launched its Road Manifesto calling for the towns of the region to the road San Felipe Ixtapa - San Agustín Tlacotepec construction in order to get out of backwardness, poverty and the isolation deprived High Mixteca towns. The Manifesto was endorsed by don Rutilio Ruiz Hernández, who became the leader and road construction organizer in the region while Raul Ruiz would be the negotiator of financial resources and contact with authorities, organizations and politicians in the country's capital, both during the fifteen years that would last its construction. * The Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road was founded in 1949; it organized the towns of this route during the entire period that lasted its construction, Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was named Chairman of this Committee. * On October 15, 1949 the San José de Gracia authorities adhere to the Manifesto, the other towns of the route, Santo Tomás Tecolotitlán, Santa María Ndoayaco, San Sebastián Atoyaquillo, Santo Domingo Huendío and San Agustín Tlacotepec also would in due course, providing and at times to deny their collaboration for the construction. At the beginning the work of the people was loaned free of charge as required by the Mexican Federal Government in their conventions, which provided one-third of its funding. After the first five years in which people worked for free, the workers were paid, though sparsely. * In December 1949 were sent letters to the Roads National Committee General Secretary José Rivera R. To ask resources for the road’s construction and in the same month to the of Communications and Transport Secretary Lic. Agustín García López. '''1950''' * In 1950 at the request of Rutilio Ruiz Hernández from San Juan Achiutla, Chairman of the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road, several towns sent to the President of the Republic, Miguel Alemán Valdés, written to requesting resources for the road, neither the National Committee or the Secretariat of Communications had responded. * In that same year Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was appointed general organizer of the Indigenous Congress in the Mixtec region. * In January 1951 the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road requests the Oaxaca State Governor financial resources and his influence before the Federal Government to obtain it. Not importing applications repeated during the construction of the road, never received a satisfactory response from the Government of Oaxaca, only contributed with an amount equivalent to less than half a kilometre, its attention to the project was sent the requests for resources "to the corresponding area" where fell in vacuum. * 1951 San Juan Achiutla and the Mixtec Region were represented by Raúl Ruiz Bautista in the Second National Congress of the Confederation of Indigenous Young People in Mexico City. It was a Congress to try to incorporate indigenous organizations for purely political purposes, as reported Raúl recommending not participates in such organization. * The Regional Committee of Indigenous Youth and Communities was founded in may, 1951 in San Juan Achiutla and designating San Juan Achiutla as the official seat of the Mixtec Regional Congress in the same year. * On May 23, 1951 the Communications and Public Works Ministry orders the layout of the road but directs to the last section, the Huendío - Tlacotepec is not done: '''"still important not to carry out the last segment with Tlacotepec, pursuant to the expressed desire of does not arise on the short road, the vehicles in the region of Chalcatongo and trying to have as a forced via the Tlaxiaco City."''' (Note No. 324-RGB-1947, dossier 441.2 727.2 5-1 folio 15362 signed by Manuel López sailing from Secretary of Communications an Public Works, '''to keep traffic on the long road, by Tlaxiaco''', the path would be a long alley without exit, without connection to Yosondúa and Chalcatongo. * In April 1951 the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road joins to the Coalition of Mixtec – Oaxacan Towns directed by Dr. Manuel Hernández Hernández, one of the major characters who due to his political position - Federal Deputy - help obtaining federal funds for the construction of the road. * On October 6, 1951 was received in San Felipe Ixtapa the first set of tools and materials by the Federal Government to begin construction of the road, so the work began this month and year. * San Juan Achiutla intervenes by Rutilio Ruiz Hernández in peacemaking, mediation and signing of the agreements of boundaries between San Miguel Achiutla and San Bartolomé Yucuañe, concluded between 1952 and 1953. Raúl Ruiz Bautista was responsible for the follow-up the legal settlement of the conflict in the Supreme Court of Justice in Mexico City at the request of Salvador Montes in representation of San Miguel Achiutla. * In January 1953 through Rutilio Ruiz Hernández proposed to the National Indigenous Institute (INI, now National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples) the establishment of an Indigenous Coordinating Centre in the Mixteca Alta, postulating as headquarters to San Miguel Achiutla. Such a centre was established in Tlaxiaco due to the community of San Miguel slow response to the INI. thumb Ixtapa-Tlacotepec road reaches San Juan ''Ñuu Ndecu'', Achiutla (File:07 Camino bajando.jpg) * On May 3, 1953, the ''Vanguardia Progresista de San Juan Achiutla en el Distrito Federal'', headed by Raúl Ruiz Bautista and other hard achiutlenses that would work to support their town with economic resources and materials for education and infrastructure, as well as for the annual Patron Saint festivities. * In May 1954 Alfonso Caso, National Indigenous Institute general director visits the Mixteca Alta and decides to support the construction of the road. * In August 1956 the Progressive Avant-garde of San Juan Achiutla in the Federal District identifies and invited 56 migrant achiutlenses in the State of Veracruz, to integrate an autonomous organization similar to the Progressive Avant-garde in the region of Río Blanco and surrounding cities and towns, and systematically raise funds and send them to the municipality as a support for the town’s development of public works and community services. Those, instigated by traditional leaders focused on supporting only the religious festivals, didn’t accept. * On October 12, 1956 was open the telephone network in San Miguel Tixá and San Juan Achiutla was also connected to the telephone service. * In that year, after repeated requests from the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa - Tlacotepec Road, would begin the pay of a basic wage to workers in the road, residents of the towns, as came doing it free for nearly five years, as required (the provision of free labor by towns) by the National Committee on Community roads in their conventions. * In 1958 it was built the Post Office and telephone at San Juan Achiutla, same year in which started the construction of the first basketball court in the town (of rammed earth) both with the economic support of the Progressive Avant-Garde of San Juan Achiutla in Mexico City. This organization processed before the Ministry of Public Education the backboards and goals donation. '''1960''' * In 1961 begins the potable water system construction and its introduction in this town, for which the municipality requested and obtained financial backing from Vanguardia Progresista. Installs the first electricity generator in the town. Builds the first potable water tank in El Calvario spot. Desiderio López José presided the municipality then. thumb San Juan Achiutla's ancient classrooms (demolished in January 2011) (File:12 Aulas SJA.jpg) thumb Same view in January 2011 without the old classrooms. San Juan Achiutla's historical, cultural and architectural heritage destruction (File:Destrucción de Antiguas Aulas en San Juan Achiutla.jpg) * October 26, 1961, through the Vanguardia Progresista intermediary and personally Raúl Ruiz Bautista before the Public Education Ministry, Francisco I. Madero primary school receives a substantial provision of furniture and materials: highlighted 125 chair desks, one vertical file, three desks, a microscope, a typewriter, a national flag, three basketball balls and six national heroes portraits, which today it may seem insignificant, but that it was not for a rural primary school at the time. * In 1962 was held in San Juan Achiutla first meeting Educational Area School Number 18. In November of that year there was a conflict between the priest attending to celebrate mass at San Juan and the Regional Committee For the Ixtapa – Tlacotepec Road, because tool and machinery for construction were temporarily stored in the parish of the town. * On March 18, 1963 Dr. Alfonso Caso, the Indigenous National Institute Chairman visited San Juan Achiutla with Dr. Manuel Hernández Hernández to inaugurate the way Ixtapa - Tlacotepec after 15 years Manifesto launching for its construction. It was also the formal opening ceremony of the drinking water system, electricity generator and the repaired school classrooms (classrooms that were demolished “to expand the garden” between the Church and the municipal Palace in February 2011, actually is a machinery parking lot). In that year was built the Monument to the Flag. * In December 1963, for the San Juan Achiutla's feast, Vanguardia Progresiva de San Juan Achiutla in Mexico City, on the initiative of Jesús A. Ruiz Sanchez, made the gift of the first turntable and sound system to the municipality of San Juan Achiutla. * In June 1964 the Education Ministry gives 35 chair desks for the elementary school. * In August 1965 the music band was reorganized and was acquired two saxophones to reinforced it. * In November 1965, school census, attending primary school 130 boys and 135 girls, there were six teachers (in 2011 the actual population of the town did not reach the 200 people). Took inventory of the resources of primary school. Classrooms were again repaired. * On November 19, 1965 was held in Mexico City a tribute for Ixtapa - Tlacotepec road construction to Dr. Alfonso Caso, Dr, Manuel Hernández Hernández, Eng. Miguel García Cruz (absent in the event), Dr. Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán and Eng. Adrián Breña Garduño. Don Rutilio Ruiz Hernández was awarded with a gold medal. The speech was in charge of Raúl Ruiz Bautista. * Wednesday, June 7, 1967, ''Carteles del Sur'', a news paper of Oaxaca City published a María del Refugio G. de Alva article entitled ''El Camino de don Rutilio'' (Don Rutilio's road) where extensively was portrayed the leader's struggle for the road. * In 1969 the construction of the electric network was initiated in San Juan Achiutla. '''1970''' * In 1971 the dam for agricultural irrigation Las Lajas was built in the course of the river ''Los Sabinos''. * In 1975, was built the second drinking water tank in ''El Jazmin'' spot. * In 1977 Raúl Ruiz Bautista wrote to the State of Oaxaca Governor, general Eliseo Jiménez Ruiz, to return the buses run by the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec from the Mexico City and Oaxaca City to Chalcatongo de Hidalgo, which already operated and were suspended, being that the short route to Tlacotepec and Yosondúa. He also asked for paving the road. It has not returned to have regular runs of buses on this route. * The third tank of drinking water in the ''El Moral'' spot was built in 1978. * The rural clinic under the programme IMSS - COPLAMAR, was built in 1979 when municipal president was Mr. Juan Santos. thumb San Juan Achiutla's street (File:11 Mujeres en la calle SJA.jpg) '''1980''' * In 1980 the Federal Secondary School Eng. Alfonso Martínez Berges was established in San Juan Achiutla. * In 1984, the first public telephone service Telmex was installed. * On July 26, 1986 Raúl Ruiz Bautista wrote twice to the then Senator Heladio Ramírez López, already elected Oaxaca's Governor, suggested him to include in his Government's actions plan the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec paving, and the Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica (Conalep) creation in San Juan Achiutla, the drainage introduction, a market and a municipal house construction as well as the cooperative industry for the exploitation of limestone and other construction materials creation to create sources of employment and entrench the inhabitants of the Mixteca on their land. He returned to writing in May 1988 insisting on these subjects and the introduction of public passenger transport. There were no results. * Between 1988 and 1989 are rebuilt the three domes of the Church of St. John the Evangelist. '''1990''' * The fourth drinking water tank was built in San Pedro neighbourhood in 1991. * On 25 January 1993 Raúl Ruiz Bautista wrote to Diodoro Carrasco Altamirano Governor of the State requesting the necessary expansion and paving of the Ixtapa - Tlacotepec road. thumb San Juan Evangelista church in San Juan Achiutla (File:10 Iglesia de SJA.jpg) * The Mixteco Towns Union, chaired by Professor Neftalí Ruiz Sánchez, San Juan Achiutla's Mayor, was created in 1993 who scheduled in its work programme the expansion and paving of the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec. * On 5 November 1993, Professor Neftalí Ruiz Sánchez summarizes that he has sent two separate letters, one to the President of the Republic, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, other to the Oaxaca’s Governor and to the Planning Development Committee of the State of Oaxaca (Coplades) requesting the roads extension and paving, without any result. In February 1994 he wrote to the Secretary of Communications and Transport and the Governor of Oaxaca, with zero results. * On 2 February 1995, the route Ixtapa - Tlacotepec mayors headed by Neftalí Ruiz Sánchez wrote to the President of the Republic, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León asking the road paving. * In the same year was in service the fifth drinking water tank in ''El Ocote'' spot. * Between 1996 and 1998 were built a channel, two barriers and four reservoirs for irrigation water storage, being President Juan Pablo López. '''2000''' thumb San Juan Achiutla's Francisco I. Madero primary school nowadays (File:Escuela Fco I Madero San Juan Achiutla Oaxaca México.jpg) * 2004 the Instituto de Estudios de Bachillerato del Estado de Oaxaca (IEBO) campus 126 "Achiutla" was established among San Juan Achiutla, San Miguel Achiutla and San Sebastián Atoyaquillo, in order to provide to several towns educational service. It has three classrooms and seven computers in 2010 with Internet service. * In 2008 began the delivery of public Internet services in San Juan Achiutla in private establishing "The Grandfather's House". '''2010''' * Starts the streets paved and construction of sidewalks on the main street of the village. * In September, 2010 in the National Commission for development of indigenous Peoples in Mexico City and in December of that same year in San Juan Achiutla and Tlaxiaco, is presented the book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta del Estado de Oaxaca''. Raúl Ruiz Bautista Memoirs. * The old classrooms of elementary school in San Juan Achiutla, ancient “adobe” constructions and part of the town cultural heritage were demolished, the ground is used as machinery parking lot. This was a cultural heritage destruction municipal action. * In the 2010-2011 the number of pupils attending primary school is 27, secondary school 31, and Achiutla IEBO pre college level is 84. Total 142 students in the locality, taking into account the Achiutla IEBO attend not only students from San Juan but also joined 12 students from the Guadalupe Hidalgo's IEBO which was closed due to students' lack), of San Miguel Achiutla, San Sebastián Atoyaquillo and other villages. As more above has been said, in 1965 when only primary school worked, it had 285 students, more than double that the total in 2011. thumb ''Tortillas'' and ''zapotes'' sellers in San Juan Achiutla (File:Venta de Tortillas y Zapotes.jpg) * Until 2011 the road Ixtapa - Tlacotepec ranging from Ixtapa to San Juan Achiutla (town called and led its construction) remains without be paved, meanwhile long route the "obligated" Tlaxiaco pass, was paved long time ago. * In July, 2011, as a result and in follow-up to the Raúl Ruiz Bautista´s work, was published in ''Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre'', the first article on San Juan Achiutla, who initiates the recovery of identity and cultural and historical memory of the place, its inhabitants, migrants and their descendants, many of them Mixtec born in other parts of the country and abroad. In January 2012, the English translation was published in ''Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia''. Cultural and historical heritage There are as goods of cultural and historical heritage of San Juan Achiutla: * Achiutla Pre-Hispanic site and San Miguel Arcángel Dominican Convent, for have been the pre-Hispanic City of Achiutla the place that gave birth to San Miguel Achiutla as to San Juan Achiutla, none in the original space although San Miguel behind the original site. * St. John the Evangelist Church. * 18th-century oil paintings collection in the St. John the Evangelist Church. thumb San Juan Achiutla's jail (File:14 Carcel SJA.jpg) * "El chorrito" drinking water box * The prison and the municipal buildings adjacent to it. * The Municipal Palace * The kiosk in the front garden at City Hall. * The monument to the flag. * The book ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca''. Raúl Ruiz Bautista, published in 2010 and graded as high relevance by the library of the Congress of the United States. Cultural traditions The Mixtec culture, to which San Juan Achiutla and the achiutlecos belong, is a living culture, says Ronald Spores on the subject: :After the independence war the language ''ñu savi (Ñuu Dzaui)'' speakers retained their ethnic identity, their customs, and managed to adapt to the circumstances of the new country, initially in the Mixteca and eventually beyond: in Puebla, the central valleys, the North and Northwest Mexico; at present, can be found Mixtec everywhere in North America. This group tenacity and adaptability for more than 3,000 years deserves everyone's attention. thumb San Juan Achiutla's kiosk (File:13 Kiosco SJA.jpg) :The Mixtec culture has developed and maintained for more than three millennia in a vast region which covers a territory of 40 000 km2, which extends from South of Puebla to the Pacific coast and the Valley of Oaxaca to the East of Guerrero. The Mixteca region comprises three ecological zones: '''the High Mixteca ―escenario of the development of the main towns of this culture―,''' the Low Mixteca ―o Ñuiñe ("Tierra Caliente") — and the Mixteca de la Costa. :We must remember that the Mixtec culture did not disappear with the conquest, during the colonial period, or in the 19th and 20th centuries radical national transformations. It exists today in the Mixteca, everywhere in Mexico and anywhere in the world where the Mixtecs have reached in its vast adaptation diaspora. Many have left the Mixteca, but their hearts, thoughts and feelings remain on their land and their tradition. :As reflected in ''La Canción Mixteca'' (a lyric) among multiple ethnic groups that form the Mexican Republic, perhaps the nation more sentimental, nostalgic and loyal to its roots is the ''ñu savi'', the Mixtec nation. Following ancient cultural traditions are preserved in San Juan Achiutla: * The ''tequio'', which is obligatory work as contribution to the town public works and services, that allows the people and the municipality to be clean and healthy place in an exemplary fashion. * The ''gueza (guelaguetza, give to receive)'' which is mutual support mainly in supplies or in cash between neighbors and relatives that bring to those who have a celebration, feast or compromise, such as weddings, baptisms, funerals or ''mayordomías''. The ''gueza'' reception is a solemn ceremony in which small speeches are addressed to deliver and receive the contributions, being a usual commitment to spontaneously to reciprocate the help at the moment in which the counterpart need it. * The ''mayordomía'' which is the responsibility of an individual for the celebration of the Patron Saint San Juan fest, this custom however is of great economic burden for those who assume it. * The ''posadas'' are the festivities during eight days leading up to Christmas. Consist of put the ''nacimiento'', give Posada to the pilgrims, with images of the pilgrims Mary and Joseph in a procession calling the Inn to the house inhabitants, who give after prayers and doubts, they offer to the pilgrims and the procession hot drinks, ''tamales'', collations, gifts, breaking ''piñatas'', pray the Rosary. * The ''pastorela'' of the town, staging Christmas performed with volunteer actors of the town prior to Christmas. * The ''danza del guajolote'' (Turkey dance), in which the salient mayordomo delivered a turkey as a gift through dancers to the new ''mayordomo''. * The ''música de viento'' (wind music band) of both religious and social present at every party. * The pre-Hispanic legend of ''El flechador del sol'' which Achiutla is mentioned. Bibliography * '''Ruiz Bautista. Raúl.''' ''Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca'' Mexico 2010, 295 pp. ISBN 978 - 607-00-3376-6 http: lccn.loc.gov 2010538507 * '''Pérez Ortiz, Alfoso.''' ''Pueblo en llamas, la inobediencia de los mixtecos de Achiutla en el siglo XVI.'' Thesis for the degree of m.a. in history. Universidad Nacional Autónoma Mexico. 2009. * '''Diguet. Léon''', ''Contribution a l'Etude geographique du mexique précolombien. Le Mixtecapan'' Journal de la Société des américanistes de Paris. Nouvelle series. Tome III. Au sige de la Société. 61, Rue de Buffon, 61. France 1906. * '''Hermann Lejarazu. Manuel A.''' ''Códice Yucunama. Edición facsimilar, interpretación y Análisis.'' Centre for Research and Higher Studies in Social Anthropology. CIESAS. Mexico. 1st Edition, Mexico, 2009. ISBN 978-607-486-042-9 * '''Jansen, Maarten and Pérez Jiménez, Gabina Aurora'''. ''Paisajes sagrados: códices y arqueología de Ñuu Dzaui.'' Itineraries Vol. 8 2008 ISSN paper version: 1507-7241, University of Warsaw. Iberian and Latin American Studies Institute. Oboźna 8, 00-927 Warsaw. * '''Maarten E.R.G.N. Jansen''' ''Huisi Tacu'', volume II. CEOLA. Incidentele Publicaties 24. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Leuven University. Belgium. * '''Spores. Ronald''', ''La Mixteca y los mixtecos. 3,000 años de adaptación cultural''. Arqueología Mexicana. Bi-Monthly Magazine, March–April 2008. Volume XV, number 90. México. * '''San Juan Achiutla's Municipality''', in ''Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México'' National Institute for Federalism and Municipal Development, Interior Ministry, Mexico. * '''San Juan Achiutla's Municipality''' ''Plan Municipal de Desarrollo de San Juan Achiutla 2008 - 2010''. External links * Book's review "Camino por la Mixteca" * Book: Camino por la Mixteca. Un testimonio y documentos para la microhistoria de San Juan Achiutla y la Mixteca Alta en el estado de Oaxaca. Memorias. Raúl Ruiz Bautista. * León Diguet's book ''Contribution a l'etude geographique du mexique précolombien. Le Mixtecapan" * Códice Yucunama. Edición facsimilar, interpretación y Análisis * Biblioteca Burgoa de la Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca. Joyas Bibliográficas. Note about Fray Benito Hernández and its ''Catecismo en Lengua Mixteca''. * Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México, Oaxaca References Category:Municipalities of Oaxaca Category:Populated places in Oaxaca In pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla (San Juan Achiutla), Cuilapan, Huajuapan (Huamelulpan (archaeological site)), Mitla, Tlaxiaco, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, and Yucuñudahui. The Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán (which had originated as a Zapotec (Zapotec civilization) city before the Mixtec gained control of it). The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone (Rock (geology)), wood, and metal were well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica. - 175 San Juan Achiutla San Juan Achiutla Tlaxiaco (Tlaxiaco District, Oaxaca) - - 175 San Juan Achiutla San Juan Achiutla Tlaxiaco (Tlaxiaco District, Oaxaca) -