Shaizar

earlier name under the Roman Empire and was known as Sezer under the Byzantine Empire. Shaizar fell to the Arabs in 638 and frequently passed from Arab to Byzantine control. It was sacked in 969 by Byzantine emperor Nicephorus II, and was captured by Basil II in 999, after which it became the southern border of the Byzantine Empire and was administered by the Bishop of Shaizar. It was lost to the Banu Munqidh in 1081 when 'Ali ibn Munqidh bought it from the bishop

. The Byzantines besieged it numerous times after this but failed to recover it. The Crusader (Crusades)s, on their arrival in this area, rendered the city's name in Latin as Caesarea. This name had not been used in any earlier period, and was derived from the Crusaders mistakenly identifying this city as being Caesarea Mazaca, a place renowned in Christian history as the home of Saint Basil of Caesarea. It is no longer inhabited today, but the ruins are known as Saijar in modern

. Description of the city Referring to the crusader siege of Shaizar in 1157, William of Tyre writes: : "The city of Shayzar lies upon the same Orontes river which flows by Antioch. It is called by some Caesarea, and by them is believed to be the famous metropolis of Cappadocia (Kayseri) over which the distinguished teacher St. Basil (Basil of Caesarea) once presided; but those who hold this view are in grave error. For that Caesarea is a fifteen days journey or more from Antioch


Vidin

in the period from the 10th to the 14th century. In the Middle Ages Vidin used to be an important Bulgarian city, a bishop seat and capital of a large province. Between 971 and 976 the town was the center of Samuil (Samuil of Bulgaria)'s possessions while his brothers ruled to the south. In 1003 Vidin was seized by Basil II after an eight-month siege because of the betrayal of the local bishop. Its importance once again rose during the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1422) and its '' Despot

of 80,000 strong, led by Mezid the Bey of Vidin, near Sibiu. From 1000, Basil II was free to focus on a war of outright conquest against Bulgaria, a war he prosecuted with grinding persistence and strategic insight. In 1000 the Byzantine generals Nikephoros Xiphias and Theodorokan took the old Bulgarian capital of Great Preslav (Preslav), and the towns of Lesser Preslav and Pliskova. John Skylitzes:The Year 6508 In 1001 Basil

himself, his army operating from Thessalonica, was able to regain control of Vodena, Verrhoia and Servia. Finlay, p. 442 The following year Basil based his army in Philippopolis and occupied the length of the military road from the western Haemus Mountains to the Danube, thereby cutting off Samuel's communications between his Macedonian heartland and Moesia. Following up this success he laid siege to Vidin, which eventually fell following a prolonged resistance. ref>


Ohrid

by Edward Hays,1997,ISBN 978-0-939516-37-7,page 82: "... He sent word to Samuel, the ruler in the Bulgarian capital of Ohrid, that he was returning 15,000 of his prisoners of war. ..." From 990 to 1018 Ohrid was also the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Paul Robert Magocsi, ''Historical Atlas of Central Europe'', (University of Washington Press, 2002), 10. After the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) reconquest of the city in 1018 by Basil II

under Basil II Use of the name "Sklavines" as a nation on its own was discontinued in Byzantine records after circa 836 as those Slavs in the Macedonia region became a population in the First Bulgarian Empire. Originally two distinct peoples, ''Sklavines'' and ''Bulgars'', the Bulgars assimilated the Slavic language identity whilst maintaining the Bulgarian demonym and name of the empire. Slavic influence in the region strengthened along with the rise of this state, which

of the 10th century, much of what is now Republic of Macedonia became the political and cultural center of the First Bulgarian Empire under Tsar Samuil (Samuil of Bulgaria); while the Byzantine emperor Basil II came to rule the eastern part of the empire (what is now Bulgaria), including the then capital Preslav, in 972. A new capital was established at Ohrid, which also became the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. From then on, the Bulgarian model became an integral


Durrës

ally's son by mistake. The corpse was cast into the sea, which thereafter was called the Ionian Sea. * Durrës, Albania After the defeat, the rebellion of Bardas Phocas (Bardas Phokas the Younger) diverted the efforts of the Byzantine Empire into another civil war.

date Al-Rudrawari, pp. 28-35. Ostrogorsky, G. ''History of the Byzantine state'' (''Istorija Vizantije', ''Исторijа Византиje''), pp. 397-398. Samuel seized the opportunity and began to exert pressure on Thessaloniki. E Codd. ''Manuscriptis Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis'', J.A.Cramer (ed.), 4 Vols (Oxford, 1839-1841), Vol 4, pp. 271, 282. Rozen, p. 27. Basil II sent a large army to the town

: transport and road systems", p. 54 in ''Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies'', ed. Elizabeth Jeffreys. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 2006. ISBN 0-7546-5740-X Samuel's decision to face Basil II and the bulk of his army at Kleidion was not only prompted by the constant defeats and invasions which had devastated the country, but also by concerns over his authority among the nobility, which had been fatally weakened by Basil's campaigns. In 1005


Bar, Montenegro

''Pomorje'' ('maritime') under his control including Travunia and Zachlumia. His realm may have stretched west- and northwards to include some parts of the ''Zagorje'' (inland Serbia and Bosnia) as well. Vladimir's pre-eminent position over other Slavic nobles in the area explains why Emperor Basil II approached him for an anti-Bulgarian alliance. With his hands tied by war in Anatolia, Emperor Basil required allies for his war against Tsar Samuel, who had much of Macedionia

stretched into the hinterland to include some parts of ''Zagorje'' (inland Serbia and Bosnia) as well. Vladimir’s pre-eminent position over other Slavic nobles in the area explains why Emperor Basil approached him for an anti-Bulgarian alliance. With his hands tied by war in Anatolia, Emperor Basil required allies for his war against Tsar Samuel, who ruled a Bulgarian empire (First Bulgarian Empire) stretched over Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia). In retaliation, Samuel invaded Duklja

Bar on the Adriatic coast, he had much of the Serbian ''Primorje'' ('maritime') (Pomorje) under his control including Travunia and Zachlumia. His realm may have stretched west- and northwards to include some parts of the ''Zagorje'' (inland Serbia and Bosnia) as well. Vladimir’s pre-eminent position over other Slavic nobles in the area explains why Emperor Basil approached him for an anti-Bulgarian alliance. With his hands tied by war in Anatolia, Emperor Basil required allies for his war


Kičevo

is ''Kičevo'' (Кичево). Kičevo is first mentioned as ''Ouskanas'' (Ούσκανας) during the reign of Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War (171-168 BC). It was known as ''Uskana'' among its Illyrian inhabitants. The next written record of the town did not come until 1018, under the name of ''Kicavis'', noted in one of the documents of the Byzantine emperor (List of Byzantine emperors) Basil II. Dalibor Brozović, ''Hrvatska enciklopedija'', 1999, s.v. "

;Kičevo". Under the rule of Prince Marko it was known as ''Katin Grad'', because Marko's sister was named Katina. It is presumed that the present name of the town originates from the name of this settlement populated by the Slavic Brsjaci tribe. History thumb 200px left Kičevo in the 1930s (File:Kičevo old.jpg) Kičevo was noted in one of the documents of the Byzantine emperor (List of Byzantine emperors) Basil II in 1018, and also mentioned by the Ohrid


Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus

schools in the excluded area were forced to close until 1935, in violation of obligations accepted by the Albanian government at the League of Nations. Basil Kondis & Eleftheria Manda. ''The Greek Minority in Albania - A documentary record (1921-1993)''. Thessaloniki. Institute of Balkan Studies. 1994, p. 20. In 1925, Albania's present borders (Protocol of Florence) were set

year 2007 location pages ref Guy isbn doi 10.1080 09592290601163035 * *

2004 publisher I.B.Tauris isbn 978-1-84511-013-0 page 103 Kondis Basil. ''Greece and Albania, 1908-1914''. Institute for Balkan Studies, 1976, p. 130: "The Dutch, having proof that Metropolitan Germanos was chuef instigator of the rising, arrested him and other members of the town council and sent them to Elbasan." However, under the terms of the Protocol


Federated Malay States

Currency Commission. Sir Basil Blackett (Basil Blackett (civil servant)) was appointed in 1933 by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to lead a commission to consider the participation of the various Malay States, including Brunei, in the profits and liabilities of the Straits Settlements currency. The Blackett Report was adopted by the Government of the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States, Unfederated Malay States and Brunei. Legislation

. At the same time, it was also used in the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States, Sarawak, Brunei, and British North Borneo. In September 1933, Sir Basil Blackett (Basil Blackett (civil servant)) was appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to lead a commission to consider the participation of the various Malay States, including Brunei, in the profits and liabilities of the Straits Settlements currency. The Blackett Report recommended


Bitola

Basil II burned Gavril's castles in Bitola, when passing through and ravaging Pelagonia. The second chrysobull (1019) of Basil II mentioned that the Bishop of Bitola depended on the Archbishopric of Ohrid. During the reign of Samuil, the city was an important centre in the Bulgarian state and the seat of the Bitola Bishopric. In many medieval sources, especially Western, the name ''Pelagonia'' was synonymous with the Bitola Bishopric, and in some of them Bitola was known under

Ivan Vladislav, Byzantine emperor Basil II recaptured Monastiri in 1015. The town is mentioned as an episcopal centre in 1019 in a record by Basil II. Two important uprisings against Byzantine rule took place in the Bitola area in 1040 and 1072. After the Bulgarian state was restored in the late 11th century, Bitola was incorporated under the rule of Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria. It was conquered again by Byzantium at the end of the 13th century, but it became part of Serbia in the first

Pelister National Park File:Dragor downflow.jpg Dragor River File:Dragor upflow.JPG Dragor River File:Bitola center MK.jpg Bitola in winter (January 2006) References Bibliography * Basil Gounaris, "From Peasants into Urbanites, from Village


Caesarea

campaign against the Abbasids, and was buried in the Church of Christ Chalkites, which he had rebuilt. Several sources state that the imperial chamberlain Basil Lekapenos poisoned the emperor to prevent him from stripping Lekapenos of his ill-gotten lands and riches. Treadgold. ''History of the Byzantine State and Society'', p. 512. John was succeeded by his ward and nephew, Basil II, who had been nominal co-emperor since 960. File:Hattin.jpg thumb

the right wing parties. During the reign of Augustus, eight colonies were established in Pisidia, but only Antioch was honoured with the title of Caesarea and given the right of the ''Ius Italicum'', maybe because of its strategic position. The city became an important Roman colony which rose to the position of a capital city with the name of "''Colonia (Colonia (Roman)) Caesarea''". Among the first to set forth precepts for the monastic life was Saint Basil of Caesarea

Basil the Great , a man from a professional family who was educated in Caesarea, Constantinople, and Athens. Saint Basil visited colonies of hermits in Palestine and Egypt but was most strongly impressed by the organized communities developed under the guidance of Saint Pachomius. Saint Basil's ascetical writings set forth standards for well-disciplined community life and offered lessons in what became the ideal monastic virtue: humility. The Kingdom of Armenia was the first state


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