Southern Yan

"abolition" or "declaration"-- year_start 398 year_end 410 year_exile_start year_exile_end event_start date_start !--- Optional: Date of establishment, enter dates

Huatai (398-399) Guanggu (399-410) capital_exile latd latm latNS longd longm longEW national_motto national_anthem common_languages religion currency leader1 Murong De leader2 Murong Chao leader3

leader4 year_leader1 398-405 year_leader2 405-410 year_leader3 year_leader4 title_leader Emperor representative1 representative2 representative3 representative4 year_representative1 year_representative2 year_representative3 year_representative4


Later Yan

year_leader1 384-396 year_leader2 396-398 year_leader3 398 year_leader4 398-401 year_leader5 401-407 year_leader6 407-409 title_leader Emperor representative1 representative2 representative3 representative4 year_representative1 year_representative2

Chuí 384-396 Yanwang (燕王 Yànwáng) 384-386 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 386-396 - Liezong (烈宗 Lièzōng) Huimin (惠愍 Huìmǐn) 慕容寶 Mùróng Bǎo (Murong Bao) 396-398 Yongkang (永康 Yǒngkāng) 396-398 - Unknown Unknown 蘭汗 兰汗 Lán Hàn (Lan Han) 398 Qinglong (青龍 青龙 Qīnglóng) 398 - Zhongzong (中宗 Zhōngzōng) Zhaowu (昭武 Zhāowǔ) 慕容盛 Mùróng Shèng (Murong Sheng) 398-401 Jianping (建平 Jiànpíng) 398 Changle (長樂 Chánglè) 399-401 br>

of the Xianbei state Later Yan (b. 373) * Empress Yang (Empress Yang (Ling)), wife of Lü Zuan * Jin Xiaowudi (Emperor Xiaowu of Jin), emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) (b. 362) * Murong Chui, general and founder of Later Yan (b. 326) * Fan Tai, Chinese general during the Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) (d. 428) * Murong Bao, emperor of the Xianbei state Later Yan (d. 398) * Alaric I, king


Western Qin

Category:Former countries in Chinese history During the Sixteen Kingdoms (304-439) period, the Xianbei founded six kingdoms in China proper, including the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (384-407), Southern Yan (398-410), Western Qin (385-430) and Southern Liang (397-414). Most of them were unified by the Tuoba Xianbei, who established the Northern Wei (386-535), which was the first of the Northern Dynasties (386-581) founded

Kingdoms (304-439) period, the Xianbei founded six kingdoms, including the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (383-407), Southern Yan (398-410), Western Qin (385-430) and Southern Liang (397-414). Most of them were unified by the Tuoba Xianbei, who established the Northern Wei (386-535), which was the first of the Northern Dynasties (386-581) founded by the Xianbei. Ma, Changshou 馬長壽 (1962). Wuhuan yu Xianbei Wuhuan

) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) ** '''Western Liang''' - Li Gao, Prince of Western Liang (Western Liang) (400-417) ** '''Western Qin''' - Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qin (Western Qin) (388-400) ** '''Southern Yan''' - Murong De. Prince of Southern Yan (Southern Yan) (398-405) *** Tufa


Zhangye

were eventually incorporated in the Chinese Qing empire in 1696, during the reign of the second Manchu (Qing Dynasty) emperor Kangxi (1662–1723). capital Jiankang (397-398) Zhangye (398-412) Guzang (412-439) Jiuquan (440-441) Dunhuang (441-442) capital_exile Shanshan (442) Gaochang (442-460) Future extensions In a meeting between Chinese and Nepalese officials on 25 April 2008

Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). Duan Ye's advisors suggested that he accept Juqu Nancheng's proposal, and Duan Ye, who was also apprehensive of Lü Guang's officials Fang Gui (房晷) and Wang Xiang (王詳), with whom he had inimical relationships, agreed. He took the title the Duke of Jiankang and changed era name, signifying a declaration of independence from Later Liang and the establishment of Northern Liang. He entrusted most important affairs of state to Juqu Nancheng. In 398, Duan Ye sent

nascent state to survive. In 398, Lü Zuan and his brother Lü Hong (呂弘) joined forces and defeated Yang and Guo, forcing them to surrender to Southern Liang and Western Qin, respectively. Lü Zuan soon started a campaign against Southern Liang, whose prince was by now Tufa Lilugu, but he was quickly defeated by Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Rutan. In summer, he started another campaign against Northern Liang, which was initially successful, as he put Northern Liang's new capital Zhangye (張掖


Jiuquan

; -- capital Jiankang (397-398) Zhangye (398-412) Guzang (412-439) Jiuquan (440-441) Dunhuang (441-442) capital_exile Shanshan (442) Gaochang (442-460) In 727, at the suggestion of the general Wang Junchuo (王君㚟), Emperor Xuanzong commissioned Wang Junchuo to attack Tufan, and after a Tufan incursion in late 726, Wang counterattacked and inflicted losses on Tufan forces commanded by the general

, was intercepted by Zhao and Zhang Chonghua's brother Zhang Zuo and not announced. Zhang Chonghua soon died and was succeeded by Zhang Yaoling, but real power was in Zhang Zuo's hands. In early 354, Zhang Zuo, with the support of Zhang Chonghua's mother Princess Dowager Ma (with whom he had an affair), formally took over as ruler, and he, still bearing grudge against Xie for having earlier warned Zhang Chonghua about his treachery, had Xie put to death. In 398, Duan Ye sent Juqu Mengxun to attack


Western Yan

Bayan I has both a Mongol name (meaning 'rich') and title. The Göktürks relentlessly pursued the Rouran (whose subjects they formerly were) west all the way to Crimea in the 550's-570's. During the Sixteen Kingdoms (304-439) period, the Xianbei founded six kingdoms in China proper, including the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (384-407), Southern Yan (398-410), Western Qin (385-430) and Southern Liang (397-414). Most of them were

Yan (398-410), Western Qin (385-430) and Southern Liang (397-414). Most of them were unified by the Tuoba Xianbei, who established the Northern Wei (386-535), which was the first of the Northern Dynasties (386-581) founded by the Xianbei. Ma, Changshou 馬長壽 (1962). Wuhuan yu Xianbei Wuhuan and Xianbei 烏桓與鮮卑. Shanghai 上海 , Shanghai ren min chu ban she Shanghai People's Press 上海人民出版社. Liu, Xueyao 劉學銚 (1994). Xianbei shi lun the Xianbei

and the song got spread into central and northwest China. The Murong Xianbei whom he had led successively founded the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (383-407), and Southern Yan (398-410). Their territories encompassed the present Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan, and their capitals included Beijing and other cities. Through these establishments, they were immersed among the Chinese people Chinese


Northern Wei

Shengle (386-398, capital of former Dai (Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms)), near modern Huhhot) Pingcheng (Datong) (398-493) Luoyang (493-534) Chang'an (534-535) capital_exile latd latm latNS longd longm longEW national_motto national_anthem

tribes and killed their chief, Heduohan, forcing the Rouran to flee west. Initially Northern Wei was a vassal of Later Yan, but by 395 had rebelled and by 398 had conquered most of Later Yan territory north of the Yellow River. In 399 Tuoba Gui he declared himself Emperor Daowu, and that title was used by Northern Wei's rulers for the rest of the state's history. That same year he defeated the Tiele (Tiele people) tribes near the Gobi desert Policies Early in Northern Wei history

460,000. Deportations typically took place once a new piece of territory had been conquered. class "wikitable" colspan "4" align "center" '''Northern Wei Dynasty Deportations''' - !Year !People !Number !Destination - 398 Xianbei of Hebei and Northern Shandong 100,000 Datong - 399 Great Chinese families 2,000 families Datong - 399 Chinese


Nanyang, Henan

(2007), 1049. Asiapac (2004), 120. Loewe (1968), 105. At age ten, Zhang's father died, leaving him in the care of his mother and grandmother. An accomplished writer in his youth, Zhang left home in 95 to pursue his studies in the ancient capitals of Chang'an and Luoyang.<

; At age twenty-three, he returned home with the title "Officer of Merit in Nanyang," serving as the master of documents under the administration of Governor Bao De (in office from 103–111). As he was charged with composing inscriptions and dirges for Bao De, he gained experience in writing

official documents. As Officer of Merit in the commandery, he was also responsible for local appointments to office and recommendations to the capital of nominees for higher office. Crespigny (2007), 1229. He spent much of his time composing rhapsodies (Rhapsody (music)) on the capital cities. When Bao De was recalled to the capital in 111, to serve as a minister of finance, Zhang continued


Jinzhou

in early 396, however, and died during the campaign and was succeeded by Murong Bao. In spring 398, after a rebellion by the general Duan Sugu (段速骨) had Murong Bao sieged behind the walls of Longcheng (龍城, in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), Lan Han was described as having the title of Prince of Dunqiu and commanding an army near the city, but secretly aligned with Duan. It was at his instigation that Murong Nong surrendered to Duan, causing the morale of Murong Bao's army to collapse

were fleeing from rebellions in 398, she was at the capital Longcheng (龍城, in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning). At this time, she was carefully served by her daughter-in-law Princess Lan, despite the fact that Longcheng was under the control of Princess Lan's father Lan Han, who would set a trap for Murong Bao and have him killed later that year, and then claim the throne. Murong Sheng was spared, however, because he was Lan Han's son-in-law, and he soon overthrew Lan Han in a coup

it, and Princess Lan was spared, although she would never be empress. Princess Lan was the daughter of Lan Han the Prince of Dunqiu and his wife Lady Yi. It is not known when she married Murong Sheng, but as of 398, she carried the title of princess, because Murong Sheng was the Prince of Changle under the reign of his father Murong Bao (Emperor Huimin). That year, after a rebellion secretly instigated by Lan Han, Murong Bao and Murong Sheng were forced to flee from the capital Longcheng (龍城


Anyang

(滑台, in modern in modern Anyang, Henan). Murong De did so, and once at Huatai, in spring 398, he effectively declared independence by claiming the title Prince of Yan and changing era name, establishing Southern Yan. Meanwhile, not knowing this and having received Murong De's earlier report requesting that he return to the south, Murong Bao prepared a campaign to recover lost territory, against Murong Nong and Murong Sheng's pleas that the army was already worn out. Murong

, but Murong Lin then planned another rebellion, and Murong De executed him. Around the new year 398, with Tuoba Gui ready to attack Yecheng, Yecheng's defender Murong De abandoned it and fled south of the Yellow River, to Huatai (滑台, in modern Anyang, Henan), where he declared an independent Southern Yan state. With resistance north of the Yellow River largely gone, Tuoba Gui left Tuoba Yi and Suhe Ba (素和跋) as viceroys over the former Later Yan territory, and returned to Shengle

. In order to enhance communications and control, Tuoba Gui constructed a highway between Wangdu (望都, in modern Baoding, Hebei) and Dai (代, in modern Zhangjiakou, Hebei), over the Taihang Mountains. He soon, however, recalled Tuoba Yi to be his prime minister and replaced him with his cousin Tuoba Zun (拓拔遵) the Duke of Lueyang. In 398, against Murong Sheng's and Murong Nong's advice, Murong Bao insisted on launching another campaign to try to regain territory lost


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