Derzhprom statistcs publisher Kharkov.ua date accessdate 2012-07-21 In the 1920s, a Wikipedia:Kharkiv Commons:Category:Kharkiv Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine Provinces Kharkiv Oblast Kharkiv
radio tower Ismaning , the last wooden radio tower in Germany. thumb upright left Mary around the age of thirteen (File:YoungMaryStuart.jpg) With her marriage agreement in place, five-year-old Mary was sent to France to spend the next thirteen years at the French court. The French fleet sent by Henry II, commanded by Nicolas de Villegagnon, sailed with Mary from Dumbarton on 7 August 1548 and arrived a week or more later at Saint-Pol-de-Léon near Roscoff in Brittany.
representing the historically cultural and social ties between both countries. *1983 – Demolition of the radio tower Ismaning (Transmitter Ismaning), the last wooden radio tower in Germany. *1984 – William Buckley (William Francis Buckley), the CIA station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, is kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later died in captivity. *1985 – Associated Press newsman Terry Anderson (Terry A. Anderson) is taken hostage in Beirut. He is released on December 4, 1991. *1983 – U.S. President (President of the United States) Ronald Reagan calls the Soviet Union an "evil empire". *1985 – A failed assassination attempt (1985 Beirut Car Bombing) on Sayyed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah in Beirut, Lebanon, kills at least 45 and injures 175 others. *1999 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the murder convictions of Timothy McVeigh for the Oklahoma City bombing. * Rue Madame Curie is a street in Beirut, Lebanon, that was named in her honor. Lebanon invasion On 6 June 1982, Begin’s government authorized the Israel Defense Forces invasion of Lebanon (1982 Invasion of Lebanon), in response to the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov. The objective of Operation ''Peace for Galilee'' was to force the PLO out of rocket range of Israel's northern border. Begin was hoping for a short and limited Israeli involvement that would destroy the PLO’s political and military infrastructure in southern Lebanon, effectively reshaping the balance of Lebanese power in favor of the Christian Militias who were allied with Israel. Nevertheless, fighting soon escalated into war with Palestinian and Lebanese militias, as well as the Syrian military, and the IDF progressed as far as Beirut, well beyond the 40 km limit initially authorized by the government. Israeli forces were successful in driving the PLO out of Lebanon and forcing its leadership to relocate to Tunisia, but the war ultimately failed to bring security to Israel’s northern border and create stability in Lebanon. Begin referred to the invasion as an inevitable act of survival, often comparing Yasser Arafat to Hitler (Adolf Hitler). However, public dissatisfaction reached a peak in September 1982, after the Sabra and Shatila Massacre. Hundreds of thousands gathered in Tel Aviv in what was one of the biggest public demonstrations in Israeli history. The Kahan Commission, appointed to investigate the events, found the government indirectly responsible for the massacre and accused Defense Minister Ariel Sharon of gross negligence. Sharon was forced to resign, and public pressure on Begin to resign increased. On 9 April 1973, Israel launched Operation Spring of Youth, a joint Mossad-IDF (Israel Defense Forces) operation in Beirut. The targets were Mohammad Yusuf al-Najjar (Abu Yusuf), head of Fatah's intelligence arm, which ran Black September, according to Morris; Kamal Adwan, who headed the PLO's so-called Western Sector, which controlled PLO action inside Israel; and Kamal Nassir, the PLO spokesman. A group of Sayeret commandos were taken in nine missile boats and a small fleet of patrol boats to a deserted Lebanese beach, before driving in two cars to downtown Beirut, where they killed Najjar, Adwan and Nassir. Two further detachments of commandos blew up the PFLP's headquarters in Beirut and a Fatah explosives plant. The leader of the commando team that conducted the operations was Ehud Barak. Abu Daoud Of those believed to have planned the massacre, only Abu Daoud, the man who claims that the attack was his idea, is known to have died of natural causes. In January 1977, Daoud was intercepted by French police in Paris while traveling from Beirut under an assumed name.
of Abyssinia invades Ethiopia . * October 10 – A tornado destroys the 160 metre tall wooden radio tower (Radio masts and towers) in Langenberg (Transmitter Langenberg), Germany. As a result of this catastrophe wooden radio towers are phased out. * Athens enters into an alliance with King Sitalkes of Thrace, after Nymphodorus, an influential Athenian, marries Sitalkes' sister. Nymphodorus then negotiates an agreement between Athens and Macedon's King Perdiccas II (Perdiccas II of Macedon), through which Perdiccas regains Therma. As a result, Athens withdraws its support for Perdiccas' brother, Philip, and the Thracians promise to assist Perdiccas in capturing him. In return, Perdiccas marches on the Chalcidians, the people he has originally persuaded to revolt. * A Theban (Thebes, Greece) raid on Plataea, the only pro-Athenian city in Boeotia, is a failure and the Plataeans take 180 prisoners and put them to death. Athens supports Plataea while Sparta aligns itself with Thebes. Sparta enlists the help of the Greek cities in Italy and Sicily. Both Sparta and Athens appeal to Persia (Achaemenid Empire), but without result. * The Spartans, led by King Archidamus II, invade Attica effectively starting the Second Peloponnesian War (Peloponnesian War) between the Athenian Empire and the Peloponnesian League. The Spartans lay waste to the countryside around Athens. Athenian leader, Pericles, does not seriously oppose them, rather withdrawing the rural population of the country districts within Athens' city walls. Instead, he pursues active naval warfare and reduces any danger from the island of Aegina by replacing its native population with Athenians. Italy * Alexander of Epirus, at the request of colony of Taras (Taras (town)) (Tarentum (Taranto)) crosses over into Italy, to aid them against the Lucanians and Bruttii. He wins victories over the Italian Samnite (Samnium) tribes. Roman Republic * The tyrant of Syracuse (Syracuse, Sicily), Hiero II (Hiero II of Syracuse), once more attacks the Mamertines. They ally themselves with a nearby Carthaginian fleet and hold off the Syracusans. However, when the Carthaginians do not leave, the Mamertines appeal to Rome for an alliance, hoping for more reliable protection. Although initially reluctant to assist lest it encourage other mercenary groups to mutiny, Rome is unwilling to see Carthaginian power spread further over Sicily and encroach on Italy. Rome therefore enters into an alliance with the Mamertines. By this action, the First Punic War begins and will embroil Rome (Roman Republic) in a conflict with Carthage that will continue for 23 years. * The Roman consul Appius Claudius Caudex and his two legions are deployed to Sicily, the first time a Roman army has gone into action outside the Italian peninsula. * July 10 – The University of the Pacific (University of the Pacific (United States)) is chartered as California Wesleyan College in Santa Clara, California. * July 29 – Annibale de Gasparis, in Naples, Italy discovers asteroid ''15 Eunomia''. * August 1 – Virginia closes its Reform Constitutional Convention deciding that all white men have the right to vote. * January 5 – The United States House of Representatives votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom. * January 13 – Opening of the Milan–Venice railway's