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in times of famine. Bonner, Arthur. 1997 (1997). Alas! What Brought Thee Hither: The Chinese in New York, 1800-1950. Fairleigh Dickinson University press. ISBN 0838637043 Chinese historical records show serving dog as food does have a history dating as far back as the Shang Dynasty. Dogs were one of the nine varieties of animals that could be eaten. Dogs were raised as food as pigs and chickens were. One old-style dish found in mainland China that incorporates cat meat is the Dragon tiger phoenix. "" ''Cantonese cuisine.'' Retrieved on 2008-12-28. "" ''Pet lovers protest cats on the menu in China.'' Retrieved on 2008-12-28. Vegetarian cuisine is known as ''zhāicài'' ("(Buddhist) vegetarian food") in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan; ''đồ chay'' in Vietnam; ''shōjin ryōri'' ("devotion cuisine") in Japan; ''sachal eumsik'' ("temple food") in Korea and by other names in many countries. India and Russia have jointly developed the supersonic cruise missile BrahMos. There are three versions of the Brahmos: ship land-launched, air-launched and sub-launched. The ship land-launched version were operational as of late 2007. The Brahmos has the capability to attack targets on land. Russia also continues to operate other cruise missiles: the SS-N-12 Sandbox, SS-N-19 Shipwreck, SS-N-22 Sunburn and SS-N-25 Switchblade (Kh-35). Germany and Spain operate the Taurus missile while Pakistan has developed its own cruise missile somewhat similar to Tomahawk cruise missile, named the Babur missile. Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) have designed several cruise missile variants, such as the well-known C-802, some of which are capable of carrying biological, chemical, nuclear, and conventional warheads. Available in: Australia, American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norway, Réunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank-Gaza 75px (File:Lemon Coke bottle.jpg) Chiang's predecessor, Sun Yat-sen, was well-liked and respected by the Communists, but after Sun's death Chiang was not able to maintain good relations with the Communists. A major split (Shanghai massacre of 1927) between the Nationalists and Communists occurred in 1927; and, under Chiang's leadership, the Nationalists fought a nation-wide civil war (Chinese Civil War) against the Communist Party of China (CPC). After Japan invaded China in 1937 (Marco Polo Bridge Incident), Chiang agreed to a temporary truce with the CPC. Despite some early cooperative military successes against Japan (Battle of Taierzhuang), by the time that the Japanese surrendered in 1945 neither the CPC nor the KMT trusted each other or were actively cooperating. After American-sponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government (Marshall Mission) failed in 1946, the Chinese Civil War resumed. The CPC defeated the Nationalists in 1949, forcing Chiang's government to retreat to Taiwan. After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled the island securely as the self-appointed President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975 (s:Will of Chiang Kai-shek). In 1975, 26 years after Chiang came to Taiwan, he died in Taipei at the age of 87. He had suffered a major heart attack and pneumonia in the months before and died from renal failure aggravated with advanced cardiac malfunction at 23:50 on April 5. Taiwan The first census in Taiwan was conducted in 1905, while Taiwan was under Japanese rule (Taiwan under Japanese rule). The Modernization of Taiwan. *'''Portuguese Guinea''': a colony of Portugal across several centuries. Independent since 1974. *'''Taiwan''' was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples closely related linguistically, culturally and genetically to the Filipino (Filipino people) people and more distantly to the Polynesians. In the 13th century, people from China's Song Dynasty had been migrating to Taiwan - however, the migration was small due to the island's harsh terrain and hostile local tribes. In the 17th century, most of southern Taiwan was a Dutch colony (Dutch Formosa) for 37 years before Koxinga, an anti-Manchu and Ming loyalist (Ming Dynasty) controlled (Kingdom of Tungning) the island by defeating the Dutch. In 1683, the Qing Dynasty defeated Koxinga's descendants and ruled (Taiwan under Qing Dynasty rule) over the island, and was made part of Fujian Province till 1885, when it was elevated to become a province in its own right. In 1895, the Qing Dynasty ceded Taiwan to the Empire of Japan following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War. After the defeat of Japan in World War II, Taiwan has been administered by the Republic of China, which has been based there following its retreat from mainland China after losing a civil war to the communists (Communist Party of China) in 1949. *The '''United States''', originally thirteen distinct English (or British, if founded after the Acts of Union of 1707 (Acts of Union 1707)) colonies (Thirteen Colonies) in British America. The Colony of Virginia, later to become the U.S. states of Virginia, Kentucky and West Virginia, was the first of the thirteen colonies and was under English and then British rule from 1607 until 1783, at least nominally. The United States also founded their own colonies in both the Atlantic and Pacific regions, such as Madisonville (Fort Madison, Nuku Hiva) on the island of Nuku Hiva in 1813 and Monrovia in 1821. This system continued until the Republic of China, which counted years as Years of the Republic (Minguo calendar), beginning in 1912. Thus, 1912 is the 1st Year of the Republic, 1949 the 38th, and 2011 the 100th. This system is still commonly used in Taiwan. In 1949 the People's Republic of China chose to use the Common Era system (equivalently, CE BCE system), in line with international standards. The ethnic inclusiveness theory is not limited to the PRC alone. The Tongmenghui initially regarded the Manchus as non-Chinese occupiers. They quickly realized that ethnic inclusiveness was needed if the new republic was to maintain control over the territories bequeathed by the Qing dynasty. "Han independence" was therefore scrapped in favor of the Five Races Under One Union principle, which later developed into the theory of ''Zhonghua minzu''. The Republic of China regime on Taiwan continues to claim a much larger territory encompassing Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai.

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